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dc.contributor.authorSalas, Rafael
dc.contributor.authorTillmann, Urban
dc.contributor.authorJohn, Uwe
dc.contributor.authorKilcoyne, Jane
dc.contributor.authorBurson, Amanda
dc.contributor.authorCantwell, Caoimhe
dc.contributor.authorHess, Philipp
dc.contributor.authorJauffrais, Thierry
dc.contributor.authorSilke, Joe
dc.date.accessioned2011-11-14T09:08:38Z
dc.date.available2011-11-14T09:08:38Z
dc.date.issued2011
dc.identifier.citationSalas, R., Tillmann, U., John, U., Kilcoyne, J., Burson, A., Cantwell, C., Hess, P., Jauffrais, T., Silke, J. 2011. The role of Azadinium spinosum (Dinophyceae) in the production of azaspiracid shellfish poisoning in mussels. Harmful Algae, 10 (6), 774-783, doi:10.1016/j.hal.2011.06.010en_GB
dc.identifier.issn1568-9883
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10793/668
dc.identifier.urihttp://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hal.2011.06.010
dc.descriptionFull text not available from this repository. The following URI links to the publishers’ website where the full text version of this article can be found: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S156898831100076Xen_GB
dc.descriptionpeer-reviewed
dc.description.abstractAzaspiracids (AZAs) are a group of lipophilic polyether compounds first detected in Ireland which have been implicated in shellfish poisoning incidents around Europe. These toxins regularly effect shellfish mariculture operations including protracted closures of shellfish harvesting areas for human consumption. The armoured dinoflagellate Azadinium spinosum Elbrächter et Tillmann gen. et sp. nov. (Dinophyceae) has been described as the de novo azaspiracid toxin producer; nonetheless the link between this organism and AZA toxin accumulation in shellfish has not yet been established. In August 2009, shellfish samples of blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) from the Southwest of Ireland were analysed using liquid chromatography–tandem-mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) and were found to be above the regulatory limit (0.16 μg g−1 AZA-equiv.) for AZAs. Water samples from this area were collected and one algal isolate was identified as A. spinosum and was shown to produce azaspiracid toxins. This is the first strain of A. spinosum isolated from Irish waters. The Irish A. spinosum is identical with the other two available A. spinosum strains from Scotland (3D9) and from Denmark (UTHE2) in its sequence of the D1–D2 regions of the LSU rDNA. A 24 h feeding trial of blue mussels (M. edulis) using an algal suspension of the Irish A. spinosum culture at different cell densities demonstrated that A. spinosum is filtered, consumed and digested directly by mussels. Also, LC–MS/MS analysis had shown that AZAs were accumulating in the shellfish hepatopancreas. The toxins AZA1 and -2 were detected in the shellfish together with the AZA analogues AZA3, AZA6, AZA17 and -19 suggesting that AZA1 and -2 are metabolised in the shellfish within the first 24 h after ingestion of the algae. The levels of AZA17 detected in the shellfish hepatopancreas (HP) were equivalent to the levels of AZA1 but in the remainder tissues the levels of AZA17 were four to five times higher than that of AZA1, only small quantities of AZA3 and -19 were present with negligible amounts of AZA6 detected after the 24 h period. This could have implications in the future monitoring of these toxins given that at present according to EU legislation only AZA1–AZA3 is regulated for. This is the first report of blue mussels’ (M. edulis) feeding on the azaspiracid producing algae A. spinosum from Irish waters.en_GB
dc.language.isoenen_GB
dc.publisherElsevieren_GB
dc.relation.ispartofseriesHarmful Algae;10 (6)
dc.subjectAzaspiracidsen_GB
dc.subjectAZPen_GB
dc.subjectAZA toxinsen_GB
dc.subjectBiodepositsen_GB
dc.subjectDinoflagellatesen_GB
dc.subjectFeeding experimenten_GB
dc.subjectIrelanden_GB
dc.subjectLC–MS/MSen_GB
dc.subjectMusselsen_GB
dc.subjectPhylogenyen_GB
dc.subjectTaxonomyen_GB
dc.titleThe role of Azadinium spinosum (Dinophyceae) in the production of azaspiracid shellfish poisoning in musselsen_GB
dc.typeArticleen_GB
refterms.dateFOA2018-01-12T03:47:52Z


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