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      Marine Institute (2015)
      The 2015 survey continues the Marine Institute's Winter Nutrients monitoring that commenced in 1990. The survey evolved during this time period with respect to parameters and sampling strategy. In 2011 this survey was re-established as a winter environmental survey with a broader remit to provide supporting information for OSPAR and Water Framework Directive (WFD - Directive 2000/60/EC)assessments and also to maintain the winter time series on key biogeochemical parameters in Irish waters in response to pressures such as land based inputs of nutrients and climate change. Since 2011 the survey circumnavigates the island of Ireland every two years, alternating southabout (odd years) and northabout (even years), starting in the Irish Sea and ending in Galway. The 2015 survey was designed to collect multidisciplinary information on physics, water chemistry (dissolved nutrients, dissolved oxygen, carbonate parameters (TA, DIC), salinity), sediment chemistry (persistent organic pollutants POPs and trace metals)sediment particle size distribution and benthic macroinvertebrates.