• Assessment of Impact of Offshore Wind Energy Structures on the Marine Environment

      Byrne Ó Cléirigh Ltd; Ecological Consultancy Services Ltd (EcoServe); School of Ocean and Earth Sciences, University of Southampton (Marine Institute, 2000)
      The Marine Institute commissioned this study to examine the impact of offshore wind energy structures (wind farms) on the marine environment. The study was confined to examining the “below the water” impacts on the marine environment. It is not intended to address the impacts of any particular type of wind farm in any particular location. The study findings indicate that the offshore wind farms, which have been built to date in Denmark and Sweden, have had little negative impact on the marine environment. The loss of physical seabed habitat during the operational phase of a wind farm would be minimal. Disturbance during construction will however have to be minimised and protocols will be needed to ensure that proper controls are in place.
    • Assuring Seafood Safety: Contaminants and Residues in Irish Seafood 2004-2008

      McGovern, Evin; McHugh, Brendan; O’Hea, Linda; Joyce, Eileen; Tlustos, Christina; Glynn, Denise (Marine Institute (in collaboration with Food Safety Authority of Ireland), 2011)
      This report provides an overview on the occurrence of environmental contaminants, such as metals and persistent organic pollutants (POPs), and veterinary residues in Irish seafood. Compliance of seafood (shellfish, crustaceans, wild and farmed finfish) with relevant EC Regulatory Limits for contaminants is examined and an overview of conformance of the aquaculture sector with the requirements of the EC Residues Directive (Dir 96/23/EC) is presented for 2004 - 2008. The contribution of seafood to the dietary intake of certain contaminants for the Irish adult seafood consumer is estimated and the risks of contaminant exposure from seafood consumption are considered in the context of the well established health benefits of seafood consumption.
    • A Development Strategy for Marine Leisure Infrastructure

      Marine Institute (Marine Institute, 2001)
      In July 1999 the Marine Institute published an Investment Strategy for the Water-based Tourism and Leisure Sector in Ireland 2000-2006. The strategy recommended a programme of investment aimed at; (1) the provision of new infrastructure and facilities strategically positioned around the coastline (2) the development of high quality integrated clusters of water-based tourism and leisure activities which would attract overseas and local visitors. These recommendations were incorporated into the National Development Plan 2000-2006 where investment will be provided via a range of initiatives administered by: the Department of the Marine and Natural Resources (Marine Tourism Measure); Central Fisheries Board (Tourism Angling Measure); Bord Fáilte (Tourism Measure); Local Authorities and Sports Council (Culture, Recreation and Sports and Local Development Measures). Specifically, financial provisions have been made within the NDP to contribute towards the development of new and existing infrastructure for the leisure sector. The Marine Institute has published “A Development Strategy for Marine Leisure Infrastructure” to assist in targeting investment decisions so as to ensure that new developments meet the needs of three key target groups: • Overseas tourists • Domestic tourists • Local residential populations for sport and recreation. The report sets out the criteria which can be used as a guide in the evaluation of future development projects. The report applies these criteria in a national context to produce a balanced development strategy which addresses user demand, scale and spatial and environmental considerations. The economic or technical feasibility of developing any of the proposed locations was not examined in detail. All proposed development will require a full feasibility study. The Marine Institute believes that in order to achieve maximum benefit from the investment programmes that exist, there must be a coherent national plan which seeks to integrate the development requirements of the marine leisure sector with the requirements of other marine sectors. This report should be seen as a contribution to the debate on how best to develop our significant coastal resources for tourism and leisure.
    • The effects of intertidal oyster (Crassostrea gigas) culture on the spatial distribution of waterbirds

      Gittings, T; O'Donoghue, P.D. (Marine Institute, 2012)
      Atkins was commissioned by the Marine Institute to provide ornithological services in relation to the appropriate assessment of aquaculture and fisheries activities on coastal Special Protecion Areas for birds (SPA's). Intertidal culture of the Pacific Oyster using oyster trestles is widespread in Ireland and occurs in 16 SPAs and the potential impact of this activity on waterbird populations will be an issue in a number of Appropriate Assessments. Therefore, a research programme was designed by Atkins, in consultation with the Marine Institute, to fill this information gap. This research programme included a review of the distribution of intertidal oyster culture in Ireland in relation to coastal Special Areas, and other areas of importance for waterbirds and extensive and intensive studies of the relationship between waterbird distribution and intertidal oyster culture.
    • Herring: Linking biology, ecology and population status in the context of changing environments

      Clarke, M W; Brophy, D; Dickey-Collas, M; Fiksen, O; Hatfield, E M C; Hay, D E; Nash, R D M; Norcross, B L; Slotte, A (Marine Institute, 2008)
      This Conference took place from 26th to the 29th August 2009 at the national University of Ireland, Galway. It was organized to link our understanding of herring biology, population dynamics and exploitation in the context of ecosystem complexity. It is beyond argument that herring play a pivotal role in shaping the structure and dynamics of many boreal continental-shelf ecosystems. As fisheries management moves towards an ecosystem approach, the time seemed right for ICES to hold another herring symposium. Since the last ICES symposia on herring were in the 1960s (ICES Herring symposium, 1961; Biology of Early Stages and Recruitment Mechanisms of Herring, 1968) many of the former paradigms have been rejected and substantial progress has been made by striking out on new avenues of thought. In addressing this particular topic, we can also follow on from the decadal herring symposia series held in North America and thus cover new research from both the ICES and PICES community. It was fitting that this conference enjoyed the support of ICES, PICES and GLOBEC. Much has changed in the world of herring, since the last ICES symposium. Stocks have collapsed, recovered, and in some cases, have collapsed again. Work in recent years has focused on the development and evaluation of management strategies for herring stocks, and this work continues. The importance of herring in the food chain is an ever present consideration. Despite the many advances in our knowledge of stock structure and biology, herring population still present a challenge in terms of managing highly variable populations. We hope that this summary report, prepared by the science committee and the conveners, accurately represents the variety of presentations and discussions on this most variable of fishes.
    • INFOMAR Marine Mapping Study. Options Appraisal Report: Final Report 30 June 2008

      Price Waterhouse Coopers (Marine Institute, 2008)
      The Integrated Mapping for the Sustainable Development of Ireland’s Marine Resource (INFOMAR) programme is Ireland’s national marine mapping programme. It is the successor to the Irish National Seabed Survey (INSS), and is a joint venture of the Geological Survey of Ireland (GSI) and the Marine Institute (MI). The focus of the INFOMAR programme is to create a range of integrated mapping products of the physical, chemical and biological features of the seabed, in the near-shore (Zone 1, 0m to 50m) area and building on previous INSS offshore survey area (Zone II, 50m to 200m), to complete the mapping programme for the entirety of Ireland’s off-shore waters. Against this background, and to fulfil the NDP Value For Money reporting requirements for Large Capital Projects (>€30 million), PricewaterhouseCoopers (PwC) were commissioned by the Department of Communications, Energy and National Resources (DCENR) to undertake a detailed appraisal of the INFOMAR project. The methodology for undertaking the appraisal involved both primary and secondary research, including extensive consultation with stakeholders of the INFOMAR. A range of options for the INFOMAR programme were identified and appraised in financial and qualitative terms and are presented within this report.
    • Investigation into Levels of dioxins, furans, polychlorinated biphenyls and brominated flame retardants in fishery produce in Ireland

      Food Safety Authority of Ireland (Food Safety Authority of Ireland, 2013)
      The Food Safety Authority of Ireland in collaboration with the Marine Institute (MI) has carried out a further surveillance study of levels of dioxins (PCDDs), furans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in fish, in addition to those already carried out in 2001 and 2004. The study was carried out in a variety of wild and farmed finfish species and also prawns and cultivated mussels available on the Irish market. It was undertaken because of concern about the possible effects on human health of these biopersistent environmental contaminants, known to be present in a number of foodstuffs including, in particular, fish, meat, eggs and dairy products. Furthermore, the study also proactively monitored fish and other seafood for a number of emerging new contaminants, in order to contribute to the knowledge base on the occurrence of these contaminants in food and to aid national and international efforts in their management. These include the brominated flame retardants and related compounds, some of which are known to be persistent and hence, like PCDDs, PCDFs and PCBs, are regarded as persistent organic pollutants (POPs).
    • Irish Fish and Fisheries

      Dransfeld, Leonie (Marine Institute, 2014)
      The Irish monitoring programme for Descriptor 3 “Commercial fish and shellfish” and fish biodiversity (D1, D4 and D6) is based on the monitoring required under the obligation of the Data Collection Framework Directive (EC 665/2008; 2010/93/EU) for the implementation of the Common Fisheries Policy and for additional stocks/species of national importance. There are two main sources of data collected as part of Ireland’s monitoring programme; fishery independent and fishery dependent data. The first involves monitoring the temporal and spatial changes in the fish populations using fisheries surveys on research vessels and commercial vessels. Fishery dependant data involves collecting and analysing biological data (age, length etc.) of the fish caught, together with data on the quantities of fish caught and the fishing effort. The fish and fisheries monitoring programme includes the evaluation of the fishing sector using capacity and activity, pressure monitoring of contributing activities in terms of distribution and intensity of effort, landings and discards of fish and shellfish and accidental bycatch of other species. Pressure on habitats is partially monitored based on the spatial and temporal distribution of bottom contacting fishing gear within mapped habitats. The monitoring programme also covers status monitoring through the use of dedicated scientific fish and shellfish surveys which estimate the distribution and relative abundance of different fish and shellfish species and the collection of biological parameters.
    • The Irish herring fisheries in the twentieth century: their assessment and management

      Molloy, J. (Royal Dublin Society, 1995)
      For many centuries the herring fisheries throughout northern Europe have played a very important part in the economic development of maritime countries. The reason for this is that the herring has been an extremely important source of food for the populations throughout Europe, and the strength and prosperity of many communities depended on the success of the fisheries. The herring fisheries themselves have fluctuated considerably - periods of great abundance of shoals being followed by periods when shoals have been virtually absent from the coasts.
    • Irish Ocean Climate and Ecosystem Status Report 2009

      Nolan, G (ed); Gillooly, M (ed); Whelan, K (ed) (Marine Institute, 2010)
      This report presents the results from the most comprehensive analysis to date of marine climate change in Irish waters. Using a variety of available datasets from Ireland and elsewhere, the status of Ireland's marine climate is described. These data sets are collected over varying time scales. The longest datasets extend back to the late 1950s while others have been initiated in the past 5-10 years. In some cases data have been put in a wider context by comparison with international data such as the HADSST sea surface temperature analysis and the Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) survey conducted by the Sir Alister Hardy Foundation for Ocean Science (SAHFOS). While the analysis to date has been considerable the brevity of some of the time series means that in 2009 we are relatively poorly equipped to make conclusions as to how climate change will affect Irish waters. This report describes key regulators of ocean climate around Ireland and examines relevant environmental datasets available in 2009. It therefore represents the current status of knowledge regarding the influence of climate on Ireland’s marine ecosystems and resources.
    • The Irish Pilchard Fishery

      Went, A. E. J. (Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, 1946)
    • Marine Biotechnology Task Force Report

      Marine Biotechnology Task (Marine Institute, 2017)
      Marine biotechnology is a rapidly growing area that is recognised, by policy makers and the enterprise sector, as offering significant potential to develop market opportunities for new products and processes by enabling greater utilisation of marine biological resources. Current research funding activity, supporting efforts to create a sustainable bioeconomy, is likely to lead to a growth in marine biotechnology research and commercial activities. Irish and international financial support for this research is aimed at as yet largely unexplored and underexploited marine resources for use as food, functional foods and nutraceuticals; cosmetics and cosmeceuticals; human and animal health – including pharmaceuticals, biocompatible materials and medical devices; materials technology; environmental bioremediation; and marine model organisms, including the use of marine derived materials in bioprocessing. Research within these areas has resulted in an array of new products and processes which offer benefits to society and support economic growth. The Marine Institute established a Task Force to advise on the steps required to strengthen Ireland’s capability to use marine biotechnology to exploit the value of its extensive marine bioresources. The Task Force, comprising academic and industry members, considered the various national strategies and plans for science, technology, research and economic development, and identified market opportunity areas and Irish marine biotechnology research capabilities. In supporting the work of the Task Force, the Marine Institute completed a number of information-gathering exercises to fill various knowledge gaps identified by the Task Force. Following the preparation of a draft report, the Task Force, with the support of the Marine Institute, held a workshop attended by researchers and companies. This final report of the Task Force takes account of feedback from this workshop in developing its recommendations.
    • Monitoring Chemical Pollution in Europe’s Seas: Programmes, Practices and Priorities for Research

      Roose, P.; Albaigés, J.; Bebianno, M.J.; Camphuysen, C.; Cronin, M.; de Leeuw, J.; Gabrielsen, G.; Hutchinson, T.; Hylland, K.; Jansson, B.; et al. (Marine Board-ESF, 2011)
      This report has been produced by the Marine Board Working Group on Existing and Emerging Chemical Pollutants (WGPOL) first convened in 2008 and tasked to examine the assessment and monitoring of existing and emerging chemicals in the European marine and coastal environment. The Working Group considered (i) existing monitoring/assessment frameworks; (ii) current monitoring practices; and (iii) new and emerging chemicals of concern and the mechanisms used to include them in current monitoring programmes. The primary conclusions and recommendations of this position paper are: 1. Fully implement state of the art environmental risk assessment procedures (combining exposure and effect assessment) to evaluate the full impact of chemical substances on the different compartments of coastal and open sea systems. 2. Further improve the coordination, cooperation and harmonization between existing monitoring efforts and those under development, to avoid duplication of effort, loss of expertise and a reduced willingness to fulfil the obligations towards regional conventions. 3. Ensure that the development and implementation of monitoring programmes for the assessment of chemicals in marine and coastal environment are based on a science-based and dynamic process. 4. Apply more resources targeted at developing appropriate approaches, tools and practices (education and training) to improve the acquisition and management of monitoring data. In addition to the above main recommendations, two further recommendations have been identified on the basis of two specific case studies which form part of this paper and which focus on the release, effects and monitoring of (i) hydrophobic and insoluble chemicals in the marine environment from merchant shipping; and (ii) chemicals released by the offshore oil-industry in the North Sea. These case studies highlighted the need to: 5. Develop a consistent, pan-European or regional (legal) framework/regulation which covers the activities of the oil and gas industry at sea. At the same time, more information and research is needed on the release and the effects of chemicals arising from offshore oil and gas activities. 6. Develop and apply state-of-the-art environmental risk assessment procedures (combining exposure and effect assessments, including on human health) to evaluate the impact of noxious liquid substances listed under MARPOL Annex II on the different compartments in coastal and open sea ecosystems.
    • A National Survey of Water-Based Leisure Activities in Ireland 2003

      Williams, J [ESRI]; Ryan, B [ESRI] (Marine Institute, 2004)
      This survey profiles the domestic market for water-based tourism, sport and leisure in Ireland. The data provides up-to-date statistical information on 18 water-based leisure activities broadly grouped under the following categories: Seaside/Resort trips; Angling; Coastal and Inland Boating; and Watersports. The objective of the survey is to demonstrate the significant contribution of marine leisure activity to the national economy, and to highlight emerging trends and the potential for development of our water-based leisure resources. A key finding of the survey, conducted by the ESRI in 2003, is that marine leisure activity based on Ireland’s marine and freshwater resources generates €434 million in expenditure by Irish residents, and approximately 5,100 jobs are supported by this level of expenditure. A comparison of the domestic tourism market and the water-based tourism domestic market further highlights the value of the sector. In 2003, water-based tourism accounted for 22 per cent of the domestic tourism market and generated 45 per cent of domestic tourism revenue. Our seaside resorts, beaches, inland waterways and rivers provide the resource for a wide range of water-based tourism recreation, sport and leisure activities. The survey results show that 1.48 million persons, representing 49 per cent of the adult population participated in some form of water-based activity during the survey period. Although overall satisfaction with facilities was high, a further 10 per cent of the adult population (294,100) said they would take up some marine leisure activity if facilities were better. This demonstrates the potential and scope for development in the sector.
    • Negotiations for the establishment of a pilchard fishery at Bantry in 1875

      Went, A. E. J. (Cork Historical and Archaeological Society, 1875)
    • Ocean Citizen Survey: Perceptions of the Irish public on priorities for the protection and sustainable use of the ocean

      French, Veronica; McDonough, N (Marine Institute, 2020)
      The European Union (EU) has a bold and ambitious aspiration to restore European marine and freshwater ecosystems by 2030, by reducing human pressures on marine and freshwater environments, restoring degraded ecosystems and sustainably harnessing the essential goods and services they provide. A group of top EU experts have put forward an ambitious proposal for a “Mission Starfish”. This major flagship ‘mission’ for healthy ocean, seas, coastal and inland waters is to be funded by the EU under the forthcoming Horizon Europe Framework Programme (2021-2027) and will also need to be supported by other EU, national and regional funding programmes. To achieve its goal, the mission aims to raise awareness of the importance of healthy oceans, seas, coastal and inland waters among citizens and help develop solutions on a range of issues. Citizens are crucial to the design and accomplishment of the mission in helping to set objectives and targets and ensuring that missions like this one make a real difference in everybody’s lives. As part of the European Commission’s engagement with citizens across multiple EU countries on the mission, the Marine Institute developed a survey to consult Irish citizens and seek their views on what they believe are the top priorities for the health of the ocean and inland waters and how we can sustainably use and benefit from marine and aquatic resources. The survey was based around two areas of the proposed mission, namely: filling the knowledge and emotional gap, and; decarbonising our ocean, seas and waters. The survey was launched online on 13 August 2020 and was open for four weeks. This report presents the results of the survey summarising the opinions expressed by the 1013 respondents. The results provide an insight into people’s opinions and levels of awareness of our ocean, seas, coastal and inland waters and will inform the mission planning.
    • Ocean Energy in Ireland

      Marine Institute; Sustainable Energy Ireland (Department of Communications, Marine and Natural Resources, 2005)
      Ireland has a target of supplying 13.2% of its electricity consumption from renewable sources by 2010. The majority of this target is likely to be supplied from wind energy. It is likely that targets will increase in the longer term. This will require large deployments of other forms of renewable energy. Ocean energy, both wave and marine current tidal energy, may have a role to play in meeting longer term targets in Ireland. The resource, particularly the wave energy resource, is vast. Before these technologies become commercially viable researchers and developers must overcome the challenge of developing low cost, highly reliable, integrated systems. Given current efforts to develop technology, ocean energy may be deployed in small scale demonstrations by 2010; however it is not expected to contribute significantly to Ireland’s electricity supply before 2020. It is proposed to implement an ocean energy strategy to advance the speed at which ocean energy technologies are deployed in Ireland by increasing the capacity for research and development, both within academic institutions and commercial entities developing devices in Ireland. A structured and phased strategy of development supports may enable Ireland to utilize its ocean energy resource within a decade. The result could also see Ireland positioned with the potential to become a world leader in the manufacture and use of ocean energy systems.
    • Options for the Development of Wave Energy in Ireland: A Public Consultation Document

      Marine Institute; Sustainable Energy Ireland (Marine Institute, 2002)
      The potential for development of wave, ocean current and tidal energy is the subject of growing international investigation. This document focuses on the status and development potential of wave energy in Ireland. While recognising that this technology is not in a position to contribute to national renewable energy targets within the Kyoto timeframe, it is oriented towards the longer term prospect of Ireland becoming a world-leading developer and manufacturer of the technologies that will enable the harnessing of ocean energy resources.
    • The Real Map of Ireland

      INFOMAR (Marine Institute, 2019)
      Ireland’s marine territory extends far beyond our coastline up to 220 million acres (approx. 880,000km2), an area more than 10 times our land mass. The 'Real Map of Ireland' was developed using seabed information gathered as part of a major programme to map Ireland’s entire seabed territory. The programme began in 1999 as the Irish National Seabed Survey and continues today as INFOMAR*, a joint venture by the Geological Survey of Ireland and the Marine Institute. It’s one of the largest seabed mapping programmes in the world. The Real Map of Ireland shows Ireland's current designated Irish Continental Shelf, which is one of the largest seabed territories in Europe. The continental shelf is the extension of a State's territorial waters, where the natural land extends under the sea to the outer edge of the continental margin beyond 200 nautical miles from the coastline baseline. We have sovereign rights over the continental shelf to explore and develop its natural resources, according to the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea Part VI.