• Assessment of Impact of Offshore Wind Energy Structures on the Marine Environment

      Byrne Ó Cléirigh Ltd; Ecological Consultancy Services Ltd (EcoServe); School of Ocean and Earth Sciences, University of Southampton (Marine Institute, 2000)
      The Marine Institute commissioned this study to examine the impact of offshore wind energy structures (wind farms) on the marine environment. The study was confined to examining the “below the water” impacts on the marine environment. It is not intended to address the impacts of any particular type of wind farm in any particular location. The study findings indicate that the offshore wind farms, which have been built to date in Denmark and Sweden, have had little negative impact on the marine environment. The loss of physical seabed habitat during the operational phase of a wind farm would be minimal. Disturbance during construction will however have to be minimised and protocols will be needed to ensure that proper controls are in place.
    • A Development Strategy for Marine Leisure Infrastructure

      Marine Institute (Marine Institute, 2001)
      In July 1999 the Marine Institute published an Investment Strategy for the Water-based Tourism and Leisure Sector in Ireland 2000-2006. The strategy recommended a programme of investment aimed at; (1) the provision of new infrastructure and facilities strategically positioned around the coastline (2) the development of high quality integrated clusters of water-based tourism and leisure activities which would attract overseas and local visitors. These recommendations were incorporated into the National Development Plan 2000-2006 where investment will be provided via a range of initiatives administered by: the Department of the Marine and Natural Resources (Marine Tourism Measure); Central Fisheries Board (Tourism Angling Measure); Bord Fáilte (Tourism Measure); Local Authorities and Sports Council (Culture, Recreation and Sports and Local Development Measures). Specifically, financial provisions have been made within the NDP to contribute towards the development of new and existing infrastructure for the leisure sector. The Marine Institute has published “A Development Strategy for Marine Leisure Infrastructure” to assist in targeting investment decisions so as to ensure that new developments meet the needs of three key target groups: • Overseas tourists • Domestic tourists • Local residential populations for sport and recreation. The report sets out the criteria which can be used as a guide in the evaluation of future development projects. The report applies these criteria in a national context to produce a balanced development strategy which addresses user demand, scale and spatial and environmental considerations. The economic or technical feasibility of developing any of the proposed locations was not examined in detail. All proposed development will require a full feasibility study. The Marine Institute believes that in order to achieve maximum benefit from the investment programmes that exist, there must be a coherent national plan which seeks to integrate the development requirements of the marine leisure sector with the requirements of other marine sectors. This report should be seen as a contribution to the debate on how best to develop our significant coastal resources for tourism and leisure.
    • Water-based Tourism - A Strategic Vision for Galway

      Marine Institute (Marine Institute, 2002)
      Water-based Tourism – A Strategic Vision for Galway is a report commissioned by a consortium of Agencies in collaboration with Ireland West Tourism. The terms of reference were to undertake a study which would: - evaluate the potential to develop the water-based tourism and leisure resource in Galway City and County; - identify the potential and provide a development strategy for at least six pilot water-based tourism and leisure initiatives in selected geographic locations throughout Galway; - recommend further phased development options which would enhance and sustain economic progress of the water-based tourism and leisure sector in Galway. Tourism Development International were contracted to undertake the study, the results of which are presented in this report.
    • Options for the Development of Wave Energy in Ireland: A Public Consultation Document

      Marine Institute; Sustainable Energy Ireland (Marine Institute, 2002)
      The potential for development of wave, ocean current and tidal energy is the subject of growing international investigation. This document focuses on the status and development potential of wave energy in Ireland. While recognising that this technology is not in a position to contribute to national renewable energy targets within the Kyoto timeframe, it is oriented towards the longer term prospect of Ireland becoming a world-leading developer and manufacturer of the technologies that will enable the harnessing of ocean energy resources.
    • A National Survey of Water-Based Leisure Activities in Ireland 2003

      Williams, J [ESRI]; Ryan, B [ESRI] (Marine Institute, 2004)
      This survey profiles the domestic market for water-based tourism, sport and leisure in Ireland. The data provides up-to-date statistical information on 18 water-based leisure activities broadly grouped under the following categories: Seaside/Resort trips; Angling; Coastal and Inland Boating; and Watersports. The objective of the survey is to demonstrate the significant contribution of marine leisure activity to the national economy, and to highlight emerging trends and the potential for development of our water-based leisure resources. A key finding of the survey, conducted by the ESRI in 2003, is that marine leisure activity based on Ireland’s marine and freshwater resources generates €434 million in expenditure by Irish residents, and approximately 5,100 jobs are supported by this level of expenditure. A comparison of the domestic tourism market and the water-based tourism domestic market further highlights the value of the sector. In 2003, water-based tourism accounted for 22 per cent of the domestic tourism market and generated 45 per cent of domestic tourism revenue. Our seaside resorts, beaches, inland waterways and rivers provide the resource for a wide range of water-based tourism recreation, sport and leisure activities. The survey results show that 1.48 million persons, representing 49 per cent of the adult population participated in some form of water-based activity during the survey period. Although overall satisfaction with facilities was high, a further 10 per cent of the adult population (294,100) said they would take up some marine leisure activity if facilities were better. This demonstrates the potential and scope for development in the sector.
    • Ocean Energy in Ireland

      Marine Institute; Sustainable Energy Ireland (Department of Communications, Marine and Natural Resources, 2005)
      Ireland has a target of supplying 13.2% of its electricity consumption from renewable sources by 2010. The majority of this target is likely to be supplied from wind energy. It is likely that targets will increase in the longer term. This will require large deployments of other forms of renewable energy. Ocean energy, both wave and marine current tidal energy, may have a role to play in meeting longer term targets in Ireland. The resource, particularly the wave energy resource, is vast. Before these technologies become commercially viable researchers and developers must overcome the challenge of developing low cost, highly reliable, integrated systems. Given current efforts to develop technology, ocean energy may be deployed in small scale demonstrations by 2010; however it is not expected to contribute significantly to Ireland’s electricity supply before 2020. It is proposed to implement an ocean energy strategy to advance the speed at which ocean energy technologies are deployed in Ireland by increasing the capacity for research and development, both within academic institutions and commercial entities developing devices in Ireland. A structured and phased strategy of development supports may enable Ireland to utilize its ocean energy resource within a decade. The result could also see Ireland positioned with the potential to become a world leader in the manufacture and use of ocean energy systems.
    • Water-based Tourism and Leisure Product Audit 2006

      Huskyes, E; O'Connor, K (Marine Institute, 2006)
      In consultation with key agencies and stakeholders, the Marine Institute is drafting a Development Strategy for the marine/water-based tourism and leisure sector for the period 2007-2013. Preparation and research for this has involved the completion of a Water-based Tourism and Leisure Product Audit. The Institute worked in collaboration with Royal Haskoning, spatial planning consultants, and Kevin O’Connor, Donegal County Council, to complete the audit. The objective of the audit is to systematically assess the quantity and quality of Ireland’s waterbased tourism and leisure products and to identify product gaps and opportunities at local, regional and national level with a view to informing policy and investment decisions.
    • Veterinary treatments and other substances used in finfish aquaculture in Ireland

      Marine Institute (Marine Institute, 2007)
      Over recent years the finfish aquaculture sector has contracted in Ireland. The bulk of this sector is accounted for by marine salmon production. A number of substances are used in finfish farming that may give rise to discharges to the aquatic environment.
    • Herring: Linking biology, ecology and population status in the context of changing environments

      Clarke, M W; Brophy, D; Dickey-Collas, M; Fiksen, O; Hatfield, E M C; Hay, D E; Nash, R D M; Norcross, B L; Slotte, A (Marine Institute, 2008)
      This Conference took place from 26th to the 29th August 2009 at the national University of Ireland, Galway. It was organized to link our understanding of herring biology, population dynamics and exploitation in the context of ecosystem complexity. It is beyond argument that herring play a pivotal role in shaping the structure and dynamics of many boreal continental-shelf ecosystems. As fisheries management moves towards an ecosystem approach, the time seemed right for ICES to hold another herring symposium. Since the last ICES symposia on herring were in the 1960s (ICES Herring symposium, 1961; Biology of Early Stages and Recruitment Mechanisms of Herring, 1968) many of the former paradigms have been rejected and substantial progress has been made by striking out on new avenues of thought. In addressing this particular topic, we can also follow on from the decadal herring symposia series held in North America and thus cover new research from both the ICES and PICES community. It was fitting that this conference enjoyed the support of ICES, PICES and GLOBEC. Much has changed in the world of herring, since the last ICES symposium. Stocks have collapsed, recovered, and in some cases, have collapsed again. Work in recent years has focused on the development and evaluation of management strategies for herring stocks, and this work continues. The importance of herring in the food chain is an ever present consideration. Despite the many advances in our knowledge of stock structure and biology, herring population still present a challenge in terms of managing highly variable populations. We hope that this summary report, prepared by the science committee and the conveners, accurately represents the variety of presentations and discussions on this most variable of fishes.
    • Irish Ocean Climate and Ecosystem Status Report 2009

      Nolan, G (ed); Gillooly, M (ed); Whelan, K (ed) (Marine Institute, 2010)
      This report presents the results from the most comprehensive analysis to date of marine climate change in Irish waters. Using a variety of available datasets from Ireland and elsewhere, the status of Ireland's marine climate is described. These data sets are collected over varying time scales. The longest datasets extend back to the late 1950s while others have been initiated in the past 5-10 years. In some cases data have been put in a wider context by comparison with international data such as the HADSST sea surface temperature analysis and the Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) survey conducted by the Sir Alister Hardy Foundation for Ocean Science (SAHFOS). While the analysis to date has been considerable the brevity of some of the time series means that in 2009 we are relatively poorly equipped to make conclusions as to how climate change will affect Irish waters. This report describes key regulators of ocean climate around Ireland and examines relevant environmental datasets available in 2009. It therefore represents the current status of knowledge regarding the influence of climate on Ireland’s marine ecosystems and resources.
    • Monitoring Chemical Pollution in Europe’s Seas: Programmes, Practices and Priorities for Research

      Roose, P.; Albaigés, J.; Bebianno, M.J.; Camphuysen, C.; Cronin, M.; de Leeuw, J.; Gabrielsen, G.; Hutchinson, T.; Hylland, K.; Jansson, B.; Jenssen, B.M.; Schulz-Bull, D.; Szefer, P.; Webster, L.; Bakke, T.; Janssen, C. (Marine Board-ESF, 2011)
      This report has been produced by the Marine Board Working Group on Existing and Emerging Chemical Pollutants (WGPOL) first convened in 2008 and tasked to examine the assessment and monitoring of existing and emerging chemicals in the European marine and coastal environment. The Working Group considered (i) existing monitoring/assessment frameworks; (ii) current monitoring practices; and (iii) new and emerging chemicals of concern and the mechanisms used to include them in current monitoring programmes. The primary conclusions and recommendations of this position paper are: 1. Fully implement state of the art environmental risk assessment procedures (combining exposure and effect assessment) to evaluate the full impact of chemical substances on the different compartments of coastal and open sea systems. 2. Further improve the coordination, cooperation and harmonization between existing monitoring efforts and those under development, to avoid duplication of effort, loss of expertise and a reduced willingness to fulfil the obligations towards regional conventions. 3. Ensure that the development and implementation of monitoring programmes for the assessment of chemicals in marine and coastal environment are based on a science-based and dynamic process. 4. Apply more resources targeted at developing appropriate approaches, tools and practices (education and training) to improve the acquisition and management of monitoring data. In addition to the above main recommendations, two further recommendations have been identified on the basis of two specific case studies which form part of this paper and which focus on the release, effects and monitoring of (i) hydrophobic and insoluble chemicals in the marine environment from merchant shipping; and (ii) chemicals released by the offshore oil-industry in the North Sea. These case studies highlighted the need to: 5. Develop a consistent, pan-European or regional (legal) framework/regulation which covers the activities of the oil and gas industry at sea. At the same time, more information and research is needed on the release and the effects of chemicals arising from offshore oil and gas activities. 6. Develop and apply state-of-the-art environmental risk assessment procedures (combining exposure and effect assessments, including on human health) to evaluate the impact of noxious liquid substances listed under MARPOL Annex II on the different compartments in coastal and open sea ecosystems.
    • Assuring Seafood Safety: Contaminants and Residues in Irish Seafood 2004-2008

      McGovern, Evin; McHugh, Brendan; O’Hea, Linda; Joyce, Eileen; Tlustos, Christina; Glynn, Denise (Marine Institute (in collaboration with Food Safety Authority of Ireland), 2011)
      This report provides an overview on the occurrence of environmental contaminants, such as metals and persistent organic pollutants (POPs), and veterinary residues in Irish seafood. Compliance of seafood (shellfish, crustaceans, wild and farmed finfish) with relevant EC Regulatory Limits for contaminants is examined and an overview of conformance of the aquaculture sector with the requirements of the EC Residues Directive (Dir 96/23/EC) is presented for 2004 - 2008. The contribution of seafood to the dietary intake of certain contaminants for the Irish adult seafood consumer is estimated and the risks of contaminant exposure from seafood consumption are considered in the context of the well established health benefits of seafood consumption.
    • The effects of intertidal oyster (Crassostrea gigas) culture on the spatial distribution of waterbirds

      Gittings, T; O'Donoghue, P.D. (Marine Institute, 2012)
      Atkins was commissioned by the Marine Institute to provide ornithological services in relation to the appropriate assessment of aquaculture and fisheries activities on coastal Special Protecion Areas for birds (SPA's). Intertidal culture of the Pacific Oyster using oyster trestles is widespread in Ireland and occurs in 16 SPAs and the potential impact of this activity on waterbird populations will be an issue in a number of Appropriate Assessments. Therefore, a research programme was designed by Atkins, in consultation with the Marine Institute, to fill this information gap. This research programme included a review of the distribution of intertidal oyster culture in Ireland in relation to coastal Special Areas, and other areas of importance for waterbirds and extensive and intensive studies of the relationship between waterbird distribution and intertidal oyster culture.
    • Tools for Appropriate Assessment of Fishing and Aquaculture Activities in Marine and Coastal Natura 2000 Sites. Report III: Intertidal and Subtidal Muddy Sands and Sandy Muds

      ABPmer (ABP Marine Environmental Research Ltd, 2013)
      Ireland has many coastal and marine habitats and species that are of national and international conservation importance. The value of these has been recognised by the designation of a number of Special Areas of Conservation and Special Protected Areas through the EU Habitats Directive (92/43/EEC) and EU Birds Directive (2009/147/EC). Together these sites form part of the European network of Natura 2000 sites. This report and accompanying annexes is part of a series of documents that present a risk assessment tool developed by ABPmer to assess the effects of fishing and aquaculture activities on the Annex I habitats and Annex II species present in Natura 2000 sites. The tool is designed to support the preparation of screening statements and Appropriate Assessments. Specifically this report presents the project deliverables for the assessment of vegetation dominated communities (Saltmarsh and seagrass) and describes the potential use of the risk assessment tool.
    • Tools for Appropriate Assessment of Fishing and Aquaculture Activities in Marine and Coastal Natura 2000 Sites. Report VIII: Vegetation Dominated Communities (Saltmarsh and Seagrass).

      ABPmer (ABP Marine Environmental Research Ltd, 2013)
      Ireland has many coastal and marine habitats and species that are of national and international conservation importance. The value of these has been recognised by the designation of a number of Special Areas of Conservation and Special Protected Areas through the EU Habitats Directive (92/43/EEC) and EU Birds Directive (2009/147/EC). Together these sites form part of the European network of Natura 2000 sites. This report and accompanying annexes is part of a series of documents that present a risk assessment tool developed by ABPmer to assess the effects of fishing and aquaculture activities on the Annex I habitats and Annex II species present in Natura 2000 sites. The tool is designed to support the preparation of screening statements and Appropriate Assessments. Specifically this report presents the project deliverables for the assessment of vegetation dominated communities (saltmarsh and seagrass)and describes the potential use of the risk assessment tool.
    • Tools for Appropriate Assessment of Fishing and Aquaculture Activities in Marine and Coastal Natura 2000 Sites. Report IV: Intertidal and Subtidal Mixed Sediments

      ABPmer (ABP Marine Environmental Research Ltd, 2013)
      Ireland has many coastal and marine habitats and species that are of national and international conservation importance. The value of these has been recognised by the designation of a number of Special Areas of Conservation and Special Protected Areas through the EU Habitats Directive (92/43/EEC) and EU Birds Directive (2009/147/EC). Together these sites form part of the European network of Natura 2000 sites. This report and accompanying annexes is part of a series of documents that present a risk assessment tool developed by ABPmer to assess the effects of fishing and aquaculture activities on the Annex I habitats and Annex II species present in Natura 2000 sites. The tool is designed to support the preparation of screening statements and Appropriate Assessments. Specifically this report presents the project deliverables for the assessment of intertidal and subtidal mixed sediments habitats and describes the potential use of the risk assessment tool.
    • Tools for Appropriate Assessment of Fishing and Aquaculture Activities in Marine and Coastal Natura 2000 Sites. Report V: Intertidal and Subtidal Coarse Sediments

      ABPmer (ABP Marine Environmental Research Ltd, 2013)
      Ireland has many coastal and marine habitats and species that are of national and international conservation importance. The value of these has been recognised by the designation of a number of Special Areas of Conservation and Special Protected Areas through the EU Habitats Directive (92/43/EEC) and EU Birds Directive (2009/147/EC). Together these sites form part of the European network of Natura 2000 sites. This report and accompanying annexes is part of a series of documents that present a risk assessment tool developed by ABPmer to assess the effects of fishing and aquaculture activities on the Annex I habitats and Annex II species present in Natura 2000 sites. The tool is designed to support the preparation of screening statements and Appropriate Assessments. Specifically this report presents the project deliverables for the assessment of coarse sediments and describes the potential use of the risk assessment tool.
    • Tools for Appropriate Assessment of Fishing and Aquaculture Activities in Marine and Coastal Natura 2000 Sites. Report VII: Intertidal and Subtidal Reefs.

      ABPmer (ABP Marine Environmental Research Ltd, 2013)
      Ireland has many coastal and marine habitats and species that are of national and international conservation importance. The value of these has been recognised by the designation of a number of Special Areas of Conservation and Special Protected Areas through the EU Habitats Directive (92/43/EEC) and EU Birds Directive (2009/147/EC). Together these sites form part of the European network of Natura 2000 sites. This report and accompanying annexes is part of a series of documents that present a risk assessment tool developed by ABPmer to assess the effects of fishing and aquaculture activities on the Annex I habitats and Annex II species present in Natura 2000 sites. The tool is designed to support the preparation of screening statements and Appropriate Assessments. Specifically this report presents the project deliverables for the assessment of littoral and sublittoral reefs and associated biological assemblages and describes the potential use of the risk assessment tool.
    • The Status of Ireland's Climate, 2012

      Dwyer, N. (Environmental Protection Agency, 2013)
      Ireland’s climate is changing. This is consistent with regional and global trends which display rapid changes in many aspects of climate over the last century and the first decade of this century. The availability of high-quality climate observations is a critical starting point from which an understanding of past and emerging trends in the current climate can be developed. Such observations are vital for detecting change and providing the information needed to help manage and plan for the future in a wide range of socio-economic sectors. Observations are also essential to help build robust projections of future climate, which can in turn inform policy formulation for appropriate mitigation and adaptation measures. Such measures should help us limit the negative socio-economic impacts and position us to take advantages of opportunities offered by a changing climate. This report brings together observational information and data for over 40 climate variables and highlights changes and trends in aspects of Irish climate across the atmospheric, oceanic and terrestrial domains. The observations presented in this report contribute to the formulation of the Essential Climate Variables (ECVs) as defined by the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS).