• Assessment of Impact of Offshore Wind Energy Structures on the Marine Environment

      Byrne Ó Cléirigh Ltd; Ecological Consultancy Services Ltd (EcoServe); School of Ocean and Earth Sciences, University of Southampton (Marine Institute, 2000)
      The Marine Institute commissioned this study to examine the impact of offshore wind energy structures (wind farms) on the marine environment. The study was confined to examining the “below the water” impacts on the marine environment. It is not intended to address the impacts of any particular type of wind farm in any particular location. The study findings indicate that the offshore wind farms, which have been built to date in Denmark and Sweden, have had little negative impact on the marine environment. The loss of physical seabed habitat during the operational phase of a wind farm would be minimal. Disturbance during construction will however have to be minimised and protocols will be needed to ensure that proper controls are in place.