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Recent Submissions

  • Marine Biotechnology Task Force Report

    Marine Biotechnology Task (Marine Institute, 2017)
    Marine biotechnology is a rapidly growing area that is recognised, by policy makers and the enterprise sector, as offering significant potential to develop market opportunities for new products and processes by enabling greater utilisation of marine biological resources. Current research funding activity, supporting efforts to create a sustainable bioeconomy, is likely to lead to a growth in marine biotechnology research and commercial activities. Irish and international financial support for this research is aimed at as yet largely unexplored and underexploited marine resources for use as food, functional foods and nutraceuticals; cosmetics and cosmeceuticals; human and animal health – including pharmaceuticals, biocompatible materials and medical devices; materials technology; environmental bioremediation; and marine model organisms, including the use of marine derived materials in bioprocessing. Research within these areas has resulted in an array of new products and processes which offer benefits to society and support economic growth. The Marine Institute established a Task Force to advise on the steps required to strengthen Ireland’s capability to use marine biotechnology to exploit the value of its extensive marine bioresources. The Task Force, comprising academic and industry members, considered the various national strategies and plans for science, technology, research and economic development, and identified market opportunity areas and Irish marine biotechnology research capabilities. In supporting the work of the Task Force, the Marine Institute completed a number of information-gathering exercises to fill various knowledge gaps identified by the Task Force. Following the preparation of a draft report, the Task Force, with the support of the Marine Institute, held a workshop attended by researchers and companies. This final report of the Task Force takes account of feedback from this workshop in developing its recommendations.
  • Irish Fish and Fisheries

    Dransfeld, Leonie (Marine Institute, 2014)
    The Irish monitoring programme for Descriptor 3 “Commercial fish and shellfish” and fish biodiversity (D1, D4 and D6) is based on the monitoring required under the obligation of the Data Collection Framework Directive (EC 665/2008; 2010/93/EU) for the implementation of the Common Fisheries Policy and for additional stocks/species of national importance. There are two main sources of data collected as part of Ireland’s monitoring programme; fishery independent and fishery dependent data. The first involves monitoring the temporal and spatial changes in the fish populations using fisheries surveys on research vessels and commercial vessels. Fishery dependant data involves collecting and analysing biological data (age, length etc.) of the fish caught, together with data on the quantities of fish caught and the fishing effort. The fish and fisheries monitoring programme includes the evaluation of the fishing sector using capacity and activity, pressure monitoring of contributing activities in terms of distribution and intensity of effort, landings and discards of fish and shellfish and accidental bycatch of other species. Pressure on habitats is partially monitored based on the spatial and temporal distribution of bottom contacting fishing gear within mapped habitats. The monitoring programme also covers status monitoring through the use of dedicated scientific fish and shellfish surveys which estimate the distribution and relative abundance of different fish and shellfish species and the collection of biological parameters.
  • The effects of intertidal oyster (Crassostrea gigas) culture on the spatial distribution of waterbirds

    Gittings, T; O'Donoghue, P.D. (Marine Institute, 2012)
    Atkins was commissioned by the Marine Institute to provide ornithological services in relation to the appropriate assessment of aquaculture and fisheries activities on coastal Special Protecion Areas for birds (SPA's). Intertidal culture of the Pacific Oyster using oyster trestles is widespread in Ireland and occurs in 16 SPAs and the potential impact of this activity on waterbird populations will be an issue in a number of Appropriate Assessments. Therefore, a research programme was designed by Atkins, in consultation with the Marine Institute, to fill this information gap. This research programme included a review of the distribution of intertidal oyster culture in Ireland in relation to coastal Special Areas, and other areas of importance for waterbirds and extensive and intensive studies of the relationship between waterbird distribution and intertidal oyster culture.
  • Tools for Appropriate Assessment of Fishing and Aquaculture Activities in Marine and Coastal Natura 2000 Sites. Report VIII: Vegetation Dominated Communities (Saltmarsh and Seagrass).

    ABPmer (ABP Marine Environmental Research Ltd, 2013)
    Ireland has many coastal and marine habitats and species that are of national and international conservation importance. The value of these has been recognised by the designation of a number of Special Areas of Conservation and Special Protected Areas through the EU Habitats Directive (92/43/EEC) and EU Birds Directive (2009/147/EC). Together these sites form part of the European network of Natura 2000 sites. This report and accompanying annexes is part of a series of documents that present a risk assessment tool developed by ABPmer to assess the effects of fishing and aquaculture activities on the Annex I habitats and Annex II species present in Natura 2000 sites. The tool is designed to support the preparation of screening statements and Appropriate Assessments. Specifically this report presents the project deliverables for the assessment of vegetation dominated communities (saltmarsh and seagrass)and describes the potential use of the risk assessment tool.
  • Tools for Appropriate Assessment of Fishing and Aquaculture Activities in Marine and Coastal Natura 2000 Sites. Report VII: Intertidal and Subtidal Reefs.

    ABPmer (ABP Marine Environmental Research Ltd, 2013)
    Ireland has many coastal and marine habitats and species that are of national and international conservation importance. The value of these has been recognised by the designation of a number of Special Areas of Conservation and Special Protected Areas through the EU Habitats Directive (92/43/EEC) and EU Birds Directive (2009/147/EC). Together these sites form part of the European network of Natura 2000 sites. This report and accompanying annexes is part of a series of documents that present a risk assessment tool developed by ABPmer to assess the effects of fishing and aquaculture activities on the Annex I habitats and Annex II species present in Natura 2000 sites. The tool is designed to support the preparation of screening statements and Appropriate Assessments. Specifically this report presents the project deliverables for the assessment of littoral and sublittoral reefs and associated biological assemblages and describes the potential use of the risk assessment tool.
  • Tools for Appropriate Assessment of Fishing and Aquaculture Activities in Marine and Coastal Natura 2000 Sites. Report VI: Biogenic Reefs (Sabellaria, Native Oyster, Maerl).

    ABPmer (ABP Marine Environmental Research Ltd, 2013)
    Ireland has many coastal and marine habitats and species that are of national and international conservation importance. The value of these has been recognised by the designation of a number of Special Areas of Conservation and Special Protected Areas through the EU Habitats Directive (92/43/EEC) and EU Birds Directive (2009/147/EC). Together these sites form part of the European network of Natura 2000 sites. This report and accompanying annexes is part of a series of documents that present a risk assessment tool developed by ABPmer to assess the effects of fishing and aquaculture activities on the Annex I habitats and Annex II species present in Natura 2000 sites. The tool is designed to support the preparation of screening statements and Appropriate Assessments. Specifically this report presents the project deliverables for the assessment of Biogenic Reefs (Sabellaria, Native Oyster, Maerl)and describes the potential use of the risk assessment tool.
  • Tools for Appropriate Assessment of Fishing and Aquaculture Activities in Marine and Coastal Natura 2000 Sites. Report V: Intertidal and Subtidal Coarse Sediments

    ABPmer (ABP Marine Environmental Research Ltd, 2013)
    Ireland has many coastal and marine habitats and species that are of national and international conservation importance. The value of these has been recognised by the designation of a number of Special Areas of Conservation and Special Protected Areas through the EU Habitats Directive (92/43/EEC) and EU Birds Directive (2009/147/EC). Together these sites form part of the European network of Natura 2000 sites. This report and accompanying annexes is part of a series of documents that present a risk assessment tool developed by ABPmer to assess the effects of fishing and aquaculture activities on the Annex I habitats and Annex II species present in Natura 2000 sites. The tool is designed to support the preparation of screening statements and Appropriate Assessments. Specifically this report presents the project deliverables for the assessment of coarse sediments and describes the potential use of the risk assessment tool.
  • Tools for Appropriate Assessment of Fishing and Aquaculture Activities in Marine and Coastal Natura 2000 Sites. Report IV: Intertidal and Subtidal Mixed Sediments

    ABPmer (ABP Marine Environmental Research Ltd, 2013)
    Ireland has many coastal and marine habitats and species that are of national and international conservation importance. The value of these has been recognised by the designation of a number of Special Areas of Conservation and Special Protected Areas through the EU Habitats Directive (92/43/EEC) and EU Birds Directive (2009/147/EC). Together these sites form part of the European network of Natura 2000 sites. This report and accompanying annexes is part of a series of documents that present a risk assessment tool developed by ABPmer to assess the effects of fishing and aquaculture activities on the Annex I habitats and Annex II species present in Natura 2000 sites. The tool is designed to support the preparation of screening statements and Appropriate Assessments. Specifically this report presents the project deliverables for the assessment of intertidal and subtidal mixed sediments habitats and describes the potential use of the risk assessment tool.
  • Tools for Appropriate Assessment of Fishing and Aquaculture Activities in Marine and Coastal Natura 2000 Sites. Report III: Intertidal and Subtidal Muddy Sands and Sandy Muds

    ABPmer (ABP Marine Environmental Research Ltd, 2013)
    Ireland has many coastal and marine habitats and species that are of national and international conservation importance. The value of these has been recognised by the designation of a number of Special Areas of Conservation and Special Protected Areas through the EU Habitats Directive (92/43/EEC) and EU Birds Directive (2009/147/EC). Together these sites form part of the European network of Natura 2000 sites. This report and accompanying annexes is part of a series of documents that present a risk assessment tool developed by ABPmer to assess the effects of fishing and aquaculture activities on the Annex I habitats and Annex II species present in Natura 2000 sites. The tool is designed to support the preparation of screening statements and Appropriate Assessments. Specifically this report presents the project deliverables for the assessment of vegetation dominated communities (Saltmarsh and seagrass) and describes the potential use of the risk assessment tool.
  • Tools for Appropriate Assessment of Fishing and Aquaculture Activities in Marine and Coastal Natura 2000 Sites. Report II: Intertidal and Subtidal Sands

    ABPmer (ABP Marine Environmental Research Ltd, 2013)
    Ireland has many coastal and marine habitats and species that are of national and international conservation importance. The value of these has been recognised by the designation of a number of Special Areas of Conservation and Special Protected Areas through the EU Habitats Directive (92/43/EEC) and EU Birds Directive (2009/147/EC). Together these sites form part of the European network of Natura 2000 sites.This report and accompanying annexes is part of a series of documents that present a risk assessment tool developed by ABPmer to assess the effects of fishing and aquaculture activities on the Annex I habitats and Annex II species present in Natura 2000 sites. The tool is designed to support the preparation of screening statements and Appropriate Assessments. Specifically this report presents the project deliverables for the assessment of intertidal and subtidal sand habitats and describes the potential use of the risk assessment tool.
  • Tools for Appropriate Assessment of Fishing and Aquaculture Activities in Marine and Coastal Natura 2000 Sites. Report I: Intertidal and Subtidal Muds.

    ABPmer (ABP Marine Environmental Research Ltd, 2013)
    Ireland has many coastal and marine habitats and species that are of national and international conservation importance. The value of these has been recognised by the designation of a number of Special Areas of Conservation and Special Protected Areas through the EU Habitats Directive (92/43/EEC) and EU Birds Directive (2009/147/EC). Together these sites form part of the European network of Natura 2000 sites. This report and accompanying annexes is part of a series of documents that present a risk assessment tool developed by ABPmer to assess the effects of fishing and aquaculture activities on the Annex I habitats and Annex II species present in Natura 2000 sites. The tool is designed to support the preparation of screening statements and Appropriate Assessments. Specifically this report presents the project deliverables for the assessment of intertidal and subtidal mud habitats and describes the potential use of the risk assessment tool.
  • Investigation into Levels of dioxins, furans, polychlorinated biphenyls and brominated flame retardants in fishery produce in Ireland

    Food Safety Authority of Ireland (Food Safety Authority of Ireland, 2013)
    The Food Safety Authority of Ireland in collaboration with the Marine Institute (MI) has carried out a further surveillance study of levels of dioxins (PCDDs), furans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in fish, in addition to those already carried out in 2001 and 2004. The study was carried out in a variety of wild and farmed finfish species and also prawns and cultivated mussels available on the Irish market. It was undertaken because of concern about the possible effects on human health of these biopersistent environmental contaminants, known to be present in a number of foodstuffs including, in particular, fish, meat, eggs and dairy products. Furthermore, the study also proactively monitored fish and other seafood for a number of emerging new contaminants, in order to contribute to the knowledge base on the occurrence of these contaminants in food and to aid national and international efforts in their management. These include the brominated flame retardants and related compounds, some of which are known to be persistent and hence, like PCDDs, PCDFs and PCBs, are regarded as persistent organic pollutants (POPs).
  • The Status of Ireland's Climate, 2012

    Dwyer, N. (Environmental Protection Agency, 2013)
    Ireland’s climate is changing. This is consistent with regional and global trends which display rapid changes in many aspects of climate over the last century and the first decade of this century. The availability of high-quality climate observations is a critical starting point from which an understanding of past and emerging trends in the current climate can be developed. Such observations are vital for detecting change and providing the information needed to help manage and plan for the future in a wide range of socio-economic sectors. Observations are also essential to help build robust projections of future climate, which can in turn inform policy formulation for appropriate mitigation and adaptation measures. Such measures should help us limit the negative socio-economic impacts and position us to take advantages of opportunities offered by a changing climate. This report brings together observational information and data for over 40 climate variables and highlights changes and trends in aspects of Irish climate across the atmospheric, oceanic and terrestrial domains. The observations presented in this report contribute to the formulation of the Essential Climate Variables (ECVs) as defined by the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS).
  • Veterinary treatments and other substances used in finfish aquaculture in Ireland

    Marine Institute (Marine Institute, 2007)
    Over recent years the finfish aquaculture sector has contracted in Ireland. The bulk of this sector is accounted for by marine salmon production. A number of substances are used in finfish farming that may give rise to discharges to the aquatic environment.
  • Monitoring Chemical Pollution in Europe’s Seas: Programmes, Practices and Priorities for Research

    Roose, P.; Albaigés, J.; Bebianno, M.J.; Camphuysen, C.; Cronin, M.; de Leeuw, J.; Gabrielsen, G.; Hutchinson, T.; Hylland, K.; Jansson, B.; Jenssen, B.M.; Schulz-Bull, D.; Szefer, P.; Webster, L.; Bakke, T.; Janssen, C. (Marine Board-ESF, 2011)
    This report has been produced by the Marine Board Working Group on Existing and Emerging Chemical Pollutants (WGPOL) first convened in 2008 and tasked to examine the assessment and monitoring of existing and emerging chemicals in the European marine and coastal environment. The Working Group considered (i) existing monitoring/assessment frameworks; (ii) current monitoring practices; and (iii) new and emerging chemicals of concern and the mechanisms used to include them in current monitoring programmes. The primary conclusions and recommendations of this position paper are: 1. Fully implement state of the art environmental risk assessment procedures (combining exposure and effect assessment) to evaluate the full impact of chemical substances on the different compartments of coastal and open sea systems. 2. Further improve the coordination, cooperation and harmonization between existing monitoring efforts and those under development, to avoid duplication of effort, loss of expertise and a reduced willingness to fulfil the obligations towards regional conventions. 3. Ensure that the development and implementation of monitoring programmes for the assessment of chemicals in marine and coastal environment are based on a science-based and dynamic process. 4. Apply more resources targeted at developing appropriate approaches, tools and practices (education and training) to improve the acquisition and management of monitoring data. In addition to the above main recommendations, two further recommendations have been identified on the basis of two specific case studies which form part of this paper and which focus on the release, effects and monitoring of (i) hydrophobic and insoluble chemicals in the marine environment from merchant shipping; and (ii) chemicals released by the offshore oil-industry in the North Sea. These case studies highlighted the need to: 5. Develop a consistent, pan-European or regional (legal) framework/regulation which covers the activities of the oil and gas industry at sea. At the same time, more information and research is needed on the release and the effects of chemicals arising from offshore oil and gas activities. 6. Develop and apply state-of-the-art environmental risk assessment procedures (combining exposure and effect assessments, including on human health) to evaluate the impact of noxious liquid substances listed under MARPOL Annex II on the different compartments in coastal and open sea ecosystems.
  • Assuring Seafood Safety: Contaminants and Residues in Irish Seafood 2004-2008

    McGovern, Evin; McHugh, Brendan; O’Hea, Linda; Joyce, Eileen; Tlustos, Christina; Glynn, Denise (Marine Institute (in collaboration with Food Safety Authority of Ireland), 2011)
    This report provides an overview on the occurrence of environmental contaminants, such as metals and persistent organic pollutants (POPs), and veterinary residues in Irish seafood. Compliance of seafood (shellfish, crustaceans, wild and farmed finfish) with relevant EC Regulatory Limits for contaminants is examined and an overview of conformance of the aquaculture sector with the requirements of the EC Residues Directive (Dir 96/23/EC) is presented for 2004 - 2008. The contribution of seafood to the dietary intake of certain contaminants for the Irish adult seafood consumer is estimated and the risks of contaminant exposure from seafood consumption are considered in the context of the well established health benefits of seafood consumption.
  • Assessment of Impact of Offshore Wind Energy Structures on the Marine Environment

    Byrne Ó Cléirigh Ltd; Ecological Consultancy Services Ltd (EcoServe); School of Ocean and Earth Sciences, University of Southampton (Marine Institute, 2000)
    The Marine Institute commissioned this study to examine the impact of offshore wind energy structures (wind farms) on the marine environment. The study was confined to examining the “below the water” impacts on the marine environment. It is not intended to address the impacts of any particular type of wind farm in any particular location. The study findings indicate that the offshore wind farms, which have been built to date in Denmark and Sweden, have had little negative impact on the marine environment. The loss of physical seabed habitat during the operational phase of a wind farm would be minimal. Disturbance during construction will however have to be minimised and protocols will be needed to ensure that proper controls are in place.
  • Options for the Development of Wave Energy in Ireland: A Public Consultation Document

    Marine Institute; Sustainable Energy Ireland (Marine Institute, 2002)
    The potential for development of wave, ocean current and tidal energy is the subject of growing international investigation. This document focuses on the status and development potential of wave energy in Ireland. While recognising that this technology is not in a position to contribute to national renewable energy targets within the Kyoto timeframe, it is oriented towards the longer term prospect of Ireland becoming a world-leading developer and manufacturer of the technologies that will enable the harnessing of ocean energy resources.
  • Ocean Energy in Ireland

    Marine Institute; Sustainable Energy Ireland (Department of Communications, Marine and Natural Resources, 2005)
    Ireland has a target of supplying 13.2% of its electricity consumption from renewable sources by 2010. The majority of this target is likely to be supplied from wind energy. It is likely that targets will increase in the longer term. This will require large deployments of other forms of renewable energy. Ocean energy, both wave and marine current tidal energy, may have a role to play in meeting longer term targets in Ireland. The resource, particularly the wave energy resource, is vast. Before these technologies become commercially viable researchers and developers must overcome the challenge of developing low cost, highly reliable, integrated systems. Given current efforts to develop technology, ocean energy may be deployed in small scale demonstrations by 2010; however it is not expected to contribute significantly to Ireland’s electricity supply before 2020. It is proposed to implement an ocean energy strategy to advance the speed at which ocean energy technologies are deployed in Ireland by increasing the capacity for research and development, both within academic institutions and commercial entities developing devices in Ireland. A structured and phased strategy of development supports may enable Ireland to utilize its ocean energy resource within a decade. The result could also see Ireland positioned with the potential to become a world leader in the manufacture and use of ocean energy systems.

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