• Combined oral toxicity of azaspiracid-1 and yessotoxin in female NMRI mice

      Aasen, J A B; Espenes, A; Miles, C O; Samdal, I A; Hess, P; Aune, T (Elsevier, 2011)
      For many years, the presence of yessotoxins (YTXs) in shellfish has contributed to the outcome of the traditional mouse bioassay and has on many occasions caused closure of shellfisheries. Since YTXs do not appear to cause diarrhoea in man and exert low oral toxicity in animal experiments, it has been suggested that they should be removed from regulation. Before doing so, it is important to determine whether the oral toxicity of YTXs is enhanced when present together with shellfish toxins known to cause damage to the gastrointestinal tract. Consequently, mice were given high doses of YTX, at 1 or 5 mg/kg body weight, either alone or together with azaspiracid-1 (AZA1) at 200 μg/kg. The latter has been shown to induce damage to the small intestine at this level. The combined exposure caused no clinical effects, and no pathological changes were observed in internal organs. These results correspond well with the very low levels of YTX detected in internal organs by means of LCMS/MS and ELISA after dosing. Indeed, the very low absorption of YTX when given alone remained largely unchanged when YTX was administered in combination with AZA1. Thus, the oral toxicity of YTX is not enhanced in the presence of sub-lethal levels of AZA1.