• Deep-sea fisheries management: the approach taken by the European Union

      Clarke, Maurice; Patterson, Kenneth (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 2005)
      This paper outlines the approach taken by the European Union to the management of deep-sea fish stocks. An extensive range of measures was adopted in 2002, and implementation began in 2003. The scheme, which is binding on EU fishing vessels targeting deep-sea species in the North-East Atlantic, encompasses both input and output controls. In southern Europe and in the Mediterranean, deep-sea fisheries tend to be artisanal in nature, and in some cases of considerable antiquity. In northern community waters deepwater fisheries began in the 1970’s. These diverse fisheries, in several regions create particular problems for fisheries managers. The approach taken by the European Union was to adopt catch restrictions, in the form of total allowable catches for a range of the key deepwater species in the ICES area. In addition, a capacity restriction has been imposed. This requires that vessels that want to land more than a very small amount of some specified deepwater species should hold a license issued by its flag state. The overall capacity (in kilowatts and in gross tonnes) of vessels that can receive licences is limited to recent levels. The capacity limitation scheme is accompanied by a requirement to implement a scientific observer scheme in order to improve the scientific data available for assessment purposes.
    • A life history approach to the assessment of deepwater fisheries in the Northeast Atlantic

      Clarke, Maurice (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 2005)
      It has been generally stated that deepwater fishes cannot sustain high levels of exploitation because of their characteristic slow growth, longevity and low reproductive output. However deepwater fish species display a wide variety of life-history strategies, occupying diverse positions along the K-r continuum. Literature sources provided data on age, growth, fecundity, maturity and mortality rates of several deepwater teleosts and elasmobranchs. Many teleosts displayed intermediate or conservative life-history characteristics, but the squalid sharks were more stringent K-strategists. These data were used in life-history analyses to assess the sustainability of these mixed-species deepwater fisheries. Whilst there may be scope for compensatory changes in fecundity such scope is likely to be limited, especially for sharks. The implications of these life-history parameters for sustainable exploitation are discussed by way of comparison with continental shelf species from this region.