• An Investigation into the Chemical and Biological Effects of Pollution in the River Tolka

      O'Connor, M. A.; Bracken, J. J. (Department of Agriculture and Fisheries [Fisheries Division], 1980)
      Physico-chemical and biological sampling show that the River Tolka is affected by organic pollution over most of its length. Domestic sewage is the major contaminant. A distinct zonation of the river is noted as certain polluted areas are succeeded by downstream recovery zones. Many of the effluents and tributaries are investigated. Oxygen depletion and excessive ammonia concentrations are the factors most likely to have caused the observed faunal changes.
    • Irish Kelt Tagging Experiments

      Went, A. E. J. (Department of Agriculture and Fisheries [Fisheries Division], 1969)
      Since the beginning of the century large numbers of salmon kelts have been tagged in Irish waters and the results have been given in a series of papers...a considerable number of kelts have been tagged since 1962 at a number of stations in Ireland and they form the basis of this paper.
    • Irish Pike Investigations

      Kennedy, M. (Department of Agriculture and Fisheries [Fisheries Division], 1969)
      The spawning of pike was studied in 1965 and 1966 in five large Irish limestone lakes-Loughs Sheelin, Ennell, Mask, Corrib and Arrow. The spawning period was found to be February to April. Spawning took place in shallow, sheltered situations where there was a carpet of dead or living vegetation on the bottom at a depth of 20 to 60 cm. Spawning took place by day, at a water temperature of at least 9-1O C, when lake levels were high or rising. Gill-net catches reached a peak during periods of spawning. Weather conditions in February and March were much milder in 1966 than in 1965, and spawning began about a month earlier than in 1965. The eggs of Irish pike are 2.7 to 3.0 cm in diameter. They are golden to honey coloured, with a great many minute oil-globules distributed through the yolk in numerous tiny clusters. The incubation period in the field is probably 8-14 days, and the newly hatched larva is 8.0-9.0 mm long. For the first 10 days or so, the larvae hang vertically from the vegetation by means of adhesive glands on the head. They then become free-swimming, and soon afterwards begin to feed. At this stage they measure 13.0-13.5 mm. Their first food consists of small cladocera and copepods. Later, they feed on larger cladocera, amphipods, isopods, young stages of aquatic insects, and fish fry.
    • A List of Rotatoria Known to Occur in Ireland with Notes on Their Habitats and Distribution

      Horkan, J. P. K. (Department of Agriculture and Fisheries [Fisheries Division], 1981)
      A total of 315 species of rotifers are known to occur in Ireland. Of these 71 belong to the Bdelloidea and 244 to the Monogononta. Three species new to Ireland are now recorded and one of them is also a new record for the British Isles. A taxonomic list of the 315 species is given together with notes on ecology, where possible, and distribution. The names of recorders are included.
    • The Movement of Salmon (Salmo Salar) Through an Estuary and a Fish-Pass

      Jackson, P. A.; Howie, D. I. D. (Department of the Marine, 1967)
      In this paper we have attempted to analyze in quantitative terms the behaviour of the salmon of the River Erne during the important phase of migration when the fish first enter brackish and fresh water.
    • Observations on the Trichoptera of the Killarney Lakes, Co. Kerry, Ireland

      O'Connor, J .P.; Wise, E. J. (Department of Agriculture and Fisheries [Fisheries Division], 1984)
      Trichoptera were obtained in two separate surveys of the Killarney Lakes. During eutrophication investigations, larvae were collected at twelve littoral stations once a month for a year. As part of a special study of the Irish Trichoptera, larvae, pupae and imagines were collected extensively using both semiquantitative and qualitative techniques. The combined results of these two surveys demonstrated that the lakes possesed a rich and interesting trichopterous fauna. Altogether 71 species were recorded, representing half the known Irish Trichoptera. The Upper Lake had the poorest fauna with 29 species. By contrast, 54 and 58 species were recorded from Muckross Lake and Lough Leane respectively. A total of six species new to Ireland was discovered. Species of particular interest on the grounds of rarity or occurrence in lentic rather than lotic habitats included Apatania auricula (Forsslund), Athripsodes albifrons (Curtis) and Setades argentipunctellus McLachlan.
    • Papers Presented to the 7th Session of the EIFAC Working Party on Eel

      Moriarty, C. (ed) (Department of Agriculture and Fisheries [Fisheries Division], 1992)
      The Seventh Session of the Working Party on Eel of the European Inland Fisheries Advisory Commission was held in the Royal Hospital, Killmainham, Dublin. A list of the peer-reviewed papers and abstracts of other presentations to the session are given below. -- I M Domingos: Fluctuation of glass eel migration in the Mondego estuary (Portugal) in 1988 and 1989. -- Daniel Guerault, Raymonde Lecomte-Finiger, Yves Desaunay, Sylvie Biagianti-Risbourg, Pierre Beillois and Patrick Grellier: Glass eel arrivals in the Vilaine estuary (Northern Bay of Biscay) in 1990: Demographic features and early life history. -- Jan G P Klein Breteler: Effect of provenance and density on growth and survival of glass eels Anguilla anguilla (L.) in mesocosm experiments. -- R. Lecomte-Finiger, S. Biagianti-Risbourg, Y. Desaunay, D. Guerault, B. Fourcault, S. Planes and A. Yahyaoui: Age at recruitment of A. anguilla glass-eels on the eastern Atlantic coast as inferred from otolith growth increments. -- P McGovern and T K McCarthy: Elver migration in the River Corrib system, western Ireland. -- Christopher Moriarty: Catches of Anguilla anguilla (L.) elver on the Atlantic coast of Europe 1989-1990. -- Maria Assuncao Santos and Michael Weber: Growth studies on monthly captured glass eels from the Rio Minho in two recirculation systems. -- Raymonde Lecomte-Finiger: Age and birth date of elvers collected in Moorea (French Polynesia) (poster). -- Lotti Ben Abdallah: Influence of some abiotic factors on the abundances of glass eel Anguilla anguilla (L.) in the estuary of the River Loire, France (abstract). -- C. Belpaire, H Van Driessche, F Y Gao and F Ollevier: Food and feeding activity of glass eel Anguilla anguilla (L.) stocked in earthen ponds. -- Maria Bninska and Marian Leopold: The effect of eel on fish stock composition in lakes- preliminary results. -- Rose M Callaghan and T Kieran McCarthy: Variations in population structure and growth rate of eels in the Dunkellin river system, western Ireland. -- J L Costa, P R Almeida, C Assis, F Moreira and M J Costa: A study of methods of estimating the size of eel populations in small streams. -- Christopher Moriarty: Management of the Corrib eel fishery, Ireland. -- I A Naismith and B Kights: The distribution, density and growth of the European eel Anguilla anguilla (L.) in the River Thames catchment. -- W Russell Poole, Julian D Reynolds and Christopher Moriarty: Age and growth of eel Anguilla anguilla (L.) in oligotrophic streams. -- R H Hadderingh, J W van der Stoep and J M P M Habraken: Deflecting eels from water inlets of power stations with light. -- K Holmgren, H Wickstrom and K Fredga: Growth of eel in a meoscale experiment. -- Aline Caillou, Christian Francisco, Raymonde Lecomte-Finiger and Jean-Marie Salmon: Lipofuscin used as an age indicator in the European eel Anguilla anguilla (L.). Comparison between lipopigment, fluorimetric measurements and otolithometric data (poster). -- Peer Doering, Jiirgen Ludwig and Gerhard Gmel: Prelimary results of otolith amalysis with eels of known age (abstract). -- Antoine Legault: A study of some selectivity factors in eel ladders (abstract). -- F - W Tesch: Insignificance of tidal currents for silver eel migration as studied by eel trac.kings and current measurements. -- F - W Tesch and U Niermann: Stock density of eel larvae Anguilla anguilla (L.) on the European continental slope, based on collections made between 1985 and 1989. -- Takakazu Ozawa, Futoshi Kakizoe, Osame Tabeta, Takashi Maeda and Yasutaka Yuwaki: Larval growth and drift of the Japanese eel Anguilla japonica estimated from leptocephali collections (abstract). -- W-N Tzeng and Y-C Tsai: Otolith microstructural growth patterns and daily age of the eel Anguilla japonica elvers from the estuaries of Taiwan (abstract). -- S Appelbaum and V Birkan: The effect of grading on the growth and distribution pattern in young eels Anguilla anguilla (L.) reared in recirculating systems. -- Inge Boiitius, Karl Otto Wahlstrom and Curt Gelin: Experimentally induced sexual maturity in farmed European eel Anguilla anguilla (L.). -- G. Golombo and G. Grandi: Further experiments in the effects of sex steroids on the gonad sex differentiation of European eel. -- Soeren Hendriksen: Production of eel in recirculation systems in Denmark 1985-1991. -- M Saroglia, C lando Ii, lingle and G Angle: Recent developments in eel farming in Italy. -- Reiner Knosche: An effective biofilter system for eel culture in closed recirculating systems. -- Hao-Ren Lin, Mei-Li Zhang, Lianxi Chen, Glen Van Der Kraak and R E Peter: Effects of sex steroids on gonadotropin synthesis and secretion as well as ovarian development in female Japanese silver eel Anguilla japonica (abstract). -- J Hoglund, J Andersson, H. Wickstrom and M Reizenstein: The distribution of Anguillicola in Sweden and its association with thermal discharge areas. -- J Bosnakovski, K Necev, K Apostolski and M Hristovski: Appearance of eel diseases in Ohrid Lake. Inge Boetius: Development of Anguillicola infestations in some Danish lakes and inlets (abstract).
    • Review of the Irish Salmon Industry

      Went, A. E. J. (Department of Agriculture and Fisheries [Fisheries Division], 1965)
      For centuries the salmon has been an important item of commerce in Ireland and in many parts of the country today it is still very important in the general economy of the people, who gain a living directly or indirectly from it. It is important from two points of view. It provides sport for the angler and it supports a commercial fishery. There are three other articles in this issue: II. SALMON OF THE RIVER SHANNON (1957 to 1962) - Eileen Twomey; III. THE EFFECTS OF ARTERIAL DRAINAGE WORKS ON THE SALMON STOCK OF A TRIBUTORY OF THE RIVER MOY - E.D. Toner, Ann O’Riordan & Eileen Twomey; IV. RECAPTURES OF IRISH TAGGED SALMON OFF GREENLAND - A.E.J. Went.
    • Sea Trout from the Currane Fishery in 1973 and 1974

      Fahy, E. (Department of Agriculture and Fisheries [Fisheries Division], 1980)
      Collections of 1,163 sets of scales from rod-caught sea trout Salma trutta L., made in 1973 and 1974, are described and the results compared with data from previous collections. The mean weight of 821 g was higher than usual in Irish fisheries and smolts were large, ranging from 22.8 to 24.5 cm at two years. Previous indications of a long lived-stock were confirmed by the identification of 37 age categories. The amount of B type growth was considerably less than that observed in samples from rivers with longer estuaries. Marine growth was relatively poor so that the length attained at the end of each sea winter was similar to that of sea trout in other Irish populations. The large size of specimens in the Waterville fishery may therefore be ascribed to longevity rather than to rapid growth at sea. Circuli on parr scales were more numerous than on scales from an east coast sample. Changes observed since the 1944 sampling included an increase in the proportion of older fish indicating that the drift net fishery has not had an adverse effect on the stocks.
    • Sea-Trout from the Tidal Waters of the River Moy

      Fahy, E. (Department of Agriculture and Fisheries [Fisheries Division], 1979)
      Sea trout from the tidal waters of the River Moy are described on the basis of life data and scales from 1,269 specimens collected during 1974 and 1975. The mean smolt age was 2.30 years. Lengths ranged from 16.4 cm for one-year-old A type smolts to 23.9 cm for four-year-old B type fish. Two-year-old smolts increased in length by 67% in their first summer at sea. Sixteen age categories were identified and 82 % of the first spawners were finnock. The proportion of 2. + fish increased throughout the season. Correlation between mean age at first maturation and coefficient of total mortality in British and Irish sea trout stocks was demonstrated. Moy trout are short-lived in the sea and this factor is identified as the most important of those influencing the population which is a typically westem seaboard Atlantic-feeding stock.
    • Some Direct Gillnet Selectivity Tests for Brown Trout Populations

      O'Grady, M. F. (Department of Agriculture and Fisheries [Fisheries Division], 1981)
      Direct gillnet selectivity tests for introduced brown trout populations in three Irish lakes are outlined. The net gangs and netting procedure utilised are described. Data indicates that the gear used was capable of capturing a random cross section of a trout stock in the length frequency range 19.8 to 47.7 centimetres.
    • "Specimen" Brown Trout and Sea Trout From Irish Waters

      Went, A. E. J. (Department of the Marine, 1968)
      The present paper deals with all the material collected up to the end of the 1967 fishing season and relates to brown trout of 10 lb weight and upwards and sea trout of 6 lb and upwards.
    • Studies of the Eel Anguila Anguila in Ireland

      Moriarty, C. (Department of Agriculture and Fisheries [Fisheries Division], 1972)
      A total of 1,722 immature eels of lengths 25 to 95 cm and ages 5 to 33 years were collected in summer by fyke netting. It was shown that migration upstream was very slow, few eels of less than 9 years old being found upstream of Lough Corrib. Eels of less than 50 cm fed mainly on invertebrates, larger individuals brcoming piscivorous. Differences in the diets in the various lakes were observed and some evidence of selective feeding was found.
    • Studies of the Eel Anguila Anguila in Ireland No. 2. In Lough Conn, Lough Gill, and North Cavan Lakes

      Moriarty, C. (Department of Agriculture and Fisheries [Fisheries Division], 1973)
      A total of 843 immature eels of length 27 to 86 em and ages 5 to 28 years were collected in summer by fyke netting. The North Cavan eels formed a distinct population of large, fast-growing eels, most of which matured before 12 years. The eels of the other lakes were slower in growth and in maturing, substantial numbers of 13 years and older being found. Principal food organisms in the Cavan eels were fish and chironomid larvae; in Lough Gill fish for eels of over 50 cm and Gammarus and Ephemeroptera larvae for smaller; in Lough Conn, Gastropoda for all sizes.
    • Studies of the Eel Anguila Anguila in Ireland No. 3. In the Shannon Catchment

      Moriarty, C. (Department of Agriculture and Fisheries [Fisheries Division], 1974)
      A sample of 1,637 immature eels of length 28 to 91 em and age 5 to 26 years was collected in summer seasons from 1969 to 1973 by fyke netting. The growth rate was similar to that of eels in many other Irish lakes but the age at maturity in the eels of the main Shannon was several years more than in similar waters. The food was almost exclusively invertebrate. In the Fergus system lakes earlier maturity was noted and fish was the principal food of eels of over 50 cm. A preliminary study of eels migrating upstream at Parteen Weir in 1973, 15 km above the tidal boundary, showed that few, if any, elvers travelled that distance in their first year.
    • Studies of the Eel Anguila Anguila in Ireland No. 4. In the Munster Blackwater River

      Moriarty, C. (Department of Agriculture and Fisheries [Fisheries Division], 1974)
      Yellow eels from estuarine and freshwater populations were sampled by fyke netting: in 1965 and 1966 2,221 specimens from the estuary and in 1972 and 1973 826 specimens from freshwater. It was the first extensive study of eels in an Irish river and the population was found to be more dense than that recorded in lakes. Growth in the estuary was relatively fast and spawning migration began at 9 years while in the freshwater growth was slower and migration began about four years later. One specimen of 36 years old was found and more than 17% of the freshwater sample were over 19 years. Eels of less than 40 cm fed largely on invertebrates whereas eels of 50 cm and over fed mainly on fish, cyprinids being taken to a much greater degree than salmonids. It was calculated that fyke netting of the unexploited fishery could yield a catch of 21 tonne of eels of over 50 em length in the lowland freshwater portion of the river.
    • Studies on the Minnow Phoxinus Phoxinus (L.) from an Upland Irish Reservoir System

      Dauod, H. A.; Bolger, T.; Bracken, J. J. (Department of Agriculture and Fisheries [Fisheries Division], 1985)
      The paper deals with the population structure and biology of the minnow, Phoxinus phoxinus (L.), in the Roundwood Reservoir system. A total of 4,342 minnow were taken during the study period from three locations, 2,796 fish were used to calculate the age distributions and 3,013 were examined for gut contents. The age data, determined from the otoliths, showed that there are five age classes present. The mean length at the end of the first year (O-Group fish), was 3.41 cm, at the end of the second year (I-Group fish) it was 5.32 cm and 6.68 cm at the end of the third year (II-Group). Only thirteen minnow were found to be older than three years. The breeding season is later than normal and peaks in August and September. Sexual maturity is reached by the majority in their second year and all older fish are mature. Egg diameters were shown to be smaller than for fish from midland Irish waters. In the North and South Lakes the dominant food organisms were found to be chironomid and trichopteran larvae, molluscs and Cladocera. The diet of the fish from the Vartry River contained more ephemeropteran nymphs. Seasonal differences in the diet are noted. The influence of the minnow on the associated fish species is discussed. An account of the distribution of the minnow in Ireland is included as an Appendix.
    • Studies on the Three-Spined Stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus L. from an Upland Irish Reservoir System

      Dauod, H. A.; Bolger, T.; Bracken, J. J. (Department of Agriculture and Fisheries [Fisheries Division], 1985)
      Monthly samples were taken using a small-meshed beach seine. A total of 1092 sticklebacks were captured, 725 fish were used to calculate the age distributions and 699 were examined for gut contents. The age data, determined from the otoliths, showed that there were four age classes present. The mean length of first year fish (O-Group fish) was 2.24cm, of second year fish (I-Group) 3.36 and 4.47cm and 5.72cm for II-Group and III-Group fish respectively. The breeding season was June-July. Sex ratios were similar in both lakes and did not differ significantly from 1 : 1. Sexual maturity was reached by all fish above 3cm. The smallest maturing virgin was 2.6cm in length. Egg diameters varied between 1.0 and 1.5mm. The diet was similar in the two lakes studied. In the North Lake Cladocera, chironomid larvae, copepods and molluscs dominated while in the South Lake Cladocera, copepods, chironomid larvae and surface insects were dominant. Sticklebacks were extremely scarce in the Vartry River and feeder streams entering both lakes and would not pose a threat to egg production by trout and minnow in these streams. The influence of sticklebacks is discussed in relation to other fish species.
    • Temperature and Oxygen Determinations in some Irish Lakes

      Fitzmaurice, P. (Department of Agriculture and Fisheries [Fisheries Division], 1971)
      Information about temperature and dissolved oxygen profiles in Irish lakes has hitherto been lacking. During the period 1966 to 1969 data on temperature and dissolved oxygen content at various depths were determined for a number of Irish lakes. The results are summarised in this paper.
    • Water Quality Investigations in the River Blackwater and River Martin, Co. Cork--1966-1969

      Toner, P. F.; O'Connell, C. (Department of Agriculture and Fisheries [Fisheries Division], 1971)
      Investigations in the period 1966 to 1969 showed that the bulk of the waste discharged to the Blackwater and Martin is of an organic nature and arises mainly from industries processing milk, sugar-beet and other foods and to a smaller extent from domestic sewage. Pollution, indicated by increases in the biochemical oxygen demand and suspended solids and depletion in dissolved oxygen, was detected below the towns of Rathmore and Mallow on the main Blackwater, Mitchelstown, on a tributary of the Blackwater, the R. Funcheon, and Rathduff on the R. Martin. Depletion of dissolved oxygen sufficiently large to constitute lethal conditions for fish and other aquatic life was recorded only at Mitchelstown and it appears that the high rates of reaeration operating in most cases prevented more widespread deoxygenation and also reduced the extent of diurnal variation. The concentrations of suspended solids recorded in polluted reaches were well below those which are directly injurious to fish but the accumulation of this material as sludge in slow flowing stretches below outfalls constitutes an extra demand on dissolved oxygen which in combination with the B.O.D. of the water may lead to lethal conditions. In the Funcheon, the presence of this material and of sewage fungus on the substratum invalidates the application of the standard theoretical method for predicting the variation of dissolved oxygen. The partial or complete elimination of the normal flora and invertebrate fauna from riffles below the main waste outfalls, and replacement of these by biocoenoses typical of slow flowing silted reaches were recorded in each area. The extent of such changes seemed to be related more to the intensity of sewage fungus growth on the substratum than directly to the chemical quality of the water. Complete elimination of fish was only recorded at Mitchelstown, the stretch affected being half a mile in length. Trout and coarse fish were present in all af the other polluted stretches investigated though in some of these young salmon were absent and trout very few in number. Trout appeared to make better growth in polluted than in unpolluted water, especially at Rathmore, and this is due in part to a greater food supply in the former reaches. Short surveys of the Blackwater estuary indicated that this reach may be slightly polluted. While the investigations indicated that severe pollution occurred in several reaches of the Blackwater and Martin, it was considered that the overall productivity of fish in the rivers was unlikely, at that stage, to have been adversely affected by such pollution.