• Shellfish Survey of Castlemaine Harbour (Cromane)

      Crowley, M (Department of Agriculture and Fisheries (Fisheries Division), 1973)
      Castlemaine Harbour has the oldest mussel fishery in Ireland and the only mussel purification tank to date (capacity 360 tons per month built in 1941) is operated in that area. The monthly landings and their values since 1966 are given in. Recently Castlemaine Harbour has shown a sustained annual growth in mussel landings. In September 1972 a survey was carried out in Castlemains Harbour and the inner part of Dingle Bay to estimate the total quantity of available commercial shellfish. There are bout 6,840 acres in Castlemaine Harbour inside a straight line drawn from Inch Point to the old Coastguard Station at Cromane. About 2,000 of these are sub-littoral and the rest consist of about 1,800 acres of sand (which is less suitable for shellfish farming). A further 2,240 acres of mud and sandy mud at Banc Fluic are suitable for shellfish cultivation. There are a further 880 acres suitable for cockle cultivation outside these boundaries in Glenbeigh Straid known locally as the Cockle Strand.
    • Shellfish Survey of Estuaries and Bays of West Cork

      Crowley, M (Department of Agriculture and Fisheries (Fisheries Division), 1972)
      A survey was carried out in the summer of 1971 in the estuaries and bays of West Cork, by biologists from the Department of Agriculture and Fisheries. The purposes of the survey were to: (1) determine the potential of this area for possible shellfish farming; (2) discover any existing beds of edible mussels or other commercial shellfish species; and (3) describe the type of mussel found in each area.
    • Some comments on the management of the Irish mackerel fishery

      Molloy, J (Department of Fisheries and Forestry (Trade and Information Section), 1981)
      The total Irish catch of mackerel has increased dramatically in recent years and has risen from about 1000 tonnes in 1970/71 to approximately 50 000 tonnes in 1980/81. The total international catch taken by all countries in the ICES division VI, VII and VIII has also increased dramatically in the same period and has risen from 104,000 tonnes in 1970 to 604,000 tonnes in 1980. In 1980 mackerel contributed 40% of the total weight of the Irish wetfish catch and about 18% of the total value (based on the official statistics). Fishermen and processors have, in recent years, invested heavily in new vessels and in processing facilities, on the assumption of a continuation or even possible expansion of the recent high levels of mackerel catches. At the same time it is realized that pelagic fisheries such as herring and mackerel are liable to produce extremely erratic yields when intensively fished and there is always the danger of a sudden collapse of the fishery as has happened in many of our herring stocks. It is therefore important that those engaged in the mackerel fishery should be aware of the latest information relating to the assessment of the mackerel stock and also of the objectives as to how the stock should be managed.
    • Some notes on crab fishing

      Gibson, F A (Department of Agriculture and Fisheries (Fisheries Division), 1957)
      Specific fishing on a commercial scale for the edible crab is practised only to a limited extent in this country and, although fairly substantial quantities of edible crabs are landed annually, these are largely the by-product of creel fishing for lobsters and crawfish. These notes give a short account of certain crab fishing methods and record the results of some experimental fishing undertaken by the Fisheries Division.
    • Some Problems and Methods in Dublin Bay Prawn (Nephrops norvegicus) Research

      Hillis, J P (Department of Agriculture and Fisheries (Fisheries Division), 1972)
      Much is in the process of being learned about the Dublin Bay Prawn or Norway Lobster Nephrops norvegicus (referred to simply as the prawn hereafter) but compared with many other commercially fished species much still remains a mystery. This paper describes methods of examination of its biology and ecology designed to yield information on habits, movements and especially growth and death-rates, these being the two most important factors in the prosperity of the fishery.
    • South Coast (Waterford and Cork) Herring Fishery 1968-1969

      Molloy, J P (Department of Agriculture and Fisheries (Fisheries Division), 1969)
      The 1968/69 herring season proper commenced on November 27, 1968 and terminated on February 17, 1969. Prior to November 27, however, some small quantities of herrings had been taken by boats over a large area extending from Hook Head to the Daunt Rock. Fifty nine Irish boats made catches throughout the season and a total of 70,781 crans of herrings were landed which was an increase of 7,438 crans (11%o)n the figure for the previous season. Landings were made on 60 days out of a possible 70. The season, which began later than usual, was very disappointing before Christmas, due mainly to adverse weather conditions and the absence of shoals in inshore waters, After Christmas, however, landings of herrings increased substantially and fishing during January and February was exceptionally heavy, with the result that the total landings for the 1968/69 season were the greatest on record. As in the 1967/68 season, fishing was restricted after Christmas at times due to marketing problems which caused the closure of the ports on a number of occasions. The overall catch would otherwise have been considerably higher. Almost all landings of herrings were made at Dunmore East and Cobh.
    • South Coast (Waterford and Cork) Herring Fishery 1969-1970

      Molloy, J P (Department of Agriculture and Fisheries (Fisheries Division), 1970)
      The 1969/70 herring fishery began on the south coast in the week ending 15th November, 1969, and ended on the 25th February, 1970. Some small amounts of herrings had, however, been taken prior to the middle of November. Seventy three boats took part in the fishery, compared with fifty nine during the 1968/69 season. A total of 96,936 crans was landed, which was the highest on record and an increase of 26,155 crans on the figure for the previous season. Landings were made on 69 days out of a possible 81. The weather which, prior to Christmas, had been very favourable to fishing , deteriorated during January and thereafter caused many interruptions. As in the two previous seasons, marketing problems caused fishing to be suspended on a number of occasions and this restricted catches for considerable periods. All herrings taken throughout the season were auctioned at either Dunmore East or Cobh.
    • Studies on Dublin Bay Prawns (Nephrops norvegicus) in the Irish Sea

      Hillis, J P (Department of Agriculture and Fisheries (Fisheries Division), 1971)
      The fishery for Dublin Bay prawns (Nephrops norvegicus) is carried on in a number of areas around the coast of Ireland, but the bulk of the catch comes from the Irish Sea north of Dublin, where the greatest landings, excluding County Down, are at Skerries, It is of recent origin, having been negligible prior to 1955, since when it had risen with some fluctuations to nearly 18,000 cwt in Counties Dublin and Louth in 1968. In research on prawns, there is no known means of ageing the animals, which makes estimates of their mortality and growth rate difficult. Sampling is complicated by the fact that they make burrows in the sea bed, into which they retreat when conditions are not suitable, thus sometimes giving small catches on grounds where the population may be large. This activity is governed by light conditions and the strength of bottom currents. In addition, females carrying external eggs disappear from the catch soon after becoming buried, due to either burrowing or emigration - most research workers believe the former to be the case. Work carried out in 1968 included:- (i) a survey of the commercial catch to find the size of prawns marketed and of those discarded at sea in order to compare their sizes with those taken in former years and (ii) with the aid of the research vessel, Cú na Mara, a comparison of the numbers, average size and sex-ratio of prawns from different depths and at different times of day. The aim of this research programme is to ascertain the facts governing the reproduction, growth rates and economic yield of this important stock of prawns.
    • A study of some invertebrate resources within Bertrabouy Bay, Connemara

      Minchin, D (Department of Agriculture and Fisheries (Fisheries Division), 1975)
      This study of invertebrates in Bertrabouy bay was a by-product from an investigation of the distribution of escallops in Connemara examined by SCUBA diving and dredging. The bay is about 5 miles by 2 miles and has many small inlets and islands; it deepens to 18 fathoms near its entrance. Most of the escallops and lobsters are fished from the centre of the bay to its entrance. Small populations of escallops are fished with hand nets at the head of the bay where oysters were once cultivated on banks that are often covered with eelgrass. Cluaisíns are picked from the banks and winkles are found intertidally throughout the bay. In the course of the study an unexploited lobster population was discovered at the centre of the bay. Crawfish are taken at the bay entrance where razorfish and otter clams are also found. The oyster banks could be examined for future development and the use of a portable shellfish harvester to collect razorfish might be investigated.
    • The Summer herring fishery in the Irish Sea in 1974

      Molloy, J (Department of Agriculture and Fisheries (Fisheries Division), 1975)
      In 1974 the landings of herrings taken by the Irish fleet from the summer herring fishery in the north western part of the Irish Sea increased considerably and were valued at over £277,000. The fishery is based on two different races of herring each having different spawning areas. At present, both stocks are rather small and catches are dependant to a large extent on the influx of young fish each summer. In this situation controls are necessary to prevent the over-exploitation of the adult stock and certain conservation measures are suggested. The operating expenses of boats in this fishery could be reduced considerably by co-operation in the transport of catches from the fishing grounds to the home ports.
    • Supplement to List of Irish Fishes

      Went, A E J (Department of Agriculture and Fisheries (Fisheries Division), 1973)
      In 1969 Dr, M, Kennedy of the Inland Fisheries Trust Inc, and I compiled a List of Irish fishes, which was published by the National Museum, Dublin. This List gave details of the authentic captures of fishes in Irish waters of less than 100 fathoms up to 1968. Since that time three annual lists of rare or interesting fishes from Irish waters have been published in the Irish Naturalist’s Journal (Went, 1970, 1971 and 1972). Details of the fish taken in 1972 will eventually be recorded in an annual list in The Irish Naturalist's Journal. In addition Dunne (1972) has given a list of fishes taken in Galway Bay and adjacent areas. These further captures of interesting species arc summarised in this Leaflet. The order of the species described is that given in the List to which reference should be made for details of captures prior to 1969. Unless stated otherwise all the fish in question were taken in trawls.
    • Surveys for Herring Larvae Off the Northwest and West Coasts of Ireland in 1981

      Grainger, R; McArdle, E (Department of Fisheries and Forestry (Trade and Information Section), 1982)
      This Leaflet describes the methods used in sampling and gives the results of the 1981 survey in a series of maps showing the distribution of the young larvae. Sampling took place at fortnightly intervals and recorded the numbers of larvae in three size groups. The area of operation extended from Lough Foyle to Galway Bay. This region has been chosen because it is believed to include the entire spawning stock of a new assessment area for the herring. The survey has shown that spawning moves progressively southwards during the season in October and November and that there are three main spawning areas: north of Fanad Head, west of Aranmore and between Erris Head and Inishbofin. When the survey has been in progress for a few years it will be possible to make an improved annual assessment of the herring stock in the region which can be used by management to ensure that the fishery is exploited to the fullest extent without risk of damage to the stocks in the future.
    • Surveys for herring larvae off the northwest and west coasts of Ireland in 1982 and 1983

      Grainger, R; McArdle, E (Department of Fisheries and Forestry (Trade and Information Section), 1984)
      This Leaflet describes the methods used in sampling and gives the results of the 1982 and 1983 surveys in a series of maps showing the distribution of the young larvae. Sampling took place at fortnightly intervals and recorded the numbers of larvae in three size groups. The area of operation extended from Inishowen Head to Loop Head and thus includes the entire new assessment area for this herring stock. It was first surveyed for herring larvae in 1981 (see Fisheries Leaflet 117). As in1981, these surveys showed spawning to move progressively southwards during the season in October and November. There are three main spawning areas: the north Donegal coast, the west coast of Donegal and the west coast of Mayo. Larval abundance was over 10% higher in 1983 than in 1982. When the survey has been in progress for a few more years it will be possible to make an improved annual assessment of the herring stock in the region. This can be used by management to ensure that the fishery is exploited to the fullest extent without risk of damage to the stocks in the future.
    • The Torrey Canyon Disaster: A review of methods employed to combat large scale oil pollution

      Griffith, David de G (Department of Agriculture and Fisheries (Fisheries Division), 1969)
      In this review an attempt has been made to collate the central points of the most important of the multitudinous reports which have appeared in connection with the Torrey Canyon oil pollution. The content has been limited to the biological aspects of a large-scale oil spillage and its subsequent treatment, although the importance of tourist amenities also receives consideration in the discussion. Consequently, several related topics which lie outside the scope of the biologist have either been omitted or just mentioned in passing: they include the technical problems of the salvage of oil from a crippled tanker, the control or collection of floating oil, and the administrative organisational requirements for effective action in an emergency of this kind.
    • Trace Metal and Chlorinated Hydrocarbon Concentrations in Shellfish and Fin-Fish from Irish Waters - 1996

      Bloxham, M; Rowe, A; McGovern, E; Smyth, M; Nixon, E (Marine Institute, 1998-11)
      In accordance with the monitoring requirements of the 1979 Council Directive 79/923/EC on the quality of shellfish waters, water and shellfish samples were collected from 22 major shellfish growing areas and analysed for physicochemical parameters, trace metal levels and chlorinated hydrocarbon concentrations. Fin-fish were also collected from five Irish fishing ports and analysed for total mercury content in compliance with the European Commission's Decision of 19 May 1993 on mercury in fisheries products. Selected samples of fin-fish were also analysed for trace metal and chlorinated hydrocarbon concentration. As there are no generally accepted European standards for the concentration of these contaminants in shellfish or fin-fish, the levels were compared with the available standards and guidance values compiled by the Oslo and Paris Commission (OSPAR) countries for human consumption. As in previous years, the water quality from shellfish growing areas was good and conformed to the guidelines and requirements of the Directive. Petroleum hydrocarbons were not observed in any of the shellfish waters or as deposits on the shellfish. Chlorinated hydrocarbon levels were very low, evidence of the clean, unpolluted nature of Irish shellfish and shellfish producing waters. Trace metal levels were consistently low with the exception of lead in mussel tissue from Wexford Harbour, which was elevated, and cadmium in oyster tissue, which was slightly elevated in some samples but did not exceed the Dutch human consumption tolerance value of 1.0mg/kg. The concentration of mercury in fin-fish selected from catches at Irish fishing ports ranged from 0.02 to 0.27µg/g wet weight. These levels were well within the maximum limits set down in the EC Decision for mercury in fisheries products. Chlorinated hydrocarbon and trace metal levels were also very low in fish tissue. This survey confirms previous studies that show Irish fishery products are effectively free from trace metal and chlorinated hydrocarbon contamination.
    • Tralee Bay Oyster Investigations (1965-1968)

      Duggan, C (Department of Agriculture and Fisheries (Fisheries Division), 1969)
      Investigations by the Department of Agriculture and Fisheries into the Tralee Bay oyster beds first commenced in a small way in 1965. Since then, especially during the summer of 1968, a more intensive programme has been carried out involving the collection of spat (oyster young) and plankton samples, the study of currents and temperatures in relation to spat-fall (settlement) and, finally, test trials on various types of spat collectors.
    • Trout Farming in Freshwater

      Doyle, J (Department of Fisheries and Forestry, 1982)
      Trout farming, the business of producing and selling high quality rainbow trout, has been expanding rapidly in the last 5 years. There are now some 20 freshwater farms in operation producing over 500 tonnes per annum. Initially some farms were operated as part of an integrated agricultural farm activity but more recently units have been established exclusively to produce fish and it has become a highly specialised business.
    • Value of fish and shellfish landings into leading Irish ports 1962-1971

      Gibson, F A (Department of Agriculture and Fisheries (Fisheries Division), 1972)
      Landings of seafish are recorded under three broad headings, namely, demersal fish, pelagic fish and shellfish. The term demersal is applied to fish which live the greater part of their lives at or relatively near the sea bed. Demersal fish include roundfish such as whiting, cod, haddock, pollock and hake; flatfish such as plaice, sole, dabs, flounder, and also commercially valuable shark type fish such as skate and ray. The term pelagic is applied to fish which live the greater part of their lives in the upper layers of water and includes herrings, sprats, pilchards and mackerel. Shellfish include crawfish, lobsters, Nephrops (Dublin Bay prawns), crabs, shrimps and prawns all of which are known collectively as cruatacea; and escallops, mussels, oysters, periwinkles and various clams, which are known collectively as molluscs. The annual statistics published by the Fisheries Division of the Department of Agriculture and Fisheries give landings (by value) of approximately the leading 36 ports around the Irish coast.
    • The Winter Herring Fishery of the North-West of Ireland (1968-69)

      Molloy, J; Kennedy, T D (Department of Agriculture and Fisheries (Fisheries Division), 1969)
      The 1968/69 winter herring fishery off the Donegal, North Mayo and Sligo coasts began in mid October, 1968 and continued until the end of January, 1969. A total of 63,821 crans were landed during the season as compared with 55,193 crans landed during the 1967/68 season. The majority of the landings mere made at the ports of Killybegs, Sligo and Burtonport. A feature of the season was the increased landings made at Sligo by both local and Killybegs boats.
    • Winter Nitrate and Phosphate levels in the Western Irish Sea in 1991

      Gillooly, M; Nixon, E; McMahon, T; O'Sullivan, G; Choiseul, V (Department of the Marine, 1992-02)
      This study of nitrate, phosphate and salinity levels in the western Irish Sea indicates that the distribution of nutrient levels can be explained by taking into account the known physical and hydrological features of the area. There is a clear inverse relationship between nitrate and salinity data with nitrate levels decreasing rapidly moving offshore. The distribution of phosphate levels is more complex and appears to be influenced by multiple point source inputs and inflows from the Celtic Sea.