• The Torrey Canyon Disaster: A review of methods employed to combat large scale oil pollution

      Griffith, David de G (Department of Agriculture and Fisheries (Fisheries Division), 1969)
      In this review an attempt has been made to collate the central points of the most important of the multitudinous reports which have appeared in connection with the Torrey Canyon oil pollution. The content has been limited to the biological aspects of a large-scale oil spillage and its subsequent treatment, although the importance of tourist amenities also receives consideration in the discussion. Consequently, several related topics which lie outside the scope of the biologist have either been omitted or just mentioned in passing: they include the technical problems of the salvage of oil from a crippled tanker, the control or collection of floating oil, and the administrative organisational requirements for effective action in an emergency of this kind.
    • Trace Metal and Chlorinated Hydrocarbon Concentrations in Shellfish and Fin-Fish from Irish Waters - 1996

      Bloxham, M; Rowe, A; McGovern, E; Smyth, M; Nixon, E (Marine Institute, 1998-11)
      In accordance with the monitoring requirements of the 1979 Council Directive 79/923/EC on the quality of shellfish waters, water and shellfish samples were collected from 22 major shellfish growing areas and analysed for physicochemical parameters, trace metal levels and chlorinated hydrocarbon concentrations. Fin-fish were also collected from five Irish fishing ports and analysed for total mercury content in compliance with the European Commission's Decision of 19 May 1993 on mercury in fisheries products. Selected samples of fin-fish were also analysed for trace metal and chlorinated hydrocarbon concentration. As there are no generally accepted European standards for the concentration of these contaminants in shellfish or fin-fish, the levels were compared with the available standards and guidance values compiled by the Oslo and Paris Commission (OSPAR) countries for human consumption. As in previous years, the water quality from shellfish growing areas was good and conformed to the guidelines and requirements of the Directive. Petroleum hydrocarbons were not observed in any of the shellfish waters or as deposits on the shellfish. Chlorinated hydrocarbon levels were very low, evidence of the clean, unpolluted nature of Irish shellfish and shellfish producing waters. Trace metal levels were consistently low with the exception of lead in mussel tissue from Wexford Harbour, which was elevated, and cadmium in oyster tissue, which was slightly elevated in some samples but did not exceed the Dutch human consumption tolerance value of 1.0mg/kg. The concentration of mercury in fin-fish selected from catches at Irish fishing ports ranged from 0.02 to 0.27µg/g wet weight. These levels were well within the maximum limits set down in the EC Decision for mercury in fisheries products. Chlorinated hydrocarbon and trace metal levels were also very low in fish tissue. This survey confirms previous studies that show Irish fishery products are effectively free from trace metal and chlorinated hydrocarbon contamination.
    • Tralee Bay Oyster Investigations (1965-1968)

      Duggan, C (Department of Agriculture and Fisheries (Fisheries Division), 1969)
      Investigations by the Department of Agriculture and Fisheries into the Tralee Bay oyster beds first commenced in a small way in 1965. Since then, especially during the summer of 1968, a more intensive programme has been carried out involving the collection of spat (oyster young) and plankton samples, the study of currents and temperatures in relation to spat-fall (settlement) and, finally, test trials on various types of spat collectors.
    • Trout Farming in Freshwater

      Doyle, J (Department of Fisheries and Forestry, 1982)
      Trout farming, the business of producing and selling high quality rainbow trout, has been expanding rapidly in the last 5 years. There are now some 20 freshwater farms in operation producing over 500 tonnes per annum. Initially some farms were operated as part of an integrated agricultural farm activity but more recently units have been established exclusively to produce fish and it has become a highly specialised business.
    • Value of fish and shellfish landings into leading Irish ports 1962-1971

      Gibson, F A (Department of Agriculture and Fisheries (Fisheries Division), 1972)
      Landings of seafish are recorded under three broad headings, namely, demersal fish, pelagic fish and shellfish. The term demersal is applied to fish which live the greater part of their lives at or relatively near the sea bed. Demersal fish include roundfish such as whiting, cod, haddock, pollock and hake; flatfish such as plaice, sole, dabs, flounder, and also commercially valuable shark type fish such as skate and ray. The term pelagic is applied to fish which live the greater part of their lives in the upper layers of water and includes herrings, sprats, pilchards and mackerel. Shellfish include crawfish, lobsters, Nephrops (Dublin Bay prawns), crabs, shrimps and prawns all of which are known collectively as cruatacea; and escallops, mussels, oysters, periwinkles and various clams, which are known collectively as molluscs. The annual statistics published by the Fisheries Division of the Department of Agriculture and Fisheries give landings (by value) of approximately the leading 36 ports around the Irish coast.
    • The Winter Herring Fishery of the North-West of Ireland (1968-69)

      Molloy, J; Kennedy, T D (Department of Agriculture and Fisheries (Fisheries Division), 1969)
      The 1968/69 winter herring fishery off the Donegal, North Mayo and Sligo coasts began in mid October, 1968 and continued until the end of January, 1969. A total of 63,821 crans were landed during the season as compared with 55,193 crans landed during the 1967/68 season. The majority of the landings mere made at the ports of Killybegs, Sligo and Burtonport. A feature of the season was the increased landings made at Sligo by both local and Killybegs boats.
    • Winter Nitrate and Phosphate levels in the Western Irish Sea in 1991

      Gillooly, M; Nixon, E; McMahon, T; O'Sullivan, G; Choiseul, V (Department of the Marine, 1992-02)
      This study of nitrate, phosphate and salinity levels in the western Irish Sea indicates that the distribution of nutrient levels can be explained by taking into account the known physical and hydrological features of the area. There is a clear inverse relationship between nitrate and salinity data with nitrate levels decreasing rapidly moving offshore. The distribution of phosphate levels is more complex and appears to be influenced by multiple point source inputs and inflows from the Celtic Sea.
    • Zebra Mussels in Ireland

      Minchin, D; Moriarty, C (Marine Institute, 1998-02)
      The zebra mussel was reported for the first time in Ireland during 1997. It may have been introduced during or before, 1994. Information, based on eye-witness accounts from 1995 and the age structure of zebra mussels sampled during October and November 1997, suggests they first became established in the region between southern Lough Derg and Limerick Docks. The species expanded its range during 1996 to include most of Lough Derg and by 1997 had settled in the remaining north-eastern region of the lake. The mussels could have reached Ireland in several ways. The most likely vectors are boats carried on trailers directly from Britain, and one recently imported barge carrying live mussels was found. There may have been a number of introductions. It is possible that some arrived in ballast water from shipping in Limerick Docks. Mussels foul a wide range of structures and easily settle on firm surfaces, including water supply pipes. For this reason their presence is of serious concern to amenity and industry. In the Shannon they have formed dense concentrations on the dock gates in Limerick and the sluice gates and pillars of the Parteen and Ardnacrusha dams. Piped water to a hatchery was blocked with a subsequent loss of fish. Densities on the hulls of vessels were up to 53,000 per sq.m. They were most frequently found attached to the hulls of barges and private craft not slipped annually. Few hire cruisers were fouled. Some mooring have sunk under the weight of attached mussels. Fresh-water mussels Anodonta anatina, rocks, stones and some aquatic plants were found with attached zebra mussels. It is likely there will be changes to the ecosystem. The overall effects cannot be predicted and will require careful monitoring. It is inevitable that mussels will spread throughout the navigable waterways of the Shannon and Erne and to the Barrow via the Grand Canal. The spread to other waterbodies can be curtailed if boats are cleaned before being transported. Because mussels can survive up to three weeks under damp and dull conditions special care is necessary to ensure that transfers are avoided. Leaflets have been distributed to boat owners and anglers to advise on precautionary measures.
    • The Zoogeography of Some Fishes in Irish Waters

      Went, A E J (Department of Fisheries (Trade and Information Section), 1978)
      Some thirty years ago the then Fisheries Branch of the Department of Agriculture decided to give rewards for specimens of rare or interesting species of fish sent for examination. This, coupled with the enlightened attitude of Irish fishermen to their catches in recent years, has provided valuable information about the rarer species of fishes found in Irish waters. Even so information is still lacking on many species because normal fishing methods are not really geared to their capture. This is so with many of the smaller members of the fish fauna, and, particularly, those which live in rocky areas where normal fishing is not practised. The advent of skin-diving, however, is likely to improve knowledge of many such species, so that in the near future it may be necessary to revise drastically current views as to the abundance and distribution of many such species of fishes known to frequent Irish waters.