• Karenia mikimotoi: An Exceptional Dinoflagellate Bloom in Western Irish Waters, Summer 2005

      Silke, J.; O'Beirn, F.X.; Cronin, M. (Marine Institute, 2005)
      A protracted bloom of Karenia mikimotoi was present in summer 2005 along the northern half of the western Irish coastline. The onset of this bloom was identified in late May / early June. This event subsequently dissipated over the month of July and was succeeded by a bloom of the same species in the southwest in late July. The bloom was very intense and resulted in discolouration of seawater and foaming in coastal embayments. Major mortalities of benthic and pelagic marine organisms were observed and a complete decimation of marine faunal communities was reported and observed in several locations. Deaths of echinoderms, polychaetes and bivalve molluscs were observed in County Donegal and Mayo, while farmed shellfish and hatchery raised juvenile bivalve spat suffered significant mortalities along the Galway and Mayo coasts. Reports of dead fish and crustacea were received from Donegal, Galway, West Cork and Kerry. Karenia mikimotoi is one of the most common red tide causative dinoflagellates known in the Northeast Atlantic region, and is also common in the waters around Japan. Blooms of this species often reach concentrations of over several million cells per litre and these densities are often associated with marine fauna mortalities. Although cytotoxic polyethers have been extracted from cultures of the species, the exact mechanism of the toxic effect and resultant devastating damages yet remains unclear. It is known in the literature under several different names as the taxonomy and genetics have been studied. It is now known that previously reported names including Gyrodinium aureolum, G. cf. aureolum, G. nagasakiense and G. mikimotoi are synonymous with the current name given to the organism. The visible effects following the mortalities included noticeable quantities of dead heart urchins (Echinocardium cordata L.) and lugworms (Arenicola marina L.) deposited on beaches. Several species of wild fish were also found dead. The bloom coincided with a period of fine weather and tourists visiting the seaside were concerned about the safety of swimming in waters that were obviously harmful to marine organisms on this scale. A public awareness programme was mounted by the Marine Institute with several radio broadcasts, press releases and a website provided to give up to date pronouncements on the event. While there have been several instances of Karenia mikimotoi blooms reported in Ireland over the past 30 years, this scale of mortalities associated with the 2005 bloom were not previously observed. Recording the scale of this event was facilitated by satellite imagery while direct counts of the cells in seawater by the Marine Institute monitoring programme gave very useful information regarding the size and intensity of this event. The mortalities of marine organisms were documented from reports made by various observers and by Marine Institute field surveys.
    • Trace Metal Concentrations in Various Fish Species Landed at Selected Irish Ports, 2003

      Tyrrell, L; McHugh, B; Glynn, D; Twomey, M; Joyce, E; Costello, J; McGovern, E (Marine Institute, 2005)
      The Marine Institute sample a range of finfish species landed at major Irish ports on an annual basis, in accordance with the monitoring requirements of various European legislation designed to ensure food safety. During 2003, a total of 45 samples from 22 different species of finfish were collected from five major Irish fishing ports and analysed for total mercury concentration in the edible tissue. The concentration of mercury ranged from less than the limit of quantitation (0.03 mg/kg wet weight) to 0.60 mg/kg wet weight with a mean and median of 0.08 and 0.06 mg/kg respectively. The maximum level was found in a dogfish sample (species tentatively identified as Lesser Spotted Dogfish) from Howth. It is most likely that the fish from which this sample was taken were destined for whelk bait and as such there are no human health implications. The remainder of the mercury levels were within the maximum limit of 0.50 mg/kg wet weight for mercury in fishery products set by the EU (1 mg/kg for selected species). This survey confirms previous studies, which show that Irish seafoods are effectively free from mercury contamination. A total of 20 samples were analysed for lead and cadmium. Overall, the levels of lead and cadmium detected in the edible portion of the fish were low and well within the standard values of 0.20 and 0.05 mg/kg wet weight respectively set by the EU. Randomly selected samples were also analysed for other trace metals. There are no internationally agreed standards or guidelines available for the remaining trace metals in fishery products. Therefore results are compared with the strictest standard or guidance value for fish tissue, which are applied by contracting countries to the OSPAR Convention. The levels of these additional contaminants are well below the strictest values listed.
    • Trace Metal Concentrations in Shellfish from Irish Waters, 2003

      Boyle, B; Tyrrell, L; McHugh, B; Joyce, E; Costello, J; Glynn, D; McGovern, E (Marine Institute, 2006)
      In accordance with the monitoring requirements of Council Directive 79/923/EEC, on the quality required of shellfish waters, and Council Directive 91/492/EEC, laying down the health conditions for the production and placing on the market of live bivalve molluscs, water samples from major shellfish growing areas were tested for physicochemical parameters and shellfish were tested for trace metal levels. In 2003, a total of 30 samples were analysed for trace metals. All mercury concentrations measured were below or close to the limit of quantification, 0.03 mg/kg wet weight, which is well within the European maximum level of 0.50 mg/kg wet weight for mercury in bivalve molluscs. Levels of lead were typically low, with a mean of 0.26 mg/kg wet weight and maxima of 1.04 mg/kg wet weight, also below the respective European maximum level of 1.50 mg/kg wet weight. In addition, levels of cadmium were all below the European maximum level of 1 mg/kg wet weight, though the level of cadmium determined at Castlegregory in Tralee Bay was 0.97 mg/kg, close to the European limit. Castlegregory has not been included in the sampling programme since 1994, but will be included in future monitoring. There are no internationally agreed standards or guidelines available for the remaining trace metals in shellfish. A compilation by the OSPAR Commission of standard and guidance values applied by member states of OSPAR indicated the Spanish standard for copper in shellfish of 20 mg/kg wet weight to be the strictest available. This excludes oysters for which a higher standard of 60 mg/kg wet weight has been set, as oysters accumulate copper to higher levels. All copper results were within these Spanish standards. The results obtained provide evidence of the clean, unpolluted nature of Irish shellfish and shellfish producing waters. As in previous years, the water quality from shellfish growing areas was good and conformed to the requirements of the Directive. Petroleum hydrocarbons were not visible in any of the shellfish waters or as deposits on the shellfish. This survey confirms previous studies (Glynn et al., 2004, 2003a, 2003b; McGovern et al., 2001; Bloxham et al., 1998; Smyth et al., 1997 and Nixon et al., 1995, 1994, and 1991), which show that contamination from trace metals is low in Irish shellfish aquaculture.
    • Proceedings of the 6th Irish Shellfish Safety Scientific Workshop

      Marine Institute (Marine Institute, 2006)
      This document outlines the proceedings of the 6th Irish Shellfish Safety Scientific Workshop. This event was organised by the Marine Institute, the Food Safety Authority of Ireland and Bord Iascaigh Mhara to discuss the methods and advances of food safety with respect to shellfish health.
    • Guidelines for the Assessment of Dredge Material for Disposal in Irish Waters

      Cronin, M; McGovern, E; McMahon, T; Boelens, R (Marine Institute, 2006)
      Prior to the present guidelines the assessment, by the Marine Institute on behalf of the Department of Communication, Marine and Natural Resources, of the suitability of dredged materials for disposal at sea had employed provisional action levels as an aid to evaluation. These provisional action levels were based entirely on sediment chemistry. The responsible agencies have decided that these levels now need to be updated and formalised. The approach proposed in this document aims to provide an improved, and more integrated, assessment of the ecological risks associated with individual sediment dredging and disposal activities. It offers flexibility to deal with issues on a case-by-case basis and improves transparency of the decision-making process. The list of parameters to be assessed has been revised and methods for setting numerical guidance values in other countries have been reviewed. Ideally, guidance levels should comprise chemical and ecotoxicological data specifically relating to Irish sediments. In the absence of a comprehensive dataset for Irish sediments, proposed threshold guidance levels have been based on ecotoxicological data from other sources. Wherever possible, lower threshold guidance values have been based on existing Irish background levels of contaminants. Where background data do not exist for a particular parameter, ecotoxicologically-derived values, corresponding to expected no-effect levels, have been taken from reputable sources. Similarly, upper threshold guidance levels (i.e. levels at which effects may be expected) have been based on ecotoxicological data from reputable sources. The assessment strategy has been designed so that decisions concerning the acceptability of sediments for sea disposal will take into account a range of intrinsic and environmental factors i.e. the strategy adopts a Weight of Evidence approach. The guidance will be reviewed and revised as necessary, as more information becomes available. Sampling and storage methodology is presented as well as quality assurance and reporting requirements. Guidance on analytical procedures and approval of analytical laboratories is included.
    • Bonamia ostreae in the Native Oyster Ostrea edulis

      Culloty, S C; Mulcahy, M F (Marine Institute, 2007)
      Ireland has a long history of producing and harvesting native flat oysters, Ostrea edulis. At the start of the nineteenth century, almost every bay and harbour, around the coast had abundant beds of native oysters. Intensive dredging to meet the demands of the markets in Dublin and England depleted the stocks, so that in 1845 the government passed legislation to permit the formation of private oyster beds to improve the ailing stocks. According to the book on “Shellfish & Shellfisheries of Ireland” (Wilkins, 2004) Irish stocks began to collapse between 1850 and 1860. By the second half of the twentieth century, only the beds of Tralee Bay, Galway Bay and Clew Bay were still yielding a good return for local fishermen. The arrival of the oyster parasite Bonamia ostreae in the mid 1980s was an additional blow to the Irish native oyster stocks. This report sets out to document the spread and the impact of the Bonamia ostreae parasite in Irish bays since the 1980s.
    • Isolations and purifications of AZAs from naturally contaminated materials, and evaluation of their toxicological effects (ASTOX)

      Hess, P; McCarron, P; Rehmann, N; Kilcoyne, J; McMahon, T; Ryan, G; Ryan, M P; Twiner, M J; Doucette, G J; Satake, M; et al. (Marine Institute, 2007)
      Since 1995, when several people became ill following consumption of shellfish from Ireland, azaspiracids (AZAs) have been known as shellfish toxins, causing symptoms associated with gastro-intestinal disorders, including diarrhoea, vomiting, headaches and others. The aims of the ASTOX-project were to provide control tools for the analysis of AZAs in shellfish, i.e. calibration standards and tissue reference materials (RMs), and to clarify the toxicity of AZAs in qualitative and quantitative terms, i.e. to understand the mode of action of AZAs and to derive a No Observable Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) for safe consumption of shellfish.
    • Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis Virus and its impact on the Irish Salmon Aquaculture and Wild Fish sectors

      Geoghegan, F; Ó Cinneide, M; Ruane, N. M. (Marine Institute, 2007)
      Infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN) is an economically significant viral disease of salmonid fish worldwide. Infectious pancreatic necrosis is categorised as a List III disease under Annex A of EU Council Directive 91/67/EEC. List III diseases are present within the EU and up to 2004 were regulated under national control programmes within each member state. The disease was first described in freshwater trout in North America in the 1950’s (Wood et al., 1955) and has been reported in Europe since the early 1970’s (Ball et al., 1971). Initially, IPN was regarded as a serious disease affecting rainbow trout fry and fingerlings (Roberts & Pearson, 2005). However as the salmon farming industry began to expand during the 1970’s, incidence of IPN disease in salmon also increased with the result that IPN is now widespread in the salmon farming industry in both Norway and Scotland. The economic loss due to the disease is large and outbreaks may occur in Atlantic salmon juveniles in fresh-water and in post-smolts after transfer to sea-water. Historically in Ireland, isolations of the IPN virus have been rare and occasional outbreaks have occurred in both rainbow trout and Atlantic salmon facilities. The Marine Institute and its predecessor, the Fisheries Research Centre, have been testing farmed and wild fish for disease pathogens since the mid 1980’s. The first reported clinical outbreak of IPN in Atlantic salmon occurred in 2003. However in 2006 severe outbreaks in a number of freshwater salmon hatcheries occurred which were all linked to imports from a specific single source. To date, clinical outbreaks of IPN in Ireland have been associated with imports of infected ova and their subsequent movement within the country. This report reviews the prevalence of the IPN virus in the Irish salmon farming industry and also in wild fish from selected rivers. It describes the steps taken by the industry to control the disease in 2006 and aims to provide some practical solutions to reduce the prevalence of the virus in farmed and wild fish and to prevent future outbreaks of the disease.
    • Investigation into levels of dioxins, furans, polychlorinated biphenyls and brominated flame retardants in fishery produce in Ireland

      Tlustos, C; McHugh, B; Pratt, I; Tyrrell, L; McGovern, E (Marine Institute, 2007)
      The Food Safety Authority of Ireland in collaboration with the Marine Institute and An Board Iascaigh Mhara (Sea Fisheries Board) has carried out a surveillance study of levels of dioxins (PCDDs), furans (PCDFs) polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and brominated flame retardants (BFRs), specifically polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), in a variety of fish species and fishery products, including fresh and processed products available on the Irish market. The study was undertaken because of concern about the possible effects on human health of these bio-persistent environmental contaminants, known to be present in a number of foodstuffs, notably meat, fish, eggs and dairy products. The study showed that levels of PCDDs and PCDFs in Irish fish and fishery products available on the Irish market were well below existing EC legal limits for these contaminants as laid down in Regulation 466/2001. The lowest level was found in a sample of canned tuna (0.012 ng WHO TEQ/kg whole weight) with the highest level found in a farmed salmon sample (0.82 ng WHO TEQ/kg whole weight), compared with the maximum level under the legislation of 4 ng WHO TEQ/kg whole weight. The levels found were also below the new limits for dioxin-like PCBs (dl-PCBs) and for the sum of WHO-TEQs for PCDDs, PCDFs and dioxin-like PCBs, which were introduced in November, 2006 via Regulation 199/2006. The upper-bound mean levels of PCDDs, PCDFs and dioxin-like PCBs expressed as total WHOTEQs ranged from 0.05 – 2.15 ng/kg WHO TEQ whole weight, which can be compared with the new maximum level of 8 ng WHO TEQ/kg whole weight for the sum of PCDDs, PCDFs and dioxin-like PCBs. Results of this study are in line with those from previous FSAI studies on PCDD and PCDF levels in fish and also in meat, milk and eggs, and indicate relatively low levels of these contaminants in fishery produce available in the Irish marketplace. Reductions of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs in Irish farmed salmon were observed in comparison to levels measured in a previous FSAI/MI survey in 2001, in which a mean level of 4.02 ng WHO TEQ/kg whole weight was detected compared with 2.15 ng/kg WHO TEQ whole weight in the present study. Similar observations can be made for levels reported in a study carried out by An Board Iascaigh Mhara in 2004, in which a mean level of 1.75 ng WHO TEQ/kg whole weight was reported. Concentrations of brominated flame retardants were also low. The mean PBDE concentrations ranged from <0.31 to 3.71 µg/kg whole weight in canned tuna to farmed salmon respectively. Although there are no acceptable daily intake (ADI) or maximum limits set for PBDEs or HBCD, the levels of these contaminants found in the study were low, and are very unlikely to present a health risk to Irish consumers. Although fish is a recognised dietary source of PCDDs, PCDFs and PCBs, the health benefits of eating fish are well established, and on the basis of these results the FSAI considers that there is no need to alter current advice on fish consumption. Current advice is that consumers should eat two portions of fish a week, one of which should be oily. The full study report follows, providing further sampling details, analytical methodologies and discussion of the resulting datasets.
    • Management recommendations for the sustainable exploitation of mussel seed in the Irish Sea

      Maguire, J A; Knights, T; Burnell, G; Crowe, T; O'Beirn, F.X.; McGrath, D; Ferns, M; McDonough, N; McQuaid, N; O'Connor, B; et al. (Marine Institute, 2007)
      As it currently stands, the management of the bottom mussel aquaculture in Ireland is a complex process that is governed by three overriding factors; these are; 1) Government policy and regulation, 2) industry and economics and 3) Science and biology. These three factors are influenced by a range of different issues that influence the implementation of resource management either individually or in combination and include, inter alia, aquaculture licensing, carrying capacity, company structure and operating practices, animal health legislation, vessel registration and licensing and North/South agreements, prevailing weather conditions and uncertainty of seed supply. The mussel seed fishery in the Irish Sea, as the primary source of seed, is integral to the continued viability of the bottom mussel sector in Ireland. This report is the outcome of a project initiated over concerns raised regarding the sustainability of the fishery. A goal of this project is to develop and implement a science based management system for the sustainable exploitation of seed mussels in the Irish Sea. A specific goal of the project was to identify environmental drivers governing the distribution and abundance of the seed mussel resources in the Irish Sea. A number of outputs were expected from this project: 1. A literature search and review of existing biological, fisheries, survey and hydrographic data. 2. Studies to estimate adult reproductive cycles and spatfall patterns. 3. Hydrographic models of targeted areas of high mussel population. These models allow for behavioural characteristics of the larval swimming phases. 4. Draft a management strategy to detail the optimum manner in which to effect the sustainable exploitation of the resource, including the hatchery option. This report addresses the final workpackage above, wherein a series of recommendations encompassing both management and research aspects, based upon the scientific outputs of the project, are presented.
    • Proceedings of the 7th Irish Shellfish Safety Workshop

      Marine Institute (Marine Institute, 2007)
      This document outlines the proceedings of the 7th Irish Shellfish Safety Scientific Workshop. This event was organised by the Marine Institute, the Food Safety Authority of Ireland and Bord Iascaigh Mhara to discuss the methods and advances of food safety with respect to shellfish health.
    • Irish Sea Marine Aggregate Initiative (IMAGIN) Technical Synthesis Report

      Sutton, G (ed) (Marine Institute, 2008)
      The Irish Sea Marine Aggregates Initiative (IMAGIN) is a collaborative project between Ireland and Wales focused on the sustainable management of marine aggregate resources. IMAGIN was a 2-year project with a total budget of €1.1 million. IMAGIN was part funded (66%) under the Ireland/Wales Inter Regional (INTERREG) IIIA Community Initiative Programme 2000-2006. The remaining project budget was met by contributions from partner organisations (19%) and aggregate companies – CEMEX, Lagan Ltd., Kilsaran Concrete and Roadstone Ltd. (15%). The IMAGIN grouping was a collaborative partnership comprising experts in Ireland and Wales from 3rd level Institutes, State agencies and industry. The grouping included the Coastal and Marine Resources Centre – University College Cork, Marine Institute, Geological Survey of Ireland, Geoscience Wales and representatives from the aggregate companies. The overall aim of the IMAGIN project is to facilitate the evolution of a strategic framework within which the exploitation of marine aggregate resources from the Irish Sea may be sustainably managed with minimum risk of impact on marine and coastal environments, ecosystems and other marine users. IMAGIN was structured around a series of work packages, each focusing on the different aspects of the marine aggregate question. Marine aggregates can be defined as sedimentary material - sand or gravel of various grain and class sizes (grades). Extraction of marine aggregates typically involves dredging of the deposit to remove it from the seabed. Aggregates may be screened at sea before being transported to a port or wharf facility for unloading and then further processing, if required, and subsequent transportation. In common with terrestrial aggregates, sands and gravels sourced from the seabed are an important economic resource, which can contribute to the development and maintenance of infrastructure, e.g. buildings, roads and bridges. Marine aggregates are also used for beach nourishment and coastal defence purposes, the demands for which have become more pressing when set against the predicted implications of climate change, sea level rise and associated effects on low lying coastal areas. A number of countries have sought to meet the demand for aggregates by utilising sources from the seabed to replace or complement terrestrial sources. Belgium, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom are primary examples of countries within Europe that have a long established practice of marine aggregate extraction, providing an alternative to sole reliance on terrestrial sources.
    • Issues and Recommendations for the Development and Regulation of Marine Aggregate Extraction in the Irish Sea

      O'Mahony, C; Sutton, G; McMahon, T; Ó Cinneide, M; Nixon, E (Marine Institute, 2008)
      This report details the work undertaken as part of the INTERREG IIIA Irish Sea Marine Aggregates Initiative (IMAGIN) project which aims “to develop recommendations for a strategic policy framework for an administrative and regulatory process, and operational guidelines under which dredging for marine aggregates in the Irish Sea can be sustainably managed.” It considers policy and regulatory issues from an Irish context. Aggregates in the form of sand and gravel deposits are a vital natural resource, providing essential material to support societal needs for infrastructure and the construction industry. Thus, the importance of aggregate supply to the economy of many nations cannot be understated. As a result of Ireland’s economic boom since the early 1990s, the national consumption of aggregates per head of population in Ireland has spiralled upward and is currently standing at four times the European average. At present, all aggregate used in the Irish market is extracted from terrestrial sources. This project set out to examine the marine extraction option for current supply and future Irish demand.
    • Pancreas Disease in Farmed Salmon - Health Management and Investigations at Irish Farm Sites 2005-2008

      Graham, D; Rodger, H; Ruane, N. M. (Marine Institute, 2008)
      This publication constitutes the final report for the research project ST/05/01 “Site investigations and disease management of the pancreas disease virus in Irish farmed salmon”, funded under the NDP Marine RTDI Programme. Work undertaken within the project included longitudinal studies of rainbow trout and Atlantic salmon at sea following the course of infection, testing for vectors and reservoirs of the virus, molecular studies of the virus and an epidemiological investigation of pancreas disease in Ireland. Results have shown that although pancreas disease is endemic in marine farmed Atlantic salmon, no evidence of infection in rainbow trout farmed at sea was found. Serological and molecular based diagnostic methods were shown to be suitable for the screening of fish stocks for the presence of the virus. For the confirmation of clinical outbreaks, farm data and histopathological results should be included. The results also suggest that horizontal transmission of the virus may be the main route of infection between sites. The project also involved the technology transfer of molecular and serological diagnostic methods for pancreas disease between partners and the final chapter includes practical information on management of, and mitigation against, pancreas disease. Pathologies such as pancreas disease, heart and skeletal muscle inflammation and cardiomyopathy syndrome, pose a serious threat to salmonid farming in Ireland, Scotland and Norway. Most significant among this group of diseases is pancreas disease, a viral disease affecting Atlantic salmon during the marine stage of the production cycle. From the first description of pancreas disease in farmed Atlantic salmon from Scotland in 1976 the disease has now become endemic in Ireland and parts of Norway and continues to be significant in Scotland. The causal agent of pancreas disease, a salmonid alphavirus, has now been characterised and a closely related subtype of the virus is known to cause sleeping disease in farmed rainbow trout on continental Europe and in the United Kingdom. The Irish salmon farming industry has estimated that pancreas disease has resulted in a total loss of turnover of €35 million with €12 million loss of profit in the years 2003-2004. The economic impacts are estimated to be in the range of €100 million per year in Norway. In Scotland, pancreas disease and related pathologies are increasingly responsible for significant losses in marine salmon farms but these have yet to be quantified.
    • Proceedings of the 8th Irish Shellfish Safety Workshop

      McMahon, T.; Deegan, B.; Silke, J.; Ó Cinneide, M. (Marine Institute, 2008)
      This document outlines the proceedings of the 8th Irish Shellfish Safety Scientific Workshop. This event was organised by the Marine Institute, the Food Safety Authority of Ireland and Bord Iascaigh Mhara to discuss the methods and advances of food safety with respect to shellfish health.
    • Pilot Water Quality Monitoring Station in Dublin Bay North Bank Monitoring Station (NBMS): MATSIS Project Part I

      O'Donnell, G; Joyce, E; O'Boyle, S; McGovern, E (Marine Institute, 2008)
      The lack of short-term temporal resolution associated with traditional spot sampling for monitoring water quality of dynamic coastal and estuarine waters has meant that many organisations are interesting in autonomous monitoring technologies to provide near real-time semi-continuous data. Such approaches enable capturing short term episodic events (which may be missed or alternatively skew datasets when using spot samples) and provide early warning of water quality problems. New policy drivers such as the Water Framework Directive (WFD) provide added impetus to develop this field. Therefore, as part of the interreg IIIa funded MATSIS project the Marine Institute undertook to develop and pilot an autonomous monitoring station in Dublin Bay (North Bank Monitoring Station NBMS). This report presents the outcome for this pilot study.
    • Proceedings of the 9th Irish Shellfish Safety Scientific Workshop

      Gilmartin, M.; Silke, J. (Marine Institute, 2009)
      The 9th Irish Shellfish Safety Workshop was held on the 20th March, 2009, in Kenmare, County Kerry. The Workshop was co-sponsored by the Marine Institute, Bord Iascaigh Mhara, the Food Safety Authority of Ireland, and the Sea Fisheries Protection Authority, with support from IFA Aquaculture. The topics addressed at the workshop included an update on the National Biotoxin monitoring programme, and a number of research projects with Irish participation and international perspectives on toxin detection. Finding mechanisms to improve our product was a common theme with presentations on improving food safety, increasing productivity, providing easily applied test methods, and research in support of the shellfish industry. The focus of the three Workshop sessions was on a review of the year, research and legislation.
    • An Assessment of Dangerous Substances in Water Framework Directive Transitional and Coastal Waters 2007-2009

      McGovern, Evin; Cronin, Margot; Joyce, Eileen; McHugh, Brendan (Marine Institute, 2011)
      This report presents an assessment of hazardous substance contamination in Irish transitional and coastal waters. This was carried out in support of the EPA’s assessment of the quality status of surface waters (2007-2009) as required by the Water Framework Directive (Directive 2000/60/EC).
    • Chemical Residue in Irish Farmed Finfish, 2011

      Glynn, D.; McGovern, E.; Slattery, T.; Ó Conchubhair, D.; Toomey, M.; Kelly, C.; Reid, A.; Moffat, R. (Marine Institute, 2013)
      On behalf of the Department of Agriculture, Food and Marine (DAFM), the Marine Institute carries out monitoring of chemical residues in aquaculture in accordance with Council Directive 96/23/EC of 29 April 1996, on measures to monitor certain substances and residues thereof in animals and animal products. The main objectives of the Aquaculture National Residue Control Plan (NRCP) is to ensure farmed fish are fit for human consumption, to provide a body of data showing that Irish farmed fish is of high quality, to promote good practices in aquaculture and to comply with EU Directive 96/23. In 2011, in excess of 630 tests and 1,566 individual measurements for substances were carried out on 140 samples of farmed finfish taken on farms and at processing plants for a range of residues. In accordance with Council Directive 96/23/EC, the following species were sampled and tested: Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), freshwater and seareared trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Tests were carried out for banned substances such as growth promoters, and other unauthorised substances such as malachite green, which should not be present. Harvested fish were also tested for authorised veterinary treatments such as antibiotics and sea lice treatments, environmental contaminants such as trace metals, polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides, to check for compliance with Maximum Residue Levels (MRL) where available. As in previous years, no non-compliant results were reported in the surveillance monitoring programme for farmed finfish. Overall, in recent years the outcome for aquaculture remains one of consistently low occurrence of residues in farmed finfish, with 0.23% non-compliant results from routine targeted monitoring in 2004, 0.09% in 2005 and 0% for the period 2006-2011.
    • Chemical Residues in Irish Farmed Finfish, 2012-2014

      Glynn, D.; Kelly, C.; Moffat, R.; Reid, A.; Toomey, M.; O'Hea, L.; Elliott, M.; Hickey, C.; Geary, M.; Ruane, N. M.; et al. (Marine Institute, 2015)
      The Marine Institute carries out monitoring of chemical residues in aquaculture in accordance with Council Directive 96/23/EC of 29 April 1996, on measures to monitor certain substances and residues thereof in animals and animal products, also known as the Residues Directive. This is carried out on behalf of the Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine (DAFM). For the aquaculture sector, the Sea Fisheries Protection Authority (SFPA) with technical support from the Institute is responsible for residue controls on farmed finfish on behalf of the national residue monitoring plan. Annually, the National Residues Control Plan (NRCP) for Aquaculture is prepared by the Institute and this sets out the monitoring requirements for residues in animal products in required by the directive. The main objectives of the National Residue Control Plan for Aquaculture is to ensure farmed fish are fit for human consumption; to provide a body of data showing that Irish farmed fish is of high quality; to promote good practices in aquaculture; and to comply with EU Directive 96/23/EC. Based on production tonnage, the following species for the period of 2012 to 2014 were sampled and tested: Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), freshwater and sea reared trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss & Salmo trutta). In excess of 2,141 tests and a total of 4,972 residue measurements were carried out over this three year period. Tests were carried out for banned substances such as growth promoters and other unauthorised substances such as malachite green, which should not be present. Harvest fish were also tested for authorised veterinary treatments such as antibiotics and sea lice treatments, environmental contaminants such as trace metals, polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides, to check for compliance with Maximum Residue Levels (MRL) where available. As in previous years, no non-compliant results were reported in the surveillance monitoring programme for farmed finfish during the period 2012 to 2014. Overall, in recent years the outcome for aquaculture remains one of consistently low occurrence of residues in farmed finfish, with 0.23% non-compliant results from routine targeted monitoring in 2004, 0.09% in 2005 and one of full compliance with 0% non-compliant target residue results for the period 2006-2014.