• Isolations and purifications of AZAs from naturally contaminated materials, and evaluation of their toxicological effects (ASTOX)

      Hess, P; McCarron, P; Rehmann, N; Kilcoyne, J; McMahon, T; Ryan, G; Ryan, M P; Twiner, M J; Doucette, G J; Satake, M; et al. (Marine Institute, 2007)
      Since 1995, when several people became ill following consumption of shellfish from Ireland, azaspiracids (AZAs) have been known as shellfish toxins, causing symptoms associated with gastro-intestinal disorders, including diarrhoea, vomiting, headaches and others. The aims of the ASTOX-project were to provide control tools for the analysis of AZAs in shellfish, i.e. calibration standards and tissue reference materials (RMs), and to clarify the toxicity of AZAs in qualitative and quantitative terms, i.e. to understand the mode of action of AZAs and to derive a No Observable Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) for safe consumption of shellfish.