Browsing Scientific Papers by Title
Now showing items 17-20 of 20
RIPARIAN ZONE CREATION IN ESTABLISHED CONIFEROUS FORESTS IN IRISH UPLAND PEAT CATCHMENTS: PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS(The Royal Irish Academy, 2011)Plantation forests were established on western Irish peatlands before it became apparent that riparian buffer zones were essential for the health of important salmonid habitats and aquatic ecosystems. The option to retrofit a riparian buffer zone several years before the clearfelling of the main plantation may lessen the possible effect of the clearfelling on receiving waters and provide some protection against sediment and nutrient runoff. The option to create a riparian buffer zone can only be considered if it can be shown that clearfelling this zone of coniferous forestry along the stream does not pose a significant risk to the water bodies in the short term. To assess this risk, the hydrology, water chemistry and biota at three locations in western peatland catchments within mature, harvestable-age forestry plantations were studied before, during and immediately after riparian buffer zones were created. Results indicate that water discharge and suspended sediment increased significantly at two experimental sites post-felling. Maximum and minimum daily temperature and pH also increased significantly at two of the sites. The biological results from macroinvertebrate analysis indicated some significant changes in richness and abundance of species post-felling. The juvenile trout (Salmo trutta L.) densities remained stable over the sampling period and appeared unaffected by the clearfelling operations.
Second report on the fishes of the Irish Atlantic Slope(His Majesty's Stationary Office, Dublin, 1909)Many of the fishes which inhabit the deeper water of the Atlantic coast are unfamiliar to fishermen, and were not described in the books to which the general reader had ready access in the early 1900s. It was therefore the intention of the authors to give an account and figure; or sketch, of all except the well-known kinds. This is the second report in an occasional series on the fishes of the Irish Atlantic Slope.
Temperature quenching of CDOM fluorescence sensors: temporal and spatial variability in the temperature response and a recommended temperature correction equation(ASLO, 2012)Field-based instruments measuring chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) fluorescence are often used as a proxy for dissolved organic carbon concentrations in lakes and streams. CDOM fluorescence yield is, however, affected by water temperature at the time of measurement, a factor which varies on both diel and seasonal timescales. A temperature correction must therefore be applied to these data. We present data on temporal and site-specific variability in temperature quenching of CDOM fluorescence for water from a humic lake and one of its main inflows in the west of Ireland. In addition, we present a temperature compensation equation and show that this equation is an improvement on methods previously proposed.
Varying disease-mediated selection at different life-history stages of Atlantic salmon in fresh water(Blackwell Publisher, 2011)Laboratory studies on associations between disease resistance and susceptibility and major histocompatibility (MH) genes in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar have shown the importance of immunogenetics in understanding the capacity of populations to fight specific diseases. However, the occurrence and virulence of pathogens may vary spatially and temporally in the wild, making it more complicated to predict the overall effect that MH genes exert on fitness of natural populations and over several life-history stages. Here we show that MH variability is a significant determinant of salmon survival in fresh water, by comparing observed and expected genotype frequencies at MH and control microsatellite loci at parr and migrant stages in the wild. We found that additive allelic effects at immunogenetic loci were more likely to determine survival than dominance deviation, and that selection on certain MH alleles varied with life stage, possibly owing to varying pathogen prevalence and/or virulence over time. Our results highlight the importance of preserving genetic diversity (particularly at MH loci) in wild populations, so that they have the best chance of adapting to new and increased disease challenges as a result of projected climate warming and increasing aquaculture.