Show simple item record

dc.contributor.authorde Geus, H.-J.*
dc.contributor.authorBesselink, H.*
dc.contributor.authorBrouwer, A.*
dc.contributor.authorKlungsøyr, J.*
dc.contributor.authorMcHugh, B.*
dc.contributor.authorNixon, E.*
dc.contributor.authorRimkus, G.G.*
dc.contributor.authorWester, P.G.*
dc.contributor.authorde Boer, J.*
dc.date.accessioned2017-02-15T11:55:15Z
dc.date.available2017-02-15T11:55:15Z
dc.date.issued1999
dc.identifier.citationde Geus, H.-J., Besselink, H., Brouwer, A., Klungsøyr, J., McHugh, B., Nixon, E., Rimkus, G.G., Wester, P.G. and de Boer, J. "Environmental occurrence, analysis, and toxicology of toxaphene compounds", Environmental Health Perspectives, 107(Suppl. 1): 115-44, 1999en_GB
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10793/1200
dc.descriptionPeer-revieweden_GB
dc.description.abstractToxaphene production, in quantities similar to those of polychlorinated biphenyls, has resulted in high toxaphene levels in fish from the Great Lakes and in Arctic marine mammals (up to 10 and 16 microg g-1 lipid). Because of the large variabiliity in total toxaphene data, few reliable conclusions can be drawn about trends or geographic differences in toxaphene concentrations. New developments in mass spectrometric detection using either negative chemical ionization or electron impact modes as well as in multidimensional gas chromatography have recently led researchers to suggest congener-specific approaches. Several nomenclature systems have been developed for toxaphene compounds. Although all systems have specific advantages and limitations, it is suggested that an international body, such as the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, make an attempt to obtain uniformity in the literature. Toxicologic information on individual chlorobornanes is scarce, but some reports have recently appeared. Neurotoxic effects of toxaphene exposure such as those on behavior and learning have been reported. Technical toxaphene and some individual congeners were found to be weakly estrogenic in in vitro test systems; no evidence for endocrine effects in vivo has been reported. In vitro studies show technical toxaphene and toxaphene congeners to be mutagenic. However, in vivo studies have not shown genotoxicity; therefore, a nongenotoxic mechanism is proposed. Nevertheless, toxaphene is believed to present a potential carcinogenic risk to humans. Until now, only Germany has established a legal tolerance level for toxaphene--0.1 mg kg-1 wet weight for fish.en_GB
dc.language.isoenen_GB
dc.subjectToxapheneen_GB
dc.subjectChlorinated bornanesen_GB
dc.subjectCamphenesen_GB
dc.subjectOccurrenceen_GB
dc.subjectIndividual congenersen_GB
dc.subjectNomenclatureen_GB
dc.subjectAnalyseen_GB
dc.subjectToxicologyen_GB
dc.subjectLegislationen_GB
dc.titleEnvironmental occurrence, analysis, and toxicology of toxaphene compoundsen_GB
dc.typeArticleen_GB
refterms.dateFOA2018-01-12T05:54:40Z


Files in this item

Thumbnail
Name:
de Geus et al. Environmental ...
Size:
169.6Kb
Format:
PDF

This item appears in the following Collection(s)

Show simple item record