• In vitro and in vivo tumor promoting potency of technical toxaphene, UV-irradiated toxaphene, and biotransformed toxaphene

      Besselink, H.T.; Nixon, E.; McHugh, B.; Klungsøyr, J.; Brouwer, A. (2000)
      Toxaphene, a complex mixture of polychlorinated camphenes, was first introduced in 1945 by Hercules Co. as Hercules 3965. Until the mid 1980s, it was mass produced and widely used as an insecticide, and was also used as a piscicide to control rough fish in various water systems. The lipophilic, persistent, and volatile nature of toxaphene has contributed to its global dispersion throughout the fresh water and marine environment. In addition to bioaccumulation in biota inhabiting these regions, it is also been detected in humans. Human exposure mainly occurs through the consumption of toxaphene contaminated fish. Information on the carcinogenicity and general toxicology of weathered and biotransformed TT would be of major interest. To mimic the weathered toxaphene found in fish, we developed a so-called 'realistic exposure' procedure for toxaphene. This procedure makes use of cod that were exposed to TT. Toxaphene residues that were extracted from cod liver (CLE), were then used in in vitro and in vivo studies to obtain information on its tumor promoting potency. Besides CLE, we also studied the tumor promoting properties of UV-irradiated toxaphene (UVT) and TT.