• Pea Crab, Pinna theres ostreum Say, 1817, in the eastern Oyster, Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin, 1791): prevalence and apparent adverse effects on oyster gonad development

      O'Beirn, F.X.; Walker, R.L. (California Malacozoological Society, 1999)
      Incidence of pea crab, Pinnotheres ostreum Say 1817, infestation in the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin, 1791), was recorded and related to oyster gametogenic activity over 18 months. Sampling occurred at twO tidal heights (high intertidal HI and low intertidal LI) at two sites (House Creek, HC and Skidaway River, SR) in Wassaw Sound, Georgia. Overall, incidence rates were 3% HC LI, 1 % HC HI, 8% SR LI, and 4% SR HI. At both tidal heights at HC, no differences were observed in gonad area between those oysters with and without pea crabs. At SR (where overall incidences were higher), oysters without pea crabs had significantly higher gonad area values than those oysters with pea crabs present. These results suggest that at higher incidences of pea crab infestation, oyster reproductive capabilities could be impacted, and support the claim that the pea crab/oyster relationship is a parasitic one.
    • Performance of the EU Harmonised Mouse Bioassay for Lipophilic Toxins for the Detection of Azaspiracids in Naturally Contaminated Mussel (Mytilus edulis) Hepatopancreas Tissue Homogenates Characterised by Liquid Chromatography coupled to Tandem Mass Spectrometry

      Hess, P.; Butter, T.; Petersen, A.; Silke, J.; McMahon, T. (Elsevier, 2009)
      Azaspiracids (AZAs) are a group of lipophilic polyether toxins that were discovered in shellfish from Ireland in 1995, following a food poisoning incident. Both the limited availability of pure AZAs and the co-occurrence in shellfish of other toxins in combination with AZAs have so far prevented an in-depth evaluation of the performance of the EU reference test, the mouse bioassay (MBA), for this toxin group at the regulatory limit. The present study evaluated the performance of the mouse bioassay at the example of a mussel tissue homogenate, naturally contaminated with AZAs, diluted with uncontaminated tissues to appropriate concentration levels. Concentrations were determined using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) (7 levels ranging from levels less than the limit of quantification to a maximum of ca. 2.24 mg/kg in hepatopancreas, which corresponds to a maximum whole flesh AZA1-equivalent of ca. 0.34 mg/kg). Replicate homogenates of each concentration level were analysed by MBA on 7 independent occasions over 6 weeks. Inhomogeneity between replicate aliquot portions was evaluated using LC-MS-MS and ranged from 1.8 to 6.6% RSD for the six levels contaminated above quantification limits. This variation was similar to the variability of the LC-MS-MS method within a batch, and the difference between replicate aliquots could thus be considered negligible. Other uncertainties considered in the study included the short- and long-term variability of the LC-MS-MS method, toxic equivalence factors, relative response factors in mass spectrometric detection, additional analogues and matrix effects. A concentration-response curve was modelled as a 4-parametric logistic fit to a sigmoidal function, with an LC50 of 0.70 mg AZA1-equivalent/kg hepatopancreas tissue. Furthermore, the mathematical model of the lethality data from this study suggests that occasional negative mouse assays at high concentrations, previously observed in the Irish statutory monitoring, are at least partly due to the biological variation of mice and can be understood on a statistical basis. The mathematical model of the concentration-response curve also describes the probability of a positive mouse bioassay at the current regulatory limit of 0.16 mg/kg to be ca. 95%. Therefore, it appears that the mouse bioassay performs very well in the implementation of this limit. Hence, the present study very strongly suggests that the MBA and LC-MS-MS techniques can be considered equivalent in the implementation of the current regulatory limit of 0.16 mg/kg for Azaspiracids in shellfish.
    • Phylogenetic analysis of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus in Ireland reveals the spread of a virulent genogroup 5 subtype previously associated with imports

      Ruane, N.M.; McCleary, S.J.; McCarthy, L.J.; Henshilwood, K. (Springer Verlag, 2015)
      Infectious pancreatic necrosis is a significant disease of farmed salmonids resulting in direct economic losses due to high mortality and disease-management costs. Significant outbreaks of the disease occurred in farmed Atlantic salmon in Ireland between 2003 and 2007, associated with imported ova and smolts. As the virus was known to occur in the country since the development of aquaculture in the 1980s, this study examined archived samples to determine whether these older isolates were associated with virulent forms. The study showed that two genotypes of IPNV were present in the 1990s, genotype 3 and genotype 5. A more virulent subtype of the virus first appeared in 2003 associated with clinical outbreaks of IPN, and this subtype is now the most prevalent form of IPNV found in the country. The data also indicated that IPNV in Ireland is more closely related to Scottish and continental European isolates than to Norwegian, Chilean and Australasian genogroup 5 isolates.
    • Phytoplankton and microbial plankton of the Northeast Atlantic Shelf

      Silke, J.; Kennington, K.; Bresnan, E.; Cusack, C. (ICES, 2012)
      The Northeast Atlantic Shelf region includes the sites from all coastal waters of Ireland, the Irish Sea, and western Scottish and Norwegian Sea waters. The region was defined by WGPME to include locations on the northern margin of Europe that were outside the North Sea/English Channel influence. The character of sites in the region are shallow, coastal-water sites ranging from sheltered bays on the south coast of Ireland and fjordic sea lochs of Scotland to fully exposed locations on the west coasts of Ireland and Scotland. Bathymetry of the region ranges from shallow embayments to regions of shallow, exposed continental-shelf waters. The topography of the shelf drops rapidly to 80–100 m within 20 km of the coast, where it extends to the shelf edge as a relatively flat plateau. Time-series of phytoplankton data from the Atlantic Shelf exhibit a typical seasonal pattern of temperate waters, with considerable geographical and temporal variation. The well-mixed winter conditions lead to a region-wide strong spring bloom observed at all sites. The ensuing decrease in nutrient levels lead to a variable summer period characterized by stratified conditions in coastal areas and periodic blooms of mixed or occasionally monospecific diatom and dinoflagellate composition. The growth period tails off in autumn, when a secondary bloom may occur in response to increased mixing and breakdown of the summer thermocline. The seasonal cycle returns to a quiescent winter phase, with generally mixed conditions, light limitation, and increased nutrients return. Seasonal stabilization and destabilization of the water column in this region accounts for most of the natural variation in both phytoplankton species composition and biomass.
    • Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Organochlorines in By-Caught Harbour Porpoises Phocoena phocoena and Common Dolphins Delphinus delphis from Irish Coastal Waters

      Smyth, M.; Berrow, S.; Nixon, E.; Rogan, E. (Royal Irish Academy, 2000)
      Concentrations of 11 organochlorine (OC) pesticides and 10 individual polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in blubber and liver from 12 harbour porpoise Phocoena phocoena and eight common dolphins Delphinus delphis incidentally caught in fishing nets in Irish waters are presented. Female harbour porpoises had highest concentrations of OC in blubber and male common dolphins in liver. Harbour porpoises had higher mean concentrations of lindane (121-154 ng/g extractable lipid), dieldrin (116-121 ng/g) and  BHC (54-128 ng/g) but common dolphins had greater overall concentrations of DDT (9444-3998 ng/g). The predominant DDT metabolite was pp-DDE and for the chlordanes was t-nonachlor. Concentrations of ICES 7 PCB (liver-blubber) were similar in both species (4075-7999 ng/g in harbour porpoise and 4076-8945 in common dolphins). The sum of ICES 7 PCB in porpoises ranged from 3041-12270 ng/g extractable lipid in the blubber of females and from 2911-10429 ng/g in males and 798-11074 ng/g in the blubber of female common dolphins and 1555-15883 ng/g in males. Contaminant levels were generally similar to those reported from Scotland but lower than reported from Scandinavia. Ratios of DDT to DDE suggests that there are limited new sources of DDT into the Irish marine environment. These results provide a baseline for monitoring of persistent pollutants in the Irish marine environment.
    • Preliminary recruitment studies of the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, and their potential applications, in coastal Georgia

      O'Beirn, F.X.; Heffernan, P.; Walker, R.L. (Elsevier, 1995)
      Oyster recruitment was monitored in Wassaw Sound, Georgia from April through October, 1991. The study was initiated to determine precise recruitment patterns of oysters over the 7 month spawning season. One of the goals was to determine the most suitable time for the collection of natural spat for maricultural, fisheries and recreational purposes. Three sites of varying hydrographic characteristics were chosen in Wassaw Sound. The sites varied in terms of temperature and salinity regimes and in their exposure to wind and wave action. Within each site, oyster recruitment was estimated at three tidal heights; subtidally, at mean low water and intertidally, approximately 2 h above the mean low water mark. Sampling took place so as to measure net recruitment over biweekly (BW), monthly (M) and seasonal ( S) periods. The results indicated that the recruitment of oysters in this region of coastal Georgia is protracted, lasting 6 months (May through October). The levels of recruitment were very high relative to other regions on the east coast of the USA, with peak recruitment for the entire study area (x = 2800 spat m- 2 for BW and x = 3020 spat m- 2 for M) occurring between July and September. The intensity of recruitment varied significantly among the three sites. The most sheltered site in terms of wave exposure experienced the highest recruitment (x =4380 spat m- 2 BW; x = 6260 spat m -2 M). This site also had higher overall water temperatures as well as greater daily temperature fluctuations. The least sheltered site had the lowest numbers of young oysters (x = 1000 spat m- 2 BW; X. = 686 spat m- 2 M), as well as having the most stable temperature regime. The biweekly samples generally experienced higher recruitment subtidally at the three sites. The monthly samples had higher numbers of oyster spat at the mean low water mark while the seasonal samples showed significantly higher recruitment intertidally (up to x =7353 spat m-2 ). The shift in recruitment patterns over time is partially attributed to increased subtidal predation pressure on the recruits. The collection of natural spat in relation to the natural fishery, potential maricultural activity and the recreational fishery is discussed.
    • Preliminary results from a survey of oyster production areas in Ireland for norovirus

      Keaveney, S.; Flannery, J.; Guilfoyle, F.; Doré, J. (2007)
      A survey of 18 oyster production areas in Ireland for norovirus (NoV) contamination was initiated in August 2006. The findings presented are the preliminary results from the first seven months of the survey. Prior to the survey commencing, a simple desk bask sanitary survey of each area was undertaken. This provided an assessment enabling each site to be ranked into 3 categories (low, medium and high) on the basis of the risk of NoV contamination. Samples were collected on a monthly basis and tested for the presence of NoV using semi-quantitative real-time PCR allowing relative quantitation of NoV levels. A correlation was observed between occurrence and levels of NoV detected and the risk categories ascribed to each production area. To date NoV was detected in 60.7, 30.0 and 2.5 percent of samples from the high, medium and low risk categorised areas, respectively. A strong seasonal bias towards increased winter contamination was observed with NoV detected in 15.5 and 50 % of samples in August and February, respectively. The preliminary results from this survey indicate that it may be possible to predict the relative risk of NoV contamination in a shellfish harvesting area. This in conjunction with targeted NoV monitoring using real-time PCR could aid the further development of risk management procedures in shellfisheries.
    • Prevalence of Perkinsus marinus in the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica in relation to tidal placement in a Georgia tidal creek

      O'Beirn, F.X.; Dean, C.C.; Walker, R.L. (Marine Environmental Sciences Consortium of Alabama, 1994)
      This experiment was designed to evaluate the effects tidal zonation and bottom placement of the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, have on the prevalence and intensity of the oyster parasite, Perkinsus marinus a suspected causative agent for subtidal oyster mortalities experienced in the coastal waters of Georgia. Twelve growout bags (1 m x 0.5 m; 12.7 mm mesh), each containing 200 oysters, were placed in Jointer Creek, Georgia In March 1992. Bags (3 replicates each) were placed lntertidally and subtidally on the creek bottom and offbottom. Ten oysters per bag were removed monthly for twelve months beginning March 1992, and were inspected for prevalence and intensity of Perkinsus marinus, using the thioglycollate method. Oyster mortality and shell length data were also evaluated. Neither prevalence (p = 0.3505) nor intensity levels (p = 0.2993) of Perkinsus marinus in oysters were significantly different among the treatments. Although there were no significant differences In prevalence or intensity of the pathogen among treatments, the intertidal offbottom treatment had the lowest values most frequently. Perkinsus marinus was present in all replicates every month. Prevalence and intensity of infection followed the typically observed pattern of maximum values in summer and fall and minimum levels in winter. Subtidal bottom oysters experienced higher mortalities (p = 0.0022), but the prevalence and intensity of Perklnsus marinus in oysters were not significantly different between treatments. It appears therefore, that the oyster parasite, Perkinsus marinus is not the discerning factor in the higher mortalities witnessed in oysters placed subtidally on the bottom in the southeastern U.S. coastal waters.
    • Proceedings of the 8th Irish Shellfish Safety Workshop

      McMahon, T.; Deegan, B.; Silke, J.; Ó Cinneide, M. (Marine Institute, 2008)
      This document outlines the proceedings of the 8th Irish Shellfish Safety Scientific Workshop. This event was organised by the Marine Institute, the Food Safety Authority of Ireland and Bord Iascaigh Mhara to discuss the methods and advances of food safety with respect to shellfish health.
    • Proceedings of the 9th Irish Shellfish Safety Scientific Workshop

      Gilmartin, M.; Silke, J. (Marine Institute, 2009)
      The 9th Irish Shellfish Safety Workshop was held on the 20th March, 2009, in Kenmare, County Kerry. The Workshop was co-sponsored by the Marine Institute, Bord Iascaigh Mhara, the Food Safety Authority of Ireland, and the Sea Fisheries Protection Authority, with support from IFA Aquaculture. The topics addressed at the workshop included an update on the National Biotoxin monitoring programme, and a number of research projects with Irish participation and international perspectives on toxin detection. Finding mechanisms to improve our product was a common theme with presentations on improving food safety, increasing productivity, providing easily applied test methods, and research in support of the shellfish industry. The focus of the three Workshop sessions was on a review of the year, research and legislation.
    • Real-time PCR detection of Dinophysis species in Irish coastal waters

      Kavanagh, S.; Brennan, C.; O’Connor, L.; Moran, S.; Salas, R.; Lyons, J.; Silke, J.; Maher, M. (Springer Verlag, 2010)
      Diarrhetic shellfish toxin-producing Dinophysis species occur in Irish coastal waters throughout the year. Dinophysis acuta and Dinophysis acuminata are the most commonly occurring species and are responsible for the majority of closures of Irish mussel farms. This study describes the development of a qualitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for identification of D. acuta and D. acuminata in Irish coastal waters. DNA sequence information for the D1-D2 region of the large ribosomal sub-unit (LSU) was obtained, following single-cell PCR of D. acuta and D. acuminata cells isolated from Irish coastal locations. PCR primers and hybridization probes, specific for the detection of D. acuta, were designed for real-time PCR on the LightCycler™. The LightCycler™ software melt curve analysis programme determined that D. acuta was identified by a melt-peak at 61°C, while D. acuminata cells produced a melt peak at 48°C. The limit of detection of the real-time PCR assay was determined to be one to ten plasmid copies of the LSU D1-D2 target region for both species and one to five D. acuminata cells. Lugol's preserved water samples were also tested with the assay. The real-time PCR assay identified Dinophysis species in 100% of samples found to contain Dinophysis species by light microscopy and had a greater than 90% correlation with light microscopy for identification of D. acuta and D. acuminata in the samples. The assay can identify and discriminate D. acuta and D. acuminata at low numbers in Irish waters and has the potential to add value to the Irish phytoplankton monitoring programme.
    • REDRISK: reduction of the virus risk in shellfish harvesting areas

      Guilfoyle, F.; Keaveney, S.; Flannery, J.; Doré, B. (Marine Institute, 2006)
      Filter feeding bivalve shellfish can accumulate human pathogenic bacteria and viruses if grown in sewage-contaminated waters. Current consumer protection legislation relies on classification of harvesting areas based on their sanitary quality, using E coli as an indicator of sewage contamination. Advances in viral monitoring have shown that E coli can underestimate the extent of the contamination. The most common cause of gastroenteritis associated with shellfish is norovirus, commonly known as winter vomiting virus. The REDRISK project was undertaken to investigate the main environmental factors that cause viral contamination in shellfish. The REDRISK project is part of a EU research pillar with parallel research being undertaken in the UK, France and Spain. A recently developed technique to quantify norovirus in shellfish, real-time PCR, has been used in the REDRISK project. Clew Bay, in Co. Mayo was chosen as the study area in Ireland. The bay is generally considered to have good water quality but with certain areas subject to intermittent sewage contamination. The cooperation of local producers and organisations such as the Clew Bay Marine Forum and the Native Oyster Co-op greatly helped the project. The project was divided into a two-phased approach. Phase one involved the identification of contamination sources impacting the bay through a sanitary survey and selection of appropriate sites for further study. Results of the first phase of this study were presented previously at this forum (Keaveney, et al 2006) and the characteristics of the sites selected for study and locations within the bay are shown in table 1 and figure 1 respectively. The second phase of the project focused on monitoring environmental conditions and microbiological levels in shellfish to identify environmental conditions leading to viral contamination. This paper reports the finding of this monitoring.
    • Report on analysis of shellfish samples for the presence of Yessotoxins (YTX)

      Marine Institute (Marine Institute, 2001)
      In order to determine the cause of the positive mouse bioassay results obtained in mussel samples from several shellfish production areas (including Bantry Bay, Kenmare Bay, Cromane and Lough Foyle), samples were sent in December 2000 and January 2001 for analysis. Positive mouse bioassay results were obtained, using the Yasumoto (1978) assay, in the EU Reference Laboratory and using the Yasumoto (l 984) assay in the Italian Reference Laboratory. ASP toxins, Azaspiracid, Okadaic acid and DTXs were not detected. Yessotoxin, homoYessotoxins and analogues of Yessotoxins were not detected in the samples sent to the EU Reference Laboratory or the Italian Reference Laboratory. Prof. Yasumoto detected the presence of Yessotoxin and 45-hydroxyYessotoxin at the Japan Food Research Laboratory. 45-hydroxyYessotoxin is a shellfish metabolite of Yessotoxin, which occurs with time as the YTX is oxidised by the shellfish. The shellfish samples in which Yessotoxin and 45-hydroxy Yessotoxin were detected were taken from Bantry Bay, Roaring Water Bay (Summer 2000) and Mulroy Bay. If the initial detection of Yessotoxin and 45-hydroxyYessotoxin is confirmed in other samples, the Irish biotoxin management regime and the production cycles for shellfish (in particular mussels) will have to be adapted to encompass YTX.
    • Report on the incidence and implications of phytoplankton blooms on the East Coast and particularly Wexford Harbour, Summer 1984

      Doyle, J.; Dunne, T. (1984)
      The Fisheries Research Centre had a number of reports of discoloured water between Brittas Bay Co. Wicklow and Wexford Harbour and south to Kilmore Quay. Samples of water received from Dr. David Jeffrey, Department of Botany TCD, collected from Penny-come-quick beach, co. Wicklow on June 17th and examined by Tom Dunne in the Laboratory contained dense colonies of Phaeocystis pouchetii - a microscopic algae. Subsequent samples collected by Miss Ann Kiley, Wexford County Council, traced the extent of the bloom as far south as Neamstown near Kilmore Quay. A sample taken at Cullenstown west of Kilmore Quay was clear. Also associated with this bloom were large numbers of needlelike diatoms (Nitzschia spp. More seriously, blooms of another microscopic alga (Prorocentrum minimum) began to develop in early July during the later phase of the Phaeocystis bloom.
    • Reproductive biology and parasite (Perkinsus marinus) prevalence in the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, within a Georgia tidal river

      O'Beirn, F.X.; Walker, R.L.; Jansen, M.L. (Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society, 1997)
      Recruitment, in 1992, of the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, at one site (Flume Dock) within the Sapelo Island National Estuarine Research Reserve (SINERR) was lower than other sampling sites. Recruitment allied with gametogenesis and parasite (Perkinsus marinus) prevalence within the oysters was examined in 1993, in an attempt to explain the differences observed the previous year. Sampling occurred at three sites (Marsh Landing, Jack Hammock, and Flume Dock) along the Duplin River within the SINERR. Oyster recruitment in 1993 was reduced in all sites within the SINERR. No oyster recruitment was recorded at the Flume Dock site during any monthly collections or on collectors deployed for the duration of the sampling study. Oysters developed gametogenically and spawned at the Marsh Landing site two weeks prior to their occurrence at the Jack Hammock site. Gametogenic development in oysters at the Flume Dock site was retarded a further two weeks where the males appeared to spawn six weeks after the females, which could account for reduced recruitment levels at this site. Approximately, twice as many females as males occurred in all sites. Monthly sampling of prevalence and intensity of Perkinsus marinus (Dermo) revealed high levels of both parameters. Smaller oysters did display lower prevalences of Dermo than larger forms.
    • Reproductive Failure of Landlocked Atlantic Salmon from New York's Finger Lakes: Investigations into the Etiology and Epidemiology of the “Cayuga Syndrome”

      Fisher, J.P.; Spitsbergen, J.M.; Rodman, G.; symula, j. (American Fisheries Society, 1995)
      We describe a disease syndrome that afflicts larval, landlocked Atlantic salmon Salmo salar from Cayuga Lake, one of central New York's Finger Lakes. Mortality associated with the “Cayuga syndrome” is 98–100%. Death usually occurs between 650 and 850 centigrade degreedays after fertilization, approximately 2–4 weeks before yolk resorption is complete. Although there is minor temporal variation in the onset of the Cayuga syndrome in progeny from individual females, all sac fry eventually succumb. Incubation of embryos and sac fry under constant, ambient, or reduced temperature regimens slightly alters the degree-day timing of syndrome onset, but does not improve survival. Based on mortality rate, manifestation of the Cayuga syndrome has not changed in the past 10 years, even though incubation waters of varying chemistry and temperature have been used. Mortality of the negative control stocks used for these studies never exceeded 10% from hatching to first feeding. Findings from reciprocal crossbreeding experiments indicate the problem is associated with ova only. A noninfectious etiology is indicated by the lack of consistently identifiable fish pathogens from syndrome-afflicted sac fry and by the failure to transmit the condition horizontally. Suspect contaminants were eliminated as potential causative factors. Epidemiological studies on the viability of other Finger Lakes stocks indicate that Atlantic salmon from Keuka and Seneca lakes are also afflicted (100% mortality). yet those from Skaneateles Lake are not. The cause of this syndrome appears to be nutritional.
    • Review of phytoplankton monitoring 2005

      Moran, S.; Silke, J.; Salas, R.; Chamberlain, T.; Lyons, J.; Flannery, J.; Thornton, V.; Clarke, D.; Devilly, L. (Marine Institute, 2006)
      A national phytoplankton monitoring programme, has been in operation in Ireland since 1986, and fulfils requirements of the EU Council Directive 91/492/EEC. This programme provides an important part of the baseline data in the overall integrated shellfish monitoring programme. The analysis of samples received on a regular basis from a site can provide very important information in assembling a population profile for the area. This helps in crucial decisions, for example in Management Cell Decisions - conducted by representatives from the industry, MI, FSAI and DCMNR - when borderline toxin results are present. Phytoplankton monitoring is also hugely important in the Water Framework Directive, which all EU countries must follow, in developing an index of water quality in Ireland and Europe. The Irish Monitoring programme also gives valuable public health information to County Councils, Environmental Health Officer’s and the public during times of bloom events. This paper provides an overview of phytoplankton sampling, analysis and reporting in 2005. The occurrence of potentially toxic and harmful phytoplankton found in Irish coastal and shelf waters in 2005 is also reviewed and the quality scheme in operation is described.
    • Review of phytoplankton monitoring 2006

      Moran, S.; Silke, J.; Salas, R.; Chamberlain, T.; Lyons, J.; Shannon, S. (Marine Institute, 2007)
      This paper provides an overview of phytoplankton sampling, analysis and reporting in 2006. The occurrence of potentially toxic and harmful phytoplankton found in Irish coastal and shelf waters in 2006 is compared with the previous year. The succession of phytoplankton blooms in Bantry is described and environmental data that may explain the onset of toxic species is described.
    • Review of phytoplankton monitoring programme and research activities

      Salas, R.; Chamberlain, T.; Lyons, J.; Hynes, P.; Silke, J. (Marine Institute, 2008)
      This paper provides a review of the activities of the Phytoplankton Unit in the Marine Institute as part of the National Monitoring Programme for 2007 and compares the findings with those recorded during 2005 and 2006., It also presents an overview of the research activities carried out by the phytoplankton team during the year with a focus on culturing phytoplankton and the introduction of real time PCR techniques for phytoplankton identification.
    • Review of the phytoplankton monitoring programme and research activities in 2008

      Salas, R.; Lyons, J.; Hynes, P.; Chamberlain, T.; Silke, J. (Marine Institute, 2009)
      The National Monitoring programme for phytoplankton is a well established programme and this was shown through the improvement and refinement of Phytoplankton shellfish and finfish sites around the country. One important development in the last 2 years has been to increase the number of sentinel sites. A sentinel site is a designated sampling site where a total community Phytoplankton cell count and identification is carried out. The number of sentinel sites has increased from 11 in 2005 to 24 in 2008. This means a better coverage of all the bays around the country. The number of phytoplankton samples analysed in 2008 has seen an increase from the previous year.