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Viral gametocytic hypertrophy of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas in IrelandViral gametocytic hypertrophy (VGH) was detected during an investigation of mortalities in Pacific oysters Crassostrea gigas from 2 separate Irish production sites. The basophilic inclusions were observed in the gonad tissue of oysters sampled in August and October 2007. The oysters involved did not show any macroscopic disease signs. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated the presence of viral particles in these intranuclear inclusions. The particles were small, non-enveloped, icosahedral and approximately 50 nm in diameter and thus had characteristics similar to the Papillomaviridae and Polyomaviridae families. No host defence reaction was observed. The viral particles described here appear to be similar to those described in C. virginica from the USA and Canada and to those described in C. gigas from Korea and France.
Water Framework Directive: marine ecological tools for reference, intercalibration and classification (METRIC): final report for the ERTDI-funded project: 2005-W-MS-36Water quality monitoring programmes exist in many of the Member States throughout the European Union (EU). With the implementation of the Water Framework Directive (WFD, Council Directive 2000/60/EC) all Member States must harmonise their national monitoring methods for each common metric (parameter indicative of a biological water quality element) used to determine the state of the aquatic environment to ensure consistent and comparable classification results for all biological community quality elements used (WFD Annex V, 1.4.1). The Marine Ecological Tools for Reference, Intercalibrationand Classification (METRIC) project, therefore, was designed specifically to support the Irish role in the EU Intercalibration Exercise of biological quality elements (BQEs) in order to set harmonised ecological quality criteria for the assessment of water quality in the transitional and coastal (TraC) waters of Europe. The BQEs investigated by METRIC included: Plants (phytoplankton, macroalgae andangiosperms), Benthic macroinvertebrates (soft-bottom habitat), Fish (estuarine).