• Small intestinal injuries in mice caused by a new toxin, Azaspiracid, isolated from Irish mussels

      Ito, E.; Satake, M.; Ofuji, K.; McMahon, T.; Silke, J.; James, K.; Yasumoto, T. (UNESCO, 2001)
      Pathological changes of the small intestine caused by a new toxin, azaspiracid, from Irish mussels were studied. Human poisoning cases included both diarrhetic shellfish and paralitic shellfish poisoning symptoms. The present paper focused on the former. Injuries were observed in the Upper part of the small intestine, where lamina propria in the villi became atrophied at the initial stage, followed by desquamation of epithelial cells and shortening of villi. The injuries were different from the DSP toxin okadaic acid; 1) they developed very slowly after a lag time of about 3 hr, 2) recovery was very late, 3) initial target and process were different.