• Detection of koi herpesvirus (KHV) in koi carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) imported into Ireland.

      McCleary, S.; Ruane, N. M.; Cheslett, D.; Hickey, C.; Rodger, H.D.; Geoghegan, F.; Henshilwood, K. (Europeand association of fish pathologists, 2011)
      This report described the first detections of koi herpesvirus (KHV) in the Republic of Ireland in imported koi carp. In both cases the KHV suspicions were confirmed by molecular diagnosis and the infected stocks culled.
    • Isolation of Streptococcus agalactiae and an aquatic birnavirus from doctor fish Garra rufa L.

      Ruane, N.M.; Collins, E.M.; Geary, M.; Swords, D.; Hickey, C.; Geoghegan, F. (BioMed Central, 2013)
      Background The doctor fish, Garra rufa, has become increasingly popular as a treatment for skin disorders and for pedicures in recent years. Despite this there is very little information available regarding the welfare of these fish and the range of potential pathogens they may carry. In this study, a group of fish suffering from post-transport mortalities were examined and the isolated pathogens identified. Findings Group B Streptococcus agalactiae was isolated from kidney swabs of the fish and found to be resistant to a number of antibiotics. In addition to this, a fish virus belonging to the aquabirnavirus group, serogroup C was isolated for the first time in Ireland. However, no clinical signs of disease typical of bacterial or viral infections were observed in any fish examined. Conclusions As no clinical signs of disease attributable to either of the pathogens identified were found it was concluded that the mortalities were most likely due to transport related stress exacerbated by the presence of the pathogens. Further work is required to assess the suitability of current transport strategies and to examine the potential risk associated with the transport of live ornamental fish.
    • Modelling origin and spread of Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis Virus in the Irish salmon farming industry: the role of inputs

      Ruane, N.M.; Murray, A.G.; Geoghegan, F.; Raynard, R.S. (Elsevier, 2009)
      Observed emergence of IPNV in farmed Irish salmon is simulated using a model originally developed to analyse the spread of the virus in Scotland [Murray, A.G., 2006a. A model of the spread of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus in Scottish salmon farms 1996–2003. Ecol. Model. 199, 64–72]. IPNV appears to have become established relatively recently in Ireland and the model is altered to explicitly simulate the origin of the spread of the virus. Input to freshwater farms was key to initiation of infection, but modelling suggests that endogenous spread was responsible for much of the subsequent increase in prevalence of IPNV. From the modelling, it is unlikely that direct imports accounted for most IPNV cases. If this is the case, cessation of imports, without a substantial improvement in biosecurity, would be likely to be of only limited effect in controlling IPNV. Marine IPNV prevalence appears to be insensitive to direct interventions in the marine environment (as in the Scottish model). A multi-element control strategy, targeting both endogenous spread and external input of infection and prioritising freshwater sites, but extending to marine sites, would probably now be required to eradicate IPNV from Ireland.
    • An outbreak of francisellosis in wild-caught Celtic Sea Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua L., juveniles reared in captivity

      Ruane, N.M.; Bolton-Warberg, M.; Rodger, H.D.; Colquhoun, D.J.; Geary, M.; McCleary, S.J.; O´Halloran, K.; Maher, K.; O´Keeffe, D.; Mirimin, L.; et al. (Wiley, 2013)
    • Risk factors associated with increased mortality of farmed Pacific oysters in Ireland during 2011

      Clegg, T.A.; Morrissey, T.; Geoghegan, F.; Martin, S.W.; Lyons, K.; Ashe, S.; More, S.J. (Elsevier, 2014)
      The Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, plays a significant role in the aquaculture industry in Ireland. Episodes of increased mortality in C. gigas have been described in many countries, and in Ireland since 2008. The cause of mortality events in C. gigas spat and larvae is suspected to be multifactorial, with ostreid herpesvirus 1 (OsHV-1, in particular OsHV-1 μvar) considered a necessary, but not sufficient, cause. The objectives of the current study were to describe mortality events that occurred in C. gigas in Ireland during the summer of 2011 and to identify any associated environmental, husbandry and oyster endogenous factors. A prospective cohort study was conducted during 2010–2012, involving 80 study batches, located at 24 sites within 17 bays. All 17 bays had previously tested positive for OsHV-1 μvar. All study farmers were initially surveyed to gather relevant data on each study batch, which was then tracked from placement in the bay to first grading. The outcome of interest was cumulative batch-level mortality (%). Environmental data at high and low mortality sites were compared, and a risk factor analysis, using a multiple linear regression mixed effects model, was conducted. Cumulative batch mortality ranged from 2% to 100% (median = 16%, interquartile range: 10–34%). The final multivariable risk factor model indicated that batches imported from French hatcheries had significantly lower mortalities than non-French hatcheries; sites which tested negative for OsHV-1 μvar during the study had significantly lower mortalities than sites which tested positive and mortalities increased with temperature until a peak was reached. There were several differences between the seed stocks from French and non-French hatcheries, including prior OsHV-1 μvar exposure and ploidy. A range of risk factors relating to farm management were also considered, but were not found significant. The relative importance of prior OsHV-1 μvar infection and ploidy will become clearer with ongoing selection towards OsHV-1 μvar resistant oysters. Work is currently underway in Ireland to investigate these factors further, by tracking seed from various hatchery sources which were put to sea in 2012 under similar husbandry and environmental conditions.
    • Salmon Mortalities at Inver Bay and McSwyne’s Bay Finfish farms, County Donegal, Ireland, during 2003

      Cronin, M.; Cusack, C.; Geoghegan, F.; Jackson, D.; McGovern, E.; McMahon, T.; O'Beirn, F.X.; Ó Cinneide, M.; Silke, J. (Marine Institute, 2004)
      This report details the investigations into a major mortality of farmed salmon at Inver Bay and McSwyne’s Bay, Co. Donegal in July 2003. Previous reports were provided on 29th July 2003 and on 11th August 2003. The information is based upon analysis and research by MI scientists, a review of environmental data, survey reports by external consultants, inputs from veterinary practitioners who visited the site, reports from DCMNR staff in Killybegs, and site visits made by DCMNR / MI inspectors. Following a review meeting of the principal investigators on the 9th October, 2003, MI proceeded to carry out further scientific investigations. DCMNR also commissioned Kirk McClure Morton Consulting Engineers (KMM) to carry out a parallel investigation of the mortalities at Inver Bay and McSwynes Bay salmon farms. MI provided support as required to the KMM study, the report for which was furnished to DCMNR and MI on 11 February 2004. (KMM, 2004) MI wishes to acknowledge the high level of co-operation and assistance that it received from the owners and staff of Creevin Fish Farm Ltd, Eany Fish Products Ltd and Ocean Farms Ltd. It also wishes to acknowledge the assistance of veterinary practitioners, DCMNR staff and others in the course of this investigation.