• Preliminary results from a survey of oyster production areas in Ireland for norovirus

      Keaveney, S.; Flannery, J.; Guilfoyle, F.; Doré, J. (2007)
      A survey of 18 oyster production areas in Ireland for norovirus (NoV) contamination was initiated in August 2006. The findings presented are the preliminary results from the first seven months of the survey. Prior to the survey commencing, a simple desk bask sanitary survey of each area was undertaken. This provided an assessment enabling each site to be ranked into 3 categories (low, medium and high) on the basis of the risk of NoV contamination. Samples were collected on a monthly basis and tested for the presence of NoV using semi-quantitative real-time PCR allowing relative quantitation of NoV levels. A correlation was observed between occurrence and levels of NoV detected and the risk categories ascribed to each production area. To date NoV was detected in 60.7, 30.0 and 2.5 percent of samples from the high, medium and low risk categorised areas, respectively. A strong seasonal bias towards increased winter contamination was observed with NoV detected in 15.5 and 50 % of samples in August and February, respectively. The preliminary results from this survey indicate that it may be possible to predict the relative risk of NoV contamination in a shellfish harvesting area. This in conjunction with targeted NoV monitoring using real-time PCR could aid the further development of risk management procedures in shellfisheries.
    • Preliminary Results of Salmon Tagging in the Killala Bay Area 1977

      Browne, J (Department of Fisheries (Trade and Information Section), 1978)
      Salmon movements in and around Killala Bay in 1977 were investigated by tagging. A total of 40 tags (20%) were returned. The areas of recovery ranged from the River Shannon to the south coast of England.
    • Preliminary Survey of the Littorina littorea (the Periwinkle) in South-East and South Coasts of Ireland

      Crowley, M (Department of Agriculture and Fisheries (Fisheries Division), 1973)
      Of the three periwinkles Littorina littorea, Littorina saxatilis and Littorina littoralis only L. littorea, is of commercial value. The other two species are used mainly for decorative purposes and not for human consumption. Periwinkles are found on rocky shores and also on muddy intertidal zones which have a good cover of seaweed. They spend most of their existence in the intertidal zone below high water of neap tide and are found associated with the brown sea weeds such as bladderwrack (Ascophalium nodosum) and also the green sea weeds (Enteromorpha spp.). These weeds provide them with both shelter and food. Periwinkles browse on the sedentary animals which live on sea weed and on the weed itself. The investigations were confined to the size and quality of the periwinkles from Wexford, Waterford, Dungarvan, Youghal and Cork Harbours. The numbers per kilogram and the percentage meat yield were determined together with length frequency distribution.
    • The preparation of certified calibration solutions for azaspiracid-1, -2, and -3, potent marine biotoxins found in shellfish

      Perez, R; Rehmann, N; Crain, S; LeBlanc, P; Craft, C; MacKinnon, S; Reeves, K; Burton, I W; Walter, J A; Hess, P; et al. (Springer Verlag, 2010)
      The production and certification of a series of azaspiracid (AZA) calibration solution reference materials is described. Azaspiracids were isolated from contaminated mussels, purified by preparative liquid chromatography and dried under vacuum to the anhydrous form. Purity was assessed by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Final concentration of each AZA in a CD3OH stock solution was determined accurately by quantitative NMR spectroscopy. This solution was then diluted very accurately in degassed, high purity methanol to a concentration of 1.47 ± 0.08 μmol/L for AZA1, 1.52 ± 0.05 μmol/L for AZA2, and 1.37 ± 0.13 μmol/L for AZA3. Aliquots were dispensed into argon-filled glass ampoules, which were immediately flame-sealed. The calibration solutions are suitable for method development, method validation, calibration of liquid chromatography or mass spectrometry instrumentation and quality control of shellfish monitoring programs.
    • Prevalence of Perkinsus marinus in the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica in relation to tidal placement in a Georgia tidal creek

      O'Beirn, F.X.; Dean, C.C.; Walker, R.L. (Marine Environmental Sciences Consortium of Alabama, 1994)
      This experiment was designed to evaluate the effects tidal zonation and bottom placement of the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, have on the prevalence and intensity of the oyster parasite, Perkinsus marinus a suspected causative agent for subtidal oyster mortalities experienced in the coastal waters of Georgia. Twelve growout bags (1 m x 0.5 m; 12.7 mm mesh), each containing 200 oysters, were placed in Jointer Creek, Georgia In March 1992. Bags (3 replicates each) were placed lntertidally and subtidally on the creek bottom and offbottom. Ten oysters per bag were removed monthly for twelve months beginning March 1992, and were inspected for prevalence and intensity of Perkinsus marinus, using the thioglycollate method. Oyster mortality and shell length data were also evaluated. Neither prevalence (p = 0.3505) nor intensity levels (p = 0.2993) of Perkinsus marinus in oysters were significantly different among the treatments. Although there were no significant differences In prevalence or intensity of the pathogen among treatments, the intertidal offbottom treatment had the lowest values most frequently. Perkinsus marinus was present in all replicates every month. Prevalence and intensity of infection followed the typically observed pattern of maximum values in summer and fall and minimum levels in winter. Subtidal bottom oysters experienced higher mortalities (p = 0.0022), but the prevalence and intensity of Perklnsus marinus in oysters were not significantly different between treatments. It appears therefore, that the oyster parasite, Perkinsus marinus is not the discerning factor in the higher mortalities witnessed in oysters placed subtidally on the bottom in the southeastern U.S. coastal waters.
    • Prey preferences of sympatric fin (Balaenoptera physalus) and humpback (Megaptera novaeangliae) whales revealed by stable isotope mixing models

      Ryan, C; Berrow, S; McHugh, B; O'Donnell, C; Trueman, C; O'Connor, I (Wiley, 2014-01)
      Over-exploitation of top predators and fish stocks has altered ecosystems towards less productive systems with fewer trophic levels. In the Celtic Sea (CS), discards and bycatch levels have prompted concern about some fisheries, while fin and humpback whales are recovering from centuries of over-exploitation. A lack of empirical evidence on the preferred diet of some predators such as whales in the CS has hindered the implementation of effective conservation measures using an ecosystem-based approach to fisheries management. Using a Bayesian framework (SIAR), stable carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotope mixing models were used to assign proportionate diet solutions to fin and humpback whales (skin biopsies) and putative prey items: herring (Clupea harengus), sprat (Sprattus sprattus), and krill (Meganyctiphanes norvegica and Nyctiphanes couchii) in the CS. Krill was the single most important prey item in the diet of fin whales, but one of the least important for humpback whales (albeit based on a small sample of humpback whale samples). Age 0 sprat and herring comprised a large proportion of the diet of both species, followed by older sprat (age 1–2) and older herring (age 2–4). An ecosystem based approach to fisheries management will be required in the CS if we seek effective conservation of both fin and humpback whales, and sustainable fisheries.
    • Proceedings of the 2nd Annual Beaufort Marine Biodiscovery Research Workshop

      Nardello, I. (Marine Institute, 2010)
      This publication presents the background and aims of the 2nd Annual Marine Biodiscovery Workshop 2009. Presentations relating to progress achieved in the marine biodiscovery research area through the Irish Beaufort Marine Biodiscovery Research Awards have been captured in extended abstracts.
    • Proceedings of the 2nd IWDG International Whale Conference. Muc Mhara Ireland's Smallest Whale

      Berrow, S D (ed); Deegan, B (ed) (Irish Whale and Dolphin Group, 2010)
      Muc Mhara – Ireland’s smallest whale. Proceedings of the 2nd Irish Whale and Dolphin Group International Whale Conference. Papers presented include, “Introduction: The harbour porpoise or Muc Mhara”, “An Irish name for the humble harbour porpoise”, “Life in the Fast Lane: Ecology and Behaviour of harbour porpoises in the Gulf of Maine”, “The ecology of harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) in Irish waters: what strandings programmes tell us.”, “Passive acoustic monitoring of the harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) in Irish waters”, “Abundance estimates of harbour porpoises in Irish waters”, “Satellite tracking of harbour porpoises in European Waters”, “Satellite tracking of harbour porpoises in European Waters”, “A cost of green energy: Are offshore renewables: a threat to porpoises?”, “Harbour porpoise populations and protection in an EU context”, “Assessment of Acoustic Deterrent Devices ‘Pingers’ and porpoise by catch rates in Irish Gillnet Fisheries in the Celtic Sea” and “Harbour porpoise Conservation in the Republic of Ireland”.
    • Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Molluscan Shellfish Safety

      Marine Institute (Marine Institute, 2006)
      The aim of the global series of ICMSS Conferences has been well defined by our colleagues in Santiago de Compostela (Spain) who hosted the previous Conference in June 2002: “To establish a forum where useful, enriching debate and interchange of knowledge flow easily on a broad spectrum in the area of Shellfish Safety”. The ICMSS 04 Programme followed on the tradition and patterns which were set in Santiago de Compostela (2002); Southampton, New York, USA (2000) and in The Philippines (1998) of thematic sessions on a multi-disciplinary basis. Our session topics included: • Microbiological Status of Shellfish • Shellfish Viruses and Pathogens • Harmful Algal Blooms (HAB) and Biotoxin Contamination • HAB Mitigation and Depuration • Toxicology of Shellfish Toxins • Current and Emerging Analytical Methods • Quality Assurance and Consumer Safety • Regulation and Management of Shellfish Safety • Role of Industry in Risk Management and Innovation
    • Proceedings of the 5th Irish Shellfish Safety Workshop, Rosscarbery, October 28th 2004

      Marine Institute (Marine Institute, 2005)
      This document outlines the proceedings of the 5th Irish Shellfish Safety Scientific Workshop. This event was organised by the Marine Institute, the Food Safety Authority of Ireland and Bord Iascaigh Mhara to discuss the methods and advances of food safety with respect to shellfish health.
    • Proceedings of the 6th Irish Shellfish Safety Scientific Workshop

      Marine Institute (Marine Institute, 2006)
      This document outlines the proceedings of the 6th Irish Shellfish Safety Scientific Workshop. This event was organised by the Marine Institute, the Food Safety Authority of Ireland and Bord Iascaigh Mhara to discuss the methods and advances of food safety with respect to shellfish health.
    • Proceedings of the 7th Irish Shellfish Safety Workshop

      Marine Institute (Marine Institute, 2007)
      This document outlines the proceedings of the 7th Irish Shellfish Safety Scientific Workshop. This event was organised by the Marine Institute, the Food Safety Authority of Ireland and Bord Iascaigh Mhara to discuss the methods and advances of food safety with respect to shellfish health.
    • Proceedings of the 8th Irish Shellfish Safety Workshop

      McMahon, T.; Deegan, B.; Silke, J.; Ó Cinneide, M. (Marine Institute, 2008)
      This document outlines the proceedings of the 8th Irish Shellfish Safety Scientific Workshop. This event was organised by the Marine Institute, the Food Safety Authority of Ireland and Bord Iascaigh Mhara to discuss the methods and advances of food safety with respect to shellfish health.
    • Proceedings of the 9th Irish Shellfish Safety Scientific Workshop

      Gilmartin, M.; Silke, J. (Marine Institute, 2009)
      The 9th Irish Shellfish Safety Workshop was held on the 20th March, 2009, in Kenmare, County Kerry. The Workshop was co-sponsored by the Marine Institute, Bord Iascaigh Mhara, the Food Safety Authority of Ireland, and the Sea Fisheries Protection Authority, with support from IFA Aquaculture. The topics addressed at the workshop included an update on the National Biotoxin monitoring programme, and a number of research projects with Irish participation and international perspectives on toxin detection. Finding mechanisms to improve our product was a common theme with presentations on improving food safety, increasing productivity, providing easily applied test methods, and research in support of the shellfish industry. The focus of the three Workshop sessions was on a review of the year, research and legislation.
    • Proceedings of the Fourth Irish Marine Biotoxin Science Workshop

      Marine Institute; Bord Iascaigh Mhara; Irish Shellfish Association; Food Safety Authority of Ireland (Marine Institute, 2003)
      The workshop is part of the Marine Institute’s role as the National Reference Laboratory for Marine Biotoxins in Ireland. This workshop is an annual event, where scientists, regulators and shellfish farmers meet to review developments in the monitoring and research of Biotoxins in Ireland and internationally. Our specific objectives for the 2003 Workshop are: (1) Review the Irish Biotoxin Monitoring system and to assess the trends in toxicity during 2003; (2) Summarise current Irish research work in Harmful Algal Blooms and Phytoplankton; (3) Focus on research work in Killary Harbour under the BOHAB project; (4) Take stock of developments and provide a forum for debate/feedback.
    • Proceedings of the Second Irish Marine Biotoxin Science Workshop

      Marine Institute; Bord Iascaigh Mhara (Marine Institute, 2001)
      The Marine Institute’s objectives for Irish Biotoxin programme are to support the continued development of the Irish Shellfish Industry and to promote food safety, by building the best Biotoxin Management System in the Northern Hemisphere. The Marine Science Biotoxin Workshops are part of Marine Institute’s role as the National Reference Laboratory. The EU mandate for Reference Labs emphasises the need for dissemination of information. The objectives of the Marine Science Biotoxin Workshop are: (1) Take Stock of developments since last Workshop, April 2000; (2) Review Irish Monitoring System & Trends; (3) Summarise current Irish Research in HAE/Phytoplankton; (4) Compare with International Best Practice in New Zealand and USA; (5) Provide a Forum for Debate/Feedback
    • Proceedings of the Third Annual Conference of the European Association of Fisheries Economists, Dublin, Ireland, 10-12 April 1991

      Hillis, J P (ed) (Department of the Marine, 1994)
      The European Association of Fisheries Economists (EAFE) was founded following a meeting of interested European fisheries economists at Esbjerg in August 1988. Its first Annual Conference was a modest one held at Brussels in January 1990, while the second was held at Lisbon in March 1990. At Lisbon, the Bureau accepted an invitation to meet in Dublin in the spring of 1991, so the Third Annual Conference of EAFE was duly held in Dublin, at the Headquarters of the Geological Survey of Ireland, during the 10th to 12th April, 1991. Three themes were selected for the Conference, (1) The Single European Market, (2) Capacity, and (3) Coastal Management. In the event, the second theme attracted the most interest, reflecting the widespread preoccupation with overfishing and the problems inherent in trying to rectify it; papers accepted included two in Section 1, thirteen in Section 2 and five in Section 3, although one (No. 16), originally submitted in Section 3, was by reason of the nature of its contents finally transferred to Section 2.
    • Proceedings of the Third Irish Marine Biotoxin Science Workshop

      Marine Institute; Bord Iascaigh Mhara; Food Safety Authority of Ireland (Marine Institute, 2002)
      The workshop is part of the Marine Institute’s role as the National Reference Laboratory for Marine Biotoxins in Ireland. This initiative was started in 2000 and was modelled on the Marine Science Biotoxin workshops, which have taken place in New Zealand since 1994. This workshop is an annual event, where scientists, regulators and shellfish farmers meet to review developments in the monitoring and research of Biotoxins in Ireland and internationally. The Institute’s roles are to Monitor/Research/Advise/Communicate. These are inextricably linked. It is essential to carry out targeted research in order to answer the questions which are generated by the monitoring. Objectives of the 2002 workshop: 1. To review the Irish Biotoxin Monitoring programme in 2002; 2. To summarise current and proposed new Irish research in the areas of Biotoxins and Harmful Algal Events (HAE’s); 3. To provide an International view on Biotoxins issues, with invited speakers from France, Norway and the UK; 4. To provide a forum for debate and communications.
    • Production and Isolation of Azaspiracid-1 and -2 from Azadinium spinosum Culture in Pilot Scale Photobioreactors

      Jauffrais, Thierry; Kilcoyne, Jane; Séchet, Véronique; Herrenknecht, Christine; Truquet, Philippe; Hervé, Fabienne; Bérard, Jean Baptiste; Nulty, Cíara; Taylor, Sarah; Tillmann, Urban; et al. (MPDI Publishing, 2012)
      Azaspiracid (AZA) poisoning has been reported following consumption of contaminated shellfish, and is of human health concern. Hence, it is important to have sustainable amounts of the causative toxins available for toxicological studies and for instrument calibration in monitoring programs, without having to rely on natural toxin events. Continuous pilot scale culturing was carried out to evaluate the feasibility of AZA production using Azadinium spinosum cultures. Algae were harvested using tangential flow filtration or continuous centrifugation. AZAs were extracted using solid phase extraction (SPE) procedures, and subsequently purified. When coupling two stirred photobioreactors in series, cell concentrations reached 190,000 and 210,000 cell•mL−1 at steady state in bioreactors 1 and 2, respectively. The AZA cell quota decreased as the dilution rate increased from 0.15 to 0.3 day−1, with optimum toxin production at 0.25 day−1. After optimization, SPE procedures allowed for the recovery of 79 ± 9% of AZAs. The preparative isolation procedure previously developed for shellfish was optimized for algal extracts, such that only four steps were necessary to obtain purified AZA1 and -2. A purification efficiency of more than 70% was achieved, and isolation from 1200 L of culture yielded 9.3 mg of AZA1 and 2.2 mg of AZA2 of >95% purity. This work demonstrated the feasibility of sustainably producing AZA1 and -2 from A. spinosum cultures.
    • A Profile of Boating Activity on the Irish Sea

      McDowell, N; Shields, Y (Marine Institute, 1998)
      This report is based on the results of a survey undertaken to profile the extent and nature of boating tourism on the Irish Sea between the East Coast of Ireland and the West Coast of Wales. From the data collected it is possible to draw conclusions about the type of action that will help to promote the future boating tourism potential of the Irish Sea.