• Oceans of Opportunity II: Exploring Ireland's International Marine Research Partnerships

      Cronin, Y; McDonough, N; O'Sullivan, G (Marine Institute, 2007)
      This report is a review of Ireland's participitation in EU Framework Programme 6 (EU FP6) Marine Research Projects 2002-2006
    • Oceans of Opportunity: A Guide to Marine Careers

      Marine Institute, 2012
      The Marine Institute has produced this brochure to introduce you to some of the exciting careers available in Marine Science, Engineering andTechnology.We look in particular at a range of opportunities from entry to trained scientists, professional engineers and skilled technicians who are required in: Seafood (fisheries, aquaculture, seafood processing and seaweed); Shipping, Ports and Services; Marine Renewable Energy; Offshore Oil and Gas and Seabed Resources; Marine and Coastal Tourism and Leisure including Cruise Tourism; Marine Information Communication Technology; Marine Biotechnology and Bioproducts. The Marine Institute, which operates under the aegis of the Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine, is the national agency responsible for undertaking marine research and development. It critically informs policy, regulatory objectives,management and sustainable development strategies for Ireland’s Marine Resources. It also provides a range of diverse services to a wide variety of clients across branches of Government, international organisations and the private sector. As an island nation, Ireland has a long tradition of marine science and innovation stretching back to such pioneers as Francis Beaufort, John Holland andWilliam Spotiswood Green.Today, Ireland's marine science community includes a wide range of Universities, Institutes ofTechnology, State and Semi-State bodies, commercial companies, organisations and individuals whose goals include the sustainable development of our marine resource through the application of science and technology.
    • The oil spill model OILTRANS and its application to the Celtic Sea

      Berry, Alan; Dabrowski, Tomasz; Lyons, Kieran (Elsevier, 2012)
      This paper describes details of an oil spill model, OILTRANS, developed by the authors. The model is an off-line particle-transport model coupled to the most up to date operational met-ocean model forecasts. Formulations for the dominant oil fate processes of spreading, advection, diffusion, evaporation, emulsification and dispersion have been encoded, providing the model with the ability to accurately predict the horizontal movement of surface oil slick, the vertical entrainment of oil into the water column and the mass balance of spilled oil. The application of the OILTRANS model to an accidental release during a ship-to-ship fuel transfer in the Celtic Sea in February 2009 is presented to validate the system. Comparisons with aerial observations of the oil slick at the time of the incident, and subsequent model simulations, indicate that the OILTRANS model is capable of accurately predicting the transport and fate of the oil slick.
    • On the Mesh of Herring Drift-Nets in Relation to the Condition Factor of the Fish

      Farran, G. (Conseil International pour l'Exploration de la Mer (ICES), 1936)
      It is well known to herring fishermen that, in order to get the best returns, the mesh of their nets must correspond to the size of the fish on the grounds, but that this correspondence must take into account of both the length and the weight or condition of the fish has not, I think, been clearly pointed out. I have tried in this paper to express in definite figures a relationship between the size of the mesh and the condition and length of the fish taken together.
    • On the Size and Number of the Ova of Irish Herrings

      Farran, G. (Conseil International pour l'Exploration de la Mer (ICES), 1938)
    • An operational biogeochemical model of the North-East Atlantic: model description and skill assessment

      Dabrowski, T.; Lyons, K.; Berry, A.; Cusack, C.; Nolan, G. (Elsevier, 2013)
      This paper presents a high resolution operational biogeochemical model of the North-East Atlantic that encompasses part of the continental shelf and adjacent deep sea and includes all of Ireland's territorial waters. The setup of the model is described, followed by its skill assessment in reproducing chlorophyll and nitrate spatio-temporal variability. Part of the model skill assessment concerns the evaluation of its usefulness in a decision-making process and is based on the application of a binary discrimination analysis. The model is one-way nested within a 1/12° Mercator Ocean PSY2V4R2 operational model that provides physical forcing at the lateral open boundaries. Nitrate fields are also proscribed at the open boundaries; the World Ocean Atlas 2009 monthly climatologies are used in the upper 500 m and at greater depths a formula that relates nitrate concentration to temperature and latitude is applied in the model. The model represents the intra-annual variability of surface chlorophyll and nitrate concentrations at monthly time scales across key oceanographic regions reasonably well; deficiencies are identified in some regions along with possible causes. The model can reproduce important characteristic bio-physicochemical features e.g. the frontal dynamics and upwelling off southwest Ireland and the properties of different water masses in the Rockall Trough. The model is deemed suitable for operational purposes, with a high probability to make correct positive and negative decisions. Operational since 2011, the output is publicly available via a dedicated THREDDS server.
    • Optimisation of isolation methods for the azaspiracid group of marine biotoxins and the development of accurate and precise methods of analysis

      Kilcoyle, J. (Dublin Institute of Technology, 2015)
      The two main groups of biotoxins which affect the Irish shellfish industry are azaspiracids (AZAs) and the okadaic acid (OA) group (OA, DTX2, DTX1 and their esters) toxins. Since AZAs were first identified in 1998, well over 30 analogues have been reported. Structural and toxicological data have been described for AZA1–5 (isolated from shellfish). LC-MS/MS is the EU reference method for detection of the AZAs (AZA1, -2 and -3) and the OA group toxins in raw shellfish with the regulatory limit set at 160 μg/kg for each toxin group. Limited supplies of purified toxins for certified reference materials (CRMs) were available for AZA1−3. Little knowledge was also available on the relevance of the additional AZA analogues that had been reported, in terms of human health protection. The analysis of marine biotoxins by LC-MS/MS can be severely affected by matrix interferences. Here, a study was performed on two instruments; a quadrapole time of flight (QToF) and a triple stage quadrupole (TSQ) to assess matrix interferences for AZA1 and OA using a number of tissue types. Enhancement was observed for OA on the QToF while matrix suppression was observed for AZA1 on TSQ. The enhancement on the QToF was overcome by use of an on-line SPE method and matrix matched calibrants, while the suppression on the TSQ was found to be due to late eluting compounds from previous injections and was overcome by employing either a column flush method or an alkaline mobile phase.The isolation of 11 AZA analogues (AZA1−10 and 37-epi-AZA1) from shellfish using an improved procedure (7 steps) is described. Recoveries increased ~2-fold (~ 52%) from previously described isolation procedures. The preparative isolation procedure developed for shellfish was optimised for Azadinium spinosum bulk culture extracts such that only four steps were necessary to obtain purified AZA1 and -2. A purification efficiency of ~70% was achieved, and isolation from 1,200 L of culture yielded 9.3 mg of AZA1 and 2.2 mg of AZA2 (purities >95%). This work demonstrated the feasibility of sustainably producing AZA1 and -2 from A. spinosum cultures. In addition to AZA1 and -2, the novel analogues AZA33, -34 were isolated (also from A. spinosum).Sufficient quantities were purified to enable full structural elucidation, the preparation of reference standards and CRMs, and toxicity studies. Nine of these analogues were fully characterised for the first time (Table 7.1). Structural determination was achieved by NMR and chemical analysis, while toxicity was assessed using the Jurkat T lymphocyte cell assay, mouse intraperitoneal (AZA1−3 and -6) and mouse oral (AZA1−3) administration.The preparation of reference standards for the analogues AZA4−10, 37-epi-AZA1, AZA33 and -34 enabled their relevance in terms of human health protection to be determined. The in vitro and in vivo toxicity studies performed confirmed AZA toxicity.The results from the oral and intraperitoneal mice studies correlated very well, contradicting previous reports and showing that AZA1 is more toxic than AZA2 and -3 and that AZA6 is slightly less toxic than AZA1. Analysis of shellfish (Mytilus edulis) submitted to the Irish biotoxin monitoring programme using the reference standards confirmed previous reports showing that levels of AZA3, -4, -6 and -9 increase following cooking due to heat induced decarboxylation of AZA17, -21, -19 and -23. Very high levels of AZA3 (up to 3-fold that of AZA1) and -6 (up to 3- fold that of AZA2) were detected in some samples (with levels varying most likely due to different rates of metabolism and time of harvesting). As the concentrations of AZA3 and -6 are negligible in raw mussels, yet can increase significantly during the cooking of mussels, the overall concentrations are underestimated by methods used according to current legislation. In cooked shellfish the AZA analogues -4, -5, -7–10, as well as AZA33 and -34, comprise on average ~5% of the total AZA content, however in some samples levels of AZA4 were higher than AZA6. Levels of the 37-epimers in the cooked shellfish extracts were ~ 15% that of the parent analogues.
    • Options for Marine Leisure Development in Waterford Estuary

      Marine Institute (Marine Institute, 2001-08)
      During 2000-2001 the Marine Institute, the national agency charged with responsibility for co-ordinating marine research in Ireland, participated in an Interreg IIc Project - MAYA - Marinas and Yachting in the North West Metropolitan Area. A key objective of this European project was to develop a spatial vision for marina developments in a city, estuary and sensitive coastal environments. As part of this project, the Institute commissioned a study of Waterford Estuary, which would: (1)assess the socio-economic impact of Waterford city marina; (2)develop a strategy for increasing marine leisure activity within the estuary; (3)propose guidelines for planning new marina developments.
    • Options for the Development of Wave Energy in Ireland: A Public Consultation Document

      Marine Institute; Sustainable Energy Ireland (Marine Institute, 2002)
      The potential for development of wave, ocean current and tidal energy is the subject of growing international investigation. This document focuses on the status and development potential of wave energy in Ireland. While recognising that this technology is not in a position to contribute to national renewable energy targets within the Kyoto timeframe, it is oriented towards the longer term prospect of Ireland becoming a world-leading developer and manufacturer of the technologies that will enable the harnessing of ocean energy resources.
    • Organisms associated with oysters cultured in floating systems in Virginia, USA

      O'Beirn, F.X.; Ross, P.G.; Luckenbach, M.W. (National Shellfisheries Association, 2004)
      The number and abundance of macro-fauna! taxa was estimated from six floating structures (floats) used to culture the Eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) near Chincoteague Island, Virginia, USA. After a 10-mo grow-out period, all organisms found among and attached to the cultured oysters were counted. The final mean size of oysters was 80.5 (14.7 SD) mm. Overall, 45 species of macrofauna were recorded with the number of species in the floats ranging from 24 to 36. There was no relationship between the number of taxa and the density of oysters in the floats. Total abundances of associated organisms were estimated at 12,746/float to 92,602/float. These findings highlight the diverse (taxonomic and trophic) and abundant nature of communities associated with cultured oysters. They also provide a baseline set of information that may help more clearly define the interactions between oyster culture and the environment.
    • Our Ocean Wealth - Background Briefing Documents: Part I: Context

      Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine (Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine, 2012-02)
      This briefing document provides an economic and environmental profile of Ireland’s marine resource.
    • Our Ocean Wealth - Background Briefing Documents: Part II: Sectoral Briefs

      Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine (Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine, 2012-02)
      This briefing document provides a profile our marine sectors including an overview of current Government plans and policies in place (seafood, seaweed, shipping and maritime transport, renewable and non-renewable energy, marine ICT and biotechnology).
    • Our Ocean Wealth - Background Briefing Documents: Part III: ‘Enablers’ - Getting the Conditions Right for Growth

      Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine (Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine, 2012-02)
      This briefing document describes the ‘enablers’ that are needed to improve the conditions for growth and investment.
    • Our Ocean Wealth - Towards an Integrated Marine Plan for Ireland: Seeking Your Views on New Ways; New Approaches; New Thinking

      Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine (Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine, 2012-02)
      To support the development of an Integrated Marine Plan for Ireland, a short consultation document has been prepared. This document: describes our ocean economy and the potential opportunities; outlines our rich and diverse marine and coastal ecosystems; indicates some of the key challenges facing us and our oceans; summarises what the Government can do to get the conditions right for sustainable growth; and asks what the private sector, communities, State bodies and the higher education sector will do to make growth happen.
    • Our Ocean – Marine Legends, Fairy Tales and Folklore in Ireland

      Dromgool-Regan, Cushla; Burke, Noirin (Marine Institute, 2019)
      Our Ocean - Marine Legends, Fairy tales and Folklore in Ireland provides a selection of artwork and poems created by primary school children around Ireland. The artwork and poems are full of mythical glory and reflect the children’s ideas and inspirations, influenced by local and well-loved stories in Ireland. The artwork and poems that have been selected represent a wide range of Irish folklore. Some of the stories date back many centuries telling fables of Vikings, Saints, warriors and heroines. Others provides an insight into modern tales of fishermen and their catch. A common theme throughout the work is the mystery that surrounds our ocean and how it has forever influenced our lives through tragedy, inspiration, wellbeing and hope. Some of the poems have be written by individual children and others have been drafted by the whole class. Their work is a delight to read and showcase the children, who range in age from junior infants to 6th class, as young scholars to be.
    • An outbreak of francisellosis in wild-caught Celtic Sea Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua L., juveniles reared in captivity

      Ruane, N.M.; Bolton-Warberg, M.; Rodger, H.D.; Colquhoun, D.J.; Geary, M.; McCleary, S.J.; O´Halloran, K.; Maher, K.; O´Keeffe, D.; Mirimin, L.; et al. (Wiley, 2013)
    • Overcoming the “tragedy of the commons” in fishery management

      Kraak, S. B. M. (International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES), 2011)
      In situations of declining or depleted fish stocks, fishers seem to have fallen prey to the “tragedy of the commons”. This occurs because fishers face the dilemma that, although they understand that limiting their catches would pay off in the form of sustainable future catches, they can never be sure that the catch which they have just sacrificed will not be immediately snapped up by competing fishers. Standard economic theory predicts that, in such dilemmas, individuals are not willing to cooperate and sacrifice catches in the short term, and that, consequently, the resource is overharvested. However, over past decades, a multitude of research endeavours have shown that humans often achieve outcomes that are “better than rational” by building conditions where reciprocity, reputation, and trust help to overcome the temptations of short-term self-interest.
    • Overview of trends in plankton communities

      Licandro, P.; Head, E.; Gislason, A.; Benfield, M.C.; Harvey, M.; Margonski, P.; Silke, J. (ICES, 2011)
      Phytoplankton and zooplankton occupy pivotal positions within marine ecosystems. These small organisms fuel and support the foodwebs upon which almost all higher organisms depend. Fisheries and related economic activities are highly dependent on the production, size, and composition of zooplankton which, in turn, rely on primary production by phytoplankton. In addition to their role as prey for herbivorous zooplankton, phytoplankton absorb enormous quantities of dissolved CO2 via photosynthesis. Zooplankton then plays an essential role in the biological pump by consuming phytoplankton and transporting carbon from the upper ocean to the deep ocean, where it is sequestered for hundreds to thousands of years. Given the ecological and economic importance of phyto‐ and zooplankton, it is essential to understand and predict how they are likely to respond to climate change. Climate‐related hydrographic changes may also directly affect the abundance and composition of zooplankton, shifting the distribution of dominant species, changing the structure of the zooplankton community, and altering the timing, duration, and efficiency of zooplankton reproductive cycles. Ocean acidification through increased carbon dioxide dissolution in the upper ocean is lowering the pH in surface waters. A lower pH could impair the physiology and ultimately the abundance of many phytoplankton and zooplankton species. It is important to understand how phytoplankton and zooplankton are likely to respond to climate‐induced changes in the ocean. This section explores what is known about the sensitivity of phytoplankton and zooplankton to climate change and summarizes the trends that are evident in plankton communities within the ICES Area.
    • The palaeolimnology of Lough Murree, a brackish lake in the Burren, Ireland.

      Cassina, Filippo; Dalton, Catherine; De Eyto, Elvira; Sparber, Karin (The Royal Irish Academy, 2013)
      Lough Murree, a rock/karst barrier lagoon, is superficially isolated from the sea and seasonal variations in lake water level reflect precipitation and groundwater variation. Lake salinity is influenced by subsurface saline intrusions, occasional barrier overwash together with precipitation and groundwater inflow, leading to poikilohaline conditions. Palaeolimnological reconstructions in Murree support the supposition that the lagoon was once superficially connected to the sea around the mid-nineteenth century. Physical, chemical and biological proxies suggest an evolution to more freshwater conditions. Uncertainties about the timing of the transition persist because of an unresolved sediment chronology. The isolation of Murree from the Atlantic Ocean has promoted the formation of dense charophyte beds composed of lagoonal specialist species, which are able to tolerate large variations in salinity.