• Monitoring of zebra mussels in the Shannon-Boyle navigation, other

      Minchin, D; Lucy, F; Sullivan, M (Marine Institute, 2002)
      The zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) population has been closely monitored in Ireland following its discovery in 1997. The species has spread from lower Lough Derg, where it was first introduced, to most of the navigable areas of the Shannon and other interconnected navigable waters. This study took place in the summers of 2000 and 2001 and investigated the relative abundance and biomass of zebra mussels found in the main navigations of the Shannon and elsewhere in rivers, canals and lakes where colonisation was likely. During 2000 zebra mussels were found for the first time in Carnadoe, Kilglas and Grange Loughs on the River Shannon. In 2001, they were discovered on the Ballinasloe Navigation at Poulboy Lough and in Ballinasloe Harbour. For the first time outside of the Shannon-Boyle navigation, established populations were discovered in Garadice Lough on the Shannon-Erne Waterway and in Ringsend Basin and Tullamore Harbour on the Grand Canal. Zebra mussels continue to have their greatest densities in lakes and large reservoirs of the Shannon-Boyle navigation. A maximum biomass of 4.1kg per sq.m was recorded in Lough Key. No zebra mussel larvae or their attached stages were found in the larger lakes outside of the Shannon-Boyle and Erne Navigations. Larvae were found however, in Tullamore Harbour for the first time. In separate studies approximately two hundred adults were found in Lough Bo, Co. Sligo and less than ten specimens were found in Lough Gill, Co. Sligo. The only living population of native freshwater mussels (Anodonta spp.) presently known in the lake regions of the Shannon is in the Carnadoe Cut, between Carnadoe Lough and Kilglas Lough. This population of Anodonta spp. is fouled with zebra mussels. Freshwater mussels were also found in Garadice Lough and Assaroe Reservoir. These were also fouled with zebra mussels.
    • Monitoring results for trace metals and organohalogens in shellfish (2015) and physicochemical parameters and trace metals in seawater (2016) in accordance with Shellfish Waters Directive. CHEMREP 2018-003

      Marine Institute (Marine Institute, 2018)
      Directive 2006/113/EC on the Quality Required of Shellfish Waters, also referred to as the Shellfish Waters Directive (SWD) requires the monitoring of, inter alia, certain physicochemical parameters including trace metal contaminants in order to assess and protect the quality of shellfish growing waters and the shellfish harvested from them. The SWD is concerned with the quality of shellfish waters and applied waters designated by the Member States as needing protection or improvement in order to support shellfish (bivalve and gastropod molluscs) life and growth and thus to contribute to the high quality of shellfish products directly edible by man. This report details the Marine Institute’s (MI) monitoring results for physicochemical parameters sampled in seawater and shellfish tissue from designated Shellfish Waters and specifically: Dissolved trace metal concentrations and other physiochemical parameters in seawater sampled from Irish Shellfish Waters in 2016 and trace metal and organohalogen concentrations in shellfish sampled in 2015.
    • Monitoring trace metals and organohalogens in shellfish (2014) and physicochemical parameters and trace metals in seawater (2015) under the Shellfish Waters Directive

      Environmental Team, Chemistry Section, Marine Environment & Food Safety Services (Marine Institute, 2017)
      Directive 2006/113/EC on the Quality Required of Shellfish Waters, also referred to as the Shellfish Waters Directive (SWD) requires the monitoring of, inter alia, certain physicochemical parameters including trace metal contaminants in order to assess and protect the quality of shellfish growing waters and the shellfish harvested from them. Sixty-four areas have been designated as Shellfish Waters (SWs) under SI 268 of 2006, SI 55 of 2009 and SI 464 of 2009. The SWD is concerned the quality of shellfish waters and applied waters designated by the Member States as needing protection or improvement in order to support shellfish (bivalve and gastropod molluscs) life and growth and thus to contribute to the high quality of shellfish products directly edible by man. The Marine Institute undertakes a monitoring programme to meet the requirements of the Water Framework Directive (WFD) 2000/60/EC Transitional and Coastal (TraC) Waters and physico-chemical elements of the SWD.
    • A Monograph Study of Offshore Fishing and Social Change in Kilmore Quay, Co. Wexford

      Collier, P (Marine Institute, 2001)
      This sociological study was financed by The Marine Institute following the presentation of a preliminary paper entitled 'Irish Offshore Share Fishermen - transposing artisan convention into commercial control' by Peter Collier Ph.D. This paper offered a theoretical framework for probing topics of change regarding offshore fishing convention and control techniques used by vessel owners in the Republic of Ireland. The study aims to present and interpret evidence dealing with human resources and offshore fishing in the Kilmore Quay local authority port, Co. Wexford. This evidence was collected over a two month period, August-September, 2000. The study concentrates on the profile of offshore fishermen and conditions of change related to increasing spans of control over the cumulative Kilmore fishing effort. The study is local in its framing plane. A general review of the status of Irish offshore crewmen is taken into consideration at the concluding stage of this report.
    • Morphological and molecular characterization of the small armoured dinoflagellate Heterocapsa minima (Peridiniales, Dinophyceae)

      Salas, R.; Tillmann, U.; Kavanagh, S. (Taylor and Francis, 2014)
      The dinophycean genus Heterocapsa is of considerable interest as it contains a number of bloom-forming and/or harmful species. Fine structure of organic body scales is regarded as the most important morphological feature for species determination but currently is unknown for the species H. minima described by Pomroy 25 years ago. Availability of a culture of H. minima collected in the south-west of Ireland allowed us to provide important information for this species, including cell size, cell organelle location, thecal plate pattern, body scale fine structure and molecular phylogeny. Light microscopy revealed the presence of one reticulate chloroplast, an elongated centrally located nucleus, and the presence of one pyrenoid surrounded by a starch sheath. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the thecal plate pattern indicated that Pomroy erroneously designated the narrow first cingular plate as a sulcal plate. In addition, SEM revealed as yet unreported details of the apical pore complex and uncommon ornamentations of hypothecal plates. Organic body scales of H. minima were about 400 nm in size, roundish, with a small central hole and one central, six peripheral and three radiating spines. They differ from other body scales described within this genus allowing for positive identification of H. minima. Heterocapsa minima shares gross cell morphological features (hyposome smaller than episome, elongated nucleus in the middle of the cell, one pyrenoid located in the episome on its left side) with H. arctica (both subspecies H. arctica subsp. arctica and H. arctica subsp. frigida), H. lanceolata and H. rotundata. These relationships are reflected in the phylogenetic trees based on LSU and ITS rDNA sequence data, which identified H. arctica (both subspecies), H. rotundata and H. lanceolata as close relatives of H. minima.
    • Mosaics For Burrow Detection in Underwater Surveillance Video

      Sooknanan, K.; Doyle, J.; Kokaram, A.; Corrigan, D.; Wilson, J.; Harte, N. (IEEE, 2013)
      Harvesting the commercially significant lobster,Nephrops norvegicus, is a multimillion dollar industry in Europe. Stock assessment is essential for maintaining this activity but it is conducted by manually inspecting hours of underwater surveillance videos. To improve this tedious process, we propose the use of mosaics for the automated detection of burrows on the seabed. We present novel approaches for handling the difficult lighting conditions that cause poor video quality in this kind of video material. Mosaics are built using 1-10 minutes of footage and candidate burrows are selected using image segmentation based on local image contrast. A K-Nearest Neighbour classifier is then used to select burrows from these candidate regions. Our final decision accuracy at 93.6% recall and 86.6% precision shows a corresponding 18% and 14.2% improvement compared with previous work.
    • Mosaics For Nephrops Detection in Underwater Survey Videos

      Sooknanan, K; Doyle, J; Lordan, C; Wilson, J; Kokaram, A; Corrigan, D (2014)
      Harvesting the commercially significant lobster, Nephrops norvegicus, is a multimillion dollar industry in Europe. Stock assessment is essential for maintaining this activity but it is conducted by manually inspecting hours of underwater surveillance videos. To improve this tedious process, we propose an automated procedure. This procedure uses mosaics for detecting the Nephrops, which improves visibility and reduces the tedious video inspection process to the browsing of a single image. In addition to this novel application approach, key contributions are made for handling the difficult lighting conditions in these kinds of videos. Mosaics are build using 1-10 minutes of footage and candidate Nephrops regions are selected using image segmentation based on local image contrast and colour features. A K-Nearest Neighbour classifier is then used to select the respective Nephrops from these candidate regions. Our final decision accuracy at 87.5% recall and precision shows a corresponding 31.5% and 79.4% improvement compared with previous work.
    • The Movement of Salmon (Salmo Salar) Through an Estuary and a Fish-Pass

      Jackson, P. A.; Howie, D. I. D. (Department of the Marine, 1967)
      In this paper we have attempted to analyze in quantitative terms the behaviour of the salmon of the River Erne during the important phase of migration when the fish first enter brackish and fresh water.
    • Movement of Salmon from the South Coast in 1975

      McCarthy, D T (Department of Agriculture and Fisheries (Fisheries Division), 1977)
      In 1973, tagging investigations commenced into the origin of the salmon stocks being exploited by drift nets along the south coast of Ireland (8º0’W - 10º0’W). The exploitation of these stocks commenced in 1968 with a catch of 1,500 fish and by 1975 the catch had increased to 90,400. The results of the 1973-1974 programme and a description of the fishing methods used have been published in Fishery Leaflet No. 67. Throughout the programme, fish were tagged using Lea’s hydrostatic tags described by Went (1951). A marked difference in returns was observed in 1975 between salmon revived in sea water tanks and those released directly after tagging, In the former, a 14.8% recapture rate was recorded, compared with 6% in the case of salmon released immediately after tagging.
    • Movement of salmon from the south coast of Ireland in 1973-1974

      McCarthy, D T (Department of Agriculture and Fisheries (Fisheries Division), 1975)
      In 1973 tagging investigations were started into the origin of the salmon stocks being exploited in the West Cork area (8º0'W to 10º10'W) along the south coast of Ireland. The vessels used varied from six metre open boats to twenty metre trawlers, the average length was 10.5 metres (1972 survey involving 276 boats). Fishing is carried on over the twenty four hours. Up to 1973 nets were 30 mashes deep: in that year nets of 60 and up to 98 meshes were introduced, and during the 1974 season most boats fished nets of 68 meshes deep. The length of net varied from 400 metres to 1.6 km. Nets were shot at right angles to the coast in roughly a north-south direction, all vessels staying quite close to land, the furthest distance out being approximately 2 km from land. Most fish were caught in the bottom portion of the net during the hours of day-light but at night or in rough weather about half the catch were caught in the top portion of the net.
    • Moving beyond the MSY concept to reflect multidimensional fisheries management objectives

      Rindorf, Anna; Mumford, John; Baranowski, Paul; Clausen, Lotte Worsøe; García, Dorleta; Hintzen, Niels T.; Kempf, Alexander; Leach, Adrian; Levontin, Polina; Mace, Pamela; et al. (Elsevier BV, 2017)
      Maximising the long term average catch of single stock fisheries as prescribed by the globally-legislated MSY objective is unlikely to ensure ecosystem, economic, social and governance sustainability unless an effort is made to explicitly include these considerations. We investigated how objectives to be maximised can be combined with sustainability constraints aiming specifically at one or more of these four sustainability pillars. The study was conducted as a three-year interactive process involving 290 participating science, industry, NGO and management representatives from six different European regions. Economic considerations and inclusive governance were generally preferred as the key objectives to be maximised in complex fisheries, recognising that ecosystem, social and governance constraints are also key aspects of sustainability in all regions. Relative preferences differed between regions and cases but were similar across a series of workshops, different levels of information provided and the form of elicitation methods used as long as major shifts in context or stakeholder composition did not occur. Maximising inclusiveness in governance, particularly the inclusiveness of affected stakeholders, was highly preferred by participants across the project. This suggests that advice incorporating flexibility in the interpretation of objectives to leave room for meaningful inclusiveness in decision-making processes is likely to be a prerequisite for stakeholder buy-in to management decisions.
    • Mulroy Bay Scallop Research 1980

      Griffith, David de G (Department of Agriculture and Fisheries (Fisheries Division), 1981)
      Following a preliminary investigation in 1977, the Department of Fisheries & Forestry carried out an intensive multi-disciplinary survey of Mulroy Bay in the summer of 1978. The results of this "blitz" survey, when evaluated, formed the basis of more extensive research in the North Water during 1979. This North Water programme was expanded in 1980, as part of the Department's contribution to a co-operative research programme on Mulroy Bay organised in conjunction with the National Board for Science & Technology. This included a hydrographic survey, specially commissioned by the Department, to produce a detailed bathymetric chart of the North Water. This was made available free of charge to interested individuals and groups in the locality. The 1980 research results were presented at a seminar in January 1981 at the Department's Fisheries Research Centre, which was organised in order that the data obtained could be discussed and evaluated by the individuals and agencies involved in the field programme. This Fisheries Leaflet is a summary of the papers read at that seminar, by staff of the Fisheries Research Centre.
    • A multi-proxy palaeolimnological study to reconstruct the evolution of a coastal brackish lake (Lough Furnace, Ireland) during the late Holocene

      Cassina, Filippo; Dalton, Catherine; Dillane, Mary; De Eyto, Elvira; Poole, Russell; Sparber, Karin (Elsevier, 2013)
      This study examines the evolution of Lough Furnace, a coastal brackish lake in the west of Ireland, using high-resolution sensors in the water column and palaeolimnological examination of the sediment archive. Palaeoenvironmental reconstructions suggest that meromixis formed as a result of sea level rise prior to ca. 4000 cal. yr BP. Increased seawater inflow has progressively led to permanent water stratification, which caused the onset of anoxia, making the monimolimnion a harsh environment for biological life. Diatom floristic interpretations suggest a progressive upcore increase in salinity, which is paralleled by a reduction in cladocera remains. Diagenetic processes have not altered the sediment organic matter signature. Organic matter mainly derives from freshwater DOC and appears to be linked to the presence of peat bogs in the catchment as confirmed by the C/N ratio. Upcore variations in the C/N ratio with a ca. 800-year periodicity have been interpreted as the result of alternating dry and wet climatic phases during the late Holocene, which appear synchronous with the NAO and long-term solar cycles. The current hydrology is largely controlled by freshwater inflow, which determines permanent meromictic conditions. Overturns are rare, requiring a specific combination of factors such as exceptionally dry and warm summers followed by cool autumns. According to the climate projections for the next century in Ireland, permanent meromictic conditions will probably continue.
    • A multi-year comparison of Spirolide profiles in planktonic field samples from the North Sea and adjacent waters

      Krock, B.; Tillmann, U.; Alpermann, T.; Salas, R.; Cembella, A.D. (Alfred-Wegener-Institut für Polar- und Meeresforschung in der Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft, 2010)
      Alexandrium ostenfeldii isolates from distinct geographical locations showed almost identical profiles, primarily consisting of 20-methyl spirolide G (20-meG). Whereas the Scottish isolate produces only this variant, the Irish isolate additionally yields slight amounts of 13-desmethyl spirolide C (13-desmeC). These profiles were also reflected in the field data, where 20-meG was the most abundant spirolide throughout all samples and years.
    • Music 5th and 6th class: Make sounds of the unknown through improvisation

      Marine Institute (Marine Institute, 2018)
      The lesson will enable students to listen, imagine and create their own music, inspired by the discovery of the Moytirra hydrothermal vents. The students will select from a wide variety of sound sources such as voice, body percussion, improvised instruments and technology to generate sounds of the deep ocean, to accompany the storyboard/film.
    • Music: 1st and 2nd Class - Listening to Ocean Music (Irish and English Version available)

      Marine Institute (Marine Institute., 2014)
      The aim of the lesson plan if for the children to be enabled to listen to a short, unfamiliar piece of music or excerpts from a composition.
    • Music: 3rd and 4th Class - Listening and Creating Percussion to Sea Songs (Irish and English Version available)

      Marine Institute (Marine Institute., 2014)
      The aim of the lesson plan if for the children to be enabled to perform simple musical pieces that show a developing awareness of musical elements. The child should be enabled to describe and discuss his/her work and the work of other children.
    • Music: 5th and 6th Class - Listening and Performing Ceol na Mara – Music of the Sea (Irish and English Version Available)

      Marine Institute (Marine Institute., 2014)
      The aim of the lesson plan if for the children to be enabled to perform: (1) as part of a group, one or both songs sung individually or as partner songs. (2) a rhythmic ostinato (tapping a pattern over and over) to accompany the songs.
    • Music: Junior Infants and Senior Infants Class - Creating an Ocean Soundscape using Body Percussion (Irish and English Version available)

      Marine Institute (Marine Institute., 2014)
      The aim of the lesson plan if for the children to enabled to play body percussion instruments developing a sense of pulse, duration, tempo, pitch dynamics, structure and texture.
    • A mussel tissue certified reference material for multiple phycotoxins. Part 1: design and preparation

      McCarron, P; Emteborg, H; Nulty, C; Rundberget, T; Loader, J I; Teipel, K; Miles, C O; Quilliam, M A; Hess, P (Springer Berlin / Heidelberg, 2011)
      The development of multi-analyte methods for lipophilic shellfish toxins based on liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry permits rapid screening and analysis of samples for a wide variety of toxins in a single run. To ensure accuracy of results, validated methods and appropriate certified reference materials (CRMs) are required. CRMs are essential for accurate instrument calibration, for assessing the complete analytical method from sample extraction to data analysis, and for verifying trueness. However, CRMs have hitherto only been available for single toxin groups. Production of a CRM containing six major toxin groups was achieved through an international collaboration. Preparation of this material, CRM-FDMT1, drew on information from earlier studies as well as improved methods for handling bulk tissues, production of reference materials, and isolation of toxins. Previous investigations of stabilisation techniques indicated freeze-drying to be a suitable procedure for preparation of shellfish toxin RMs and applicable to a wide range of toxins. CRM-FDMT1 was initially prepared as a bulk wet tissue homogenate with planned concentrations of domoic acid, okadaic acid, dinophysistoxins, azaspiracids, pectenotoxins, yessotoxin and spirolides. The homogenate was then freeze dried, milled and bottled in aliquots suitable for distribution and analysis. The moisture content and particle size distribution were measured, and determined to be appropriate. A preliminary toxin analysis of the final material showed a comprehensive toxin profile.