• Maths 3rd Class Measuring Estimating and Comparing Fish Lengths (Irish and English Version available)

      Marine Institute (Marine Institute, 2014)
      The aim of the lesson plan is for children to be enabled to estimate, compare and measure regular and irregular shapes such as fish using standard and non-standard forms of measurement.
    • Maths 4th Class Erica’s Timetable working on the Research Vessel Celtic Explorer

      Marine Institute (Marine Institute, 2014)
      The aim of the lesson plan is for children to be enabled to consolidate the concept of the passing of time. Using a schedule of work on the research vessel RV Celtic Explorer, the children will solve practical tasks involving the addition and subtraction of hours and minutes.
    • Maths 5th Class At the Fishmongers Practical Problems (Irish and English Version available)

      Marine Institute (Marine Institute, 2014)
      The aim of the lesson plan is for the children to be enabled to compare and determine value for money through tasks and practical problems. The children will compare and calculate practical money problems at the fishmongers including hourly rate of pay and shopping bills by engaging in role play.
    • Maths 5th Class Learning about Ocean Zones and Recording Ocean Temperatures (Irish and English Version available)

      Marine Institute (Marine Institute, 2014)
      The aim of the lesson plan is for the children to be enabled to identify and record positive and negative numbers on the number line. The depths of the ocean and ocean temperatures are used as an example.
    • Maths 5th Class Recording Ocean Temperatures

      Marine Institute (Marine Institute, 2014)
      The aim of the lesson plan is for the children to be enabled to identify and record positive and negative numbers on the number line. Depths of the Ocean and Ocean temperatures are used as an example.
    • Maths 6th Class Above and Below Sea Level Recording Directed Numbers (Irish and English Version available)

      Marine Institute (Marine Institute, 2014)
      The aim of the lesson plan is for the children to understand the practical application of directed numbers in the context of sea levels through discussion and practical engagement.
    • Maths 6th Class Interpreting Data about Prawns landed in Irish waters

      Marine Institute (Marine Institute, 2014)
      The aim of the lesson plan is for the children to be able to read and interpret trend graphs. Using data collected from the Irish fishing ports (Dublin prawns), the children will compile and use simple data sets and explore and calculate averages of simple data sets.
    • MATT: Monitoring, Analysis and Toxicity of Toxaphene: improvement of analytical methods

      de Boer, J.; Klungsøyr, J.; Nesje, G.; Meier, S.; McHugh, B.; Nixon, E.; Rimkus, G.G. (1999)
      The European Research Project MATT (Investigation into the Monitoring, Analysis and Toxicity of Toxaphene) started in 1997 and had the objective to provide information on toxicological risks to the consumer of toxaphene residues in fish from European waters. This report includes information on the analytical block of the project, which comprised three studies.
    • Maturity and Spawning in Fish

      Marine Institute (Marine Institute, 2006)
      In order to manage a stock effectively it is very important to understand the dynamics of that stock. Three critical pieces of information required to manage any fishery properly are: (1) Location of spawning areas; (2) Timing of spawning seasons; (3) Estimation of size at maturity. This information can be obtained by studying the spawning patterns of a stock. This type of data was vital in the Irish Sea cod recovery programme (the closure of the Irish Sea box from February to May of this year). This area represents a large spawning ground for the Irish Sea cod and the closure was to protect the spawning adults.
    • Mean weights at age in Celtic Sea Herrings

      Molloy, J. (Marine Institute, 2000)
      Stock recruitment analysis for Celtic sea herring suggest that exploitation rates of F >0.4 carry a high probability of long term SSB decline. Fmed, which would carry a much lower risk of reducing the SSB, has been suggested as a candidate for Fpa and most recent analyses give this value at 0.29. However based on last years assessment only 4 of the 41 estimated fishing mortalaties were equal or less than 0.3 while 26 were higher or equal to 0.4 with the series average being F=0.50. This would indicate that F>0.4 does not seem carry a high probability of stock collapse. Thus there is an apparent discrepancy between the analyses and experience.
    • MEFEPO North Western Waters Atlas 2nd Edition

      Nolan, C; Connolly, P L; Kelly, E; Dransfeld, L; Slattery, N; Paramor, O A L; Frid, C L J (Marine Institute, 2011)
      MEFEPO (Making the European Fisheries Ecosystem Plan Operational) is a group of ecologists, economists, management experts and fisheries scientists who are trying to make ecosystem based fisheries management a reality in Europe. This Atlas is intended for policy makers, managers and interested stakeholders. Its purpose is to provide an ecosystem overview of the North Western Waters area (NWW) Regional Advisory Council (RAC) area. This new edition of the Atlas has been modified in response to stakeholder feedback to provide updated information on the physical and chemical features, habitat types, biological features, birds, mammals, fishing activity and other human activities of the NWW region. Background material on four NWW case study fisheries is presented (North East Atlantic Mackerel, Northern Hake, Dublin Bay Prawn and Scallops). This NWW Atlas was produced by the Marine Institute, Ireland as part of the EU funded MEFEPO project.
    • Mercury assessment in the marine environment: assessment criteria comparison (EAC/EQS) for mercury

      OSPAR Commission; McHugh, B.; Berbee, R.; Farmer, E.; Fryer, R.; Green, N.; Larsen, M.M.; Webster, L.; Lepom, P.; McGovern, E.; et al. (OSPAR Commission, 2016)
      Mercury is known for its worldwide environmental impact. It is addressed by several existing international agreements addressing atmospheric emissions (CLRTAP), the marine environment (OSPAR, HELCOM, Barcelona, Bucharest), waste (Basel), and export of chemicals (Rotterdam). It can be brought into the biosphere by humans by two different mechanisms: 1) intentional extraction and use, and 2) as a natural constituent in other materials. Mercury is extremely toxic to both man and biota and can be transformed within the aquatic environment into more toxic organic compounds (e.g. methyl mercury). A main pathway of mercury to the sea is atmospheric and it can be carried long distances from its source. The primary risk to the general population is exposure to methylmercury via ingestion of aquatic foods. OSPAR measures and subsequent EU measures regulate the main industrial sources for mercury releases to the environment. A suite of OSPAR measures control mercury emissions, discharges and sources. OSPAR has promoted actions in other international forums, especially the EU, e.g. call for actions to prevent pollution from the disposal of large amounts of pure and waste mercury arising from the closure or conversion of mercury cell chlor-alkali plants and for control measures on the use and marketing of mercury in various products.
    • Mercury concentration in fish from Irish waters in 1992

      Nixon, E; Rowe, A; McLaughlin, D (Department of the Marine, 1993-08)
      Fish landed at the major Irish ports and molluscs from the main growing areas were sampled during 1992 and analysed for total mercury content. Concentrations in fish species ranged from 0.015 to 1.02 mg/kg wet weight with a mean of 0.1, while in shellfish the concentrations were lower and ranged from 0.005 to 0.049 with a mean of 0.026. The mercury levels recorded in all fish sampled were within the standards for human health applied by the contracting parties to the Oslo and Paris Convention (OSPARCOM). The mean mercury concentrations in only two samples, redfish and crawfish from the west coast, showed levels close to the limit. These species are generally offshore and levels are associated with naturally-occurring mercury rather than with human activity. The survey confirms that Irish seafish of all kinds are effectively free from mercury contamination.
    • Mercury concentration in fish from Irish waters in 1993

      Nixon, E; Rowe, A; McLoughlin, D (Department of the Marine, 1994-11)
      During 1993, a total of 81 samples, covering 18 finfish and 4 shellfish species were collected and the edible portion analysed for total mercury content in accordance with the European Commission's Decision of 19 May 1993. In finfish the concentration of mercury ranged from 0.01 to 0.39 with a mean of 0.10 and in shellfish the concentration also ranged from 0.01 to 0.39 but with a mean of 0.04µg/g wet weight. These levels are low and are well within the maximum limits set by the EC for mercury in fisheries products. The total mercury concentration in Irish shellfish is very low and is generally low in the commercial catch landed at Irish ports. This survey confirms previous studies that show Irish seafoods are effectively free from mercury contamination.
    • Mercury Concentrations in Fish from Irish Waters in 1994

      Nixon, E; Rowe, A; McLaughlin, D (Department of the Marine, 1995-09)
      During 1994, a total of 65 samples, covering the commercially important fish and shellfish species, were collected and the edible portion analysed for total mercury content in accordance with the European Commission's Decision of 19 May 1993. In fish, including prawns, the concentration of mercury ranged from 0.01 to 0.21 with a mean of 0.06 and in shellfish from 0.01 to 0.13 with a mean of 0.04mg/kg wet weight. These levels are low and are well within the maximum limits, 0.05mg/kg wet weight, set by the EC for mercury in fisheries products. This survey confirms previous studies that show Irish seafoods are effectively free from mercury contamination.
    • Metal and Organo-Chlorine Concentrations in Fin-Fish from Irish Waters in 1995

      Rowe, A; Nixon, E; McGovern, E; McManus, M; Smyth, M (Marine Institute, 1998-02)
      During 1995 a total of 44 samples taken from 16 different species of fin-fish were collected from five Irish fishing ports and analysed for total mercury content in the edible tissue, in accordance with the European Commission's Decision of 19 May 1993. The concentration of mercury ranged from 0.03 to 0.28 with a mean of 0.09µg/g wet weight. These levels are low and are well within the maximum limits set by the EC for mercury in fisheries products. This survey confirms previous studies that show Irish seafoods are effectively free from mercury contamination. In addition a number of samples were also analysed for cadmium, copper, lead, zinc, chromium and chlorinated hydrocarbons. Although there are no EU guidelines or standards for these additional contaminants, the levels are well below the strictest standards or guidance values applied by Contracting Parties of the Oslo and Paris Conventions.
    • MHC-mediated spatial distribution in brown trout (Salmo trutta) fry

      O'Farrell, Brian; Benzie, John A. H.; McGinnity, Philip; Carlsson, Jens; De Eyto, Elvira; Dillane, Eileen; Graham, Conor; Coughlan, James; Cross, Tom (Nature Publishing Group, 2011-09)
      Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-linked microsatellite data and parental assignment data for a group of wild brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) provide evidence of closer spatial aggregation among fry sharing greater numbers of MHC class I alleles under natural conditions. This result confirms predictions from laboratory experiments demonstrating a hierarchical preference for association of fry sharing MHC alleles. Full-siblings emerge from the same nest (redd), and a passive kin association pattern arising from limited dispersal from the nest (redd effect) would predict that all such pairs would have a similar distribution. However, this study demonstrates a strong, significant trend for reduced distance between pairs of full-sibling fry sharing more MHC class I alleles reflecting their closer aggregation (no alleles shared, 311.5±(s.e.)21.03m; one allele shared, 222.2±14.49m; two alleles shared, 124.9±23.88m; P<0.0001). A significant trend for closer aggregation among fry sharing more MHC class I alleles was also observed in fry pairs, which were known to have different mothers and were otherwise unrelated (ML-r=0) (no alleles: 457.6±3.58m; one allele (422.4±3.86 m); two alleles (381.7±10.72 m); P<0.0001). These pairs are expected to have emerged from different redds and a passive association would then be unlikely. These data suggest that sharing MHC class I alleles has a role in maintaining kin association among full-siblings after emergence. This study demonstrates a pattern consistent with MHC-mediated kin association in the wild for the first time.
    • Migration and Fisheries of North East Atlantic Mackerel (Scomber scombrus) in Autumn and Winter

      Jansen, Teunis; Campbell, Andrew; Kelly, Ciarán; Hátún, Hjálmar; Payne, Mark R. (Public Library of Science (PLOS), 2012)
      It has been suggested that observed spatial variation in mackerel fisheries, extending over several hundreds of kilometers, is reflective of climate-driven changes in mackerel migration patterns. Previous studies have been unable to clearly demonstrate this link. In this paper we demonstrate correlation between temperature and mackerel migration/distribution as proxied by mackerel catch data from both scientific bottom trawl surveys and commercial fisheries. We show that mackerel aggregate and migrate distances of up to 500 km along the continental shelf edge from mid-November to early March. The path of this migration coincides with the location of the relatively warm shelf edge current and, as a consequence of this affinity, mackerel are guided towards the main spawning area in the south. Using a simulated time series of temperature of the shelf edge current we show that variations in the timing of the migration are significantly correlated to temperature fluctuations within the current. The proposed proxies for mackerel distribution were found to be significantly correlated. However, the correlations were weak and only significant during periods without substantial legislative or technical developments. Substantial caution should therefore be exercised when using such data as proxies for mackerel distribution. Our results include a new temperature record for the shelf edge current obtained by embedding the available hydrographic observations within a statistical model needed to understand the migration through large parts of the life of adult mackerel and for the management of this major international fishery.
    • Mismatch between fish landings and market trends: a western European case study

      Miller, Dana; Clarke, Maurice; Mariani, Stefano (Elsevier, 2012)
      As an island nation, Ireland is connected to and responsible for the seas that surround it. Fishing has historically been one of the major anthropogenic activities linking Irish society to the marine environment. Deriving an approach from historical ecology, we investigated temporal patterns in the diversity of seafood landed, traded and marketed in Ireland by collating long-term datasets acquired from government sources and through conducting contemporary product surveys. Our findings suggest that consumer preferences have not adapted to changes in local resource supply. From the beginning of the 20th century, Irish landings of some of the traditionally most important seafood products have gradually grown, then sharply declined within the most recent 10-20 years, but access to ample supply appears to have been maintained in the Irish marketplace. Our results indicate that this trend has been concealed from consumers through import, aquaculture production and mislabeling. Future intentions of responsible management must incorporate policy implementation and enforcement, consumer education and industry transparency.
    • A Model Compound Study: The ecotoxicological evaluation of five organic contaminants with a battery of marine bioassays

      Macken, A; Giltrap, M; Foley, B; McGovern, E; McHugh, B; Davoren, M (Elsevier, 2008)
      This paper describes the ecotoxicological evaluation of five organic contaminants frequently detected in marine sediments (tributyltin, triphenyltin, benzo[a]pyrene, fluoranthene, and PCB 153) using three marine species (Vibrio fischeri, Tetraselmis suecica, and Tisbe battagliai). The sensitivity of each species varied for all compounds. The triorganotins were consistently the most toxic to all species. The applicability of each test system to assess the acute toxicity of environmental contaminants and their use in Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) is discussed. Suitability of the Microtox and T. battagliai tests for employment in TIE studies were further assessed through spiking experiments with tributyltin. Results demonstrated that the most effective treatment to remove organotin toxicity from the sample was the C18 resin. The results of this study have important implications for risk assessment in estuarine and coastal waters in Ireland, where, at present the monitoring of sediment and water quality is predominantly reliant on chemical analysis alone. Ecotoxicological evaluation of five organic marine sediment contaminants was conducted and the suitability of the test species for marine porewater TIE discussed.