• Irish Sprats and Sandeels

      Molloy, J (Department of Agriculture and Fisheries (Fisheries Division), 1967)
      In 1965, Ireland imported approximately 13,235 tons of fishmeal for animal feeding stuffs, valued at £827,506. For some time now cosideration has been given to the fish resources around our coasts and whether it would be possible to provide a constant source of supply of materials to the fishmeal industry and the growing number of mink and trout farms. This paper investigates this issue.
    • Isolation of Streptococcus agalactiae and an aquatic birnavirus from doctor fish Garra rufa L.

      Ruane, N.M.; Collins, E.M.; Geary, M.; Swords, D.; Hickey, C.; Geoghegan, F. (BioMed Central, 2013)
      Background The doctor fish, Garra rufa, has become increasingly popular as a treatment for skin disorders and for pedicures in recent years. Despite this there is very little information available regarding the welfare of these fish and the range of potential pathogens they may carry. In this study, a group of fish suffering from post-transport mortalities were examined and the isolated pathogens identified. Findings Group B Streptococcus agalactiae was isolated from kidney swabs of the fish and found to be resistant to a number of antibiotics. In addition to this, a fish virus belonging to the aquabirnavirus group, serogroup C was isolated for the first time in Ireland. However, no clinical signs of disease typical of bacterial or viral infections were observed in any fish examined. Conclusions As no clinical signs of disease attributable to either of the pathogens identified were found it was concluded that the mortalities were most likely due to transport related stress exacerbated by the presence of the pathogens. Further work is required to assess the suitability of current transport strategies and to examine the potential risk associated with the transport of live ornamental fish.
    • Isolation of Yersinia ruckeri type I (Hagerman strain) from goldfish Carassius auratus. (L.)

      McArdle, J.F.; Dooley-Martyn, C. (European Association of Fish Pathologists, 1985)
    • Isolations and purifications of AZAs from naturally contaminated materials, and evaluation of their toxicological effects (ASTOX)

      Hess, P; McCarron, P; Rehmann, N; Kilcoyne, J; McMahon, T; Ryan, G; Ryan, M P; Twiner, M J; Doucette, G J; Satake, M; et al. (Marine Institute, 2007)
      Since 1995, when several people became ill following consumption of shellfish from Ireland, azaspiracids (AZAs) have been known as shellfish toxins, causing symptoms associated with gastro-intestinal disorders, including diarrhoea, vomiting, headaches and others. The aims of the ASTOX-project were to provide control tools for the analysis of AZAs in shellfish, i.e. calibration standards and tissue reference materials (RMs), and to clarify the toxicity of AZAs in qualitative and quantitative terms, i.e. to understand the mode of action of AZAs and to derive a No Observable Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) for safe consumption of shellfish.
    • Issues and Recommendations for the Development and Regulation of Marine Aggregate Extraction in the Irish Sea

      O'Mahony, C; Sutton, G; McMahon, T; Ó Cinneide, M; Nixon, E (Marine Institute, 2008)
      This report details the work undertaken as part of the INTERREG IIIA Irish Sea Marine Aggregates Initiative (IMAGIN) project which aims “to develop recommendations for a strategic policy framework for an administrative and regulatory process, and operational guidelines under which dredging for marine aggregates in the Irish Sea can be sustainably managed.” It considers policy and regulatory issues from an Irish context. Aggregates in the form of sand and gravel deposits are a vital natural resource, providing essential material to support societal needs for infrastructure and the construction industry. Thus, the importance of aggregate supply to the economy of many nations cannot be understated. As a result of Ireland’s economic boom since the early 1990s, the national consumption of aggregates per head of population in Ireland has spiralled upward and is currently standing at four times the European average. At present, all aggregate used in the Irish market is extracted from terrestrial sources. This project set out to examine the marine extraction option for current supply and future Irish demand.
    • The Japanese Bluefin Tuna Longline Fishery in the Northeast Atlantic: Report of an Irish Observer

      Boyd, J. (Marine Institute, 2008)
      This paper describes an observer trip on a Japanese freezer longliner in the international waters of the North East Atlantic in the autumn of 1997. The observation period was 71 days during which 7 species were recorded as catch and bycatch from 57 sets. Although bluefin tuna was the target species, with 18,894kg gilled and gutted weight (GWT) caught, the most frequently retained species was blue shark, Prionace glauca, followed by bluefin tuna. Three shortfin mako shark, Isurus oxyrinchus, one swordfish, Xiphias gladius and one anglerfish, Lophius spp., were also recorded. The most frequently discarded species were lancetfish Alepisaurus ferox, and deal fish Trachipterus arcticus. Bluefin tuna ranged from 139cm to 275cm in fork length (FL) and from 64kg to 347kg in round weight (RWT) with clear modes of 190cm and 136kg. Recent ageing results from the North East Atlantic infer ages of 4 to 17 years old. CPUE was lower than Norwegian sponsored trials in the North East Atlantic in 1998 and similar to those computed by the Japanese longline observer programme in 2000, 2001 and 2002. There was no evidence of trend in bluefin CPUE over the course of the observation period. The modelled length weight relationship predicted higher values than established length weight relationships for bluefin tuna in the East Atlantic: ICCAT modelled RWT for East Atlantic bluefin was 87% of the observed round weight and 90% of the predicted RWT value for Koshin Maru #8 tuna. Over the observation period the condition of bluefin tuna was found to decline and examination of stomachs showed that most were empty or contained low numbers of prey items. Declining condition factors and apparent scarcity of prey are discussed in the context of CPUE. Prey scarcity reflected in declining condition may increase the effectiveness of baited hooks causing abundance estimates derived from CPUE series to over-estimate the population of bluefin tuna in the North East Atlantic. Investigation of condition indices has the potential to estimate stock ratios in longline catches in the North Atlantic. All observed blue shark catch were female with lengths ranging from 140cm to 250cm.
    • Juniors and Seniors Infants Class - I Spy an Ocean in Our Class – Learning about Irish marine animals

      Marine Institute (Marine Institute., 2014)
      The aim of the lesson plan is for the children to develop and interest and an ability to think about marine animals through stories and games. The children will be able to predict future incidents and outcomes in stories.
    • Karenia mikimotoi: An Exceptional Dinoflagellate Bloom in Western Irish Waters, Summer 2005

      Silke, J.; O'Beirn, F.X.; Cronin, M. (Marine Institute, 2005)
      A protracted bloom of Karenia mikimotoi was present in summer 2005 along the northern half of the western Irish coastline. The onset of this bloom was identified in late May / early June. This event subsequently dissipated over the month of July and was succeeded by a bloom of the same species in the southwest in late July. The bloom was very intense and resulted in discolouration of seawater and foaming in coastal embayments. Major mortalities of benthic and pelagic marine organisms were observed and a complete decimation of marine faunal communities was reported and observed in several locations. Deaths of echinoderms, polychaetes and bivalve molluscs were observed in County Donegal and Mayo, while farmed shellfish and hatchery raised juvenile bivalve spat suffered significant mortalities along the Galway and Mayo coasts. Reports of dead fish and crustacea were received from Donegal, Galway, West Cork and Kerry. Karenia mikimotoi is one of the most common red tide causative dinoflagellates known in the Northeast Atlantic region, and is also common in the waters around Japan. Blooms of this species often reach concentrations of over several million cells per litre and these densities are often associated with marine fauna mortalities. Although cytotoxic polyethers have been extracted from cultures of the species, the exact mechanism of the toxic effect and resultant devastating damages yet remains unclear. It is known in the literature under several different names as the taxonomy and genetics have been studied. It is now known that previously reported names including Gyrodinium aureolum, G. cf. aureolum, G. nagasakiense and G. mikimotoi are synonymous with the current name given to the organism. The visible effects following the mortalities included noticeable quantities of dead heart urchins (Echinocardium cordata L.) and lugworms (Arenicola marina L.) deposited on beaches. Several species of wild fish were also found dead. The bloom coincided with a period of fine weather and tourists visiting the seaside were concerned about the safety of swimming in waters that were obviously harmful to marine organisms on this scale. A public awareness programme was mounted by the Marine Institute with several radio broadcasts, press releases and a website provided to give up to date pronouncements on the event. While there have been several instances of Karenia mikimotoi blooms reported in Ireland over the past 30 years, this scale of mortalities associated with the 2005 bloom were not previously observed. Recording the scale of this event was facilitated by satellite imagery while direct counts of the cells in seawater by the Marine Institute monitoring programme gave very useful information regarding the size and intensity of this event. The mortalities of marine organisms were documented from reports made by various observers and by Marine Institute field surveys.
    • Koi Herpesvirus Disease

      Marine Institute (Marine Institute, 2011)
      This leaflet gives information on Koi herpesvirus disease (KHV). KHV is caused by koi herpesvirus (or cyprinid herpesvirus-3) a double stranded DNA virus of the family Herpesviridae. KHV is listed as a non-exotic disease under EU Directive 2006/88/EC and is notifiable in Ireland according to S.I. No. 261 of 2008.
    • Labadie, Jones and Cockburn Banks (FU20-21) 2013 UWTV Survey Report

      Doyle, J.; Lordan, C.; Hehir, I.; O’Sullivan, D.; O’Connor, S.; Blaszkowski, M.; Stewart, P. (Marine Institute, 2013)
      This report provides the main results of the 2013 underwater television survey on the ‘Labadie, Jones and Cockburn Banks’ ICES assessment area; Functional Unit 20-21. Some exploratory stations were carried out in 2006 and 2012. The survey was multi-disciplinary in nature collecting UWTV, CTD, Multibeam and other ecosystem data. A randomised isometric grid design was employed with UWTV stations at 6.0 nmi intervals. Due to weather and technical downtime only 58 out of the 95 planned stations were successfully completed. The adjusted mean density for 2013 was 0.18/m2 which can be classified as “low density”. Scientific knowledge of the heterogeneous habitat and spatial distribution of the Nephrops population in this area is developing. Survey design and burrow identification are particularly difficult in this area due to factors discussed. The occurrence of sea-pens and trawl marks on the UWTV footage is also presented.
    • The Labadie, Jones and Cockburn Banks Nephrops Grounds (FU20-21) 2018 UWTV Survey Report and catch scenarios for 2019.

      Doyle, J.; Aristegui, M.; Hannify, O.; White, J.; Fee, D.; McCorriston, P. (Marine Institute, 2018)
      This report provides the main results of the 2018 underwater television survey on the ‘Labadie, Jones and Cockburn Banks’ ICES assessment area; Functional Unit 20-21. This was the fifth survey to achieve full coverage of the full area. The 2018 survey was multidisciplinary in nature collecting UWTV, and other ecosystem data. A total of 96 UWTV stations were completed at 6 nm intervals over a randomised isometric grid design. The mean burrow density was 0.27 burrows/m2 compared with 0.44 burrows/m2 in 2017. The 2018 geostatistical abundance estimate was 2.7±0.006 billion, a 39% decrease on the abundance for 2017, with a CV of 4% which is well below the upper limit of 20% recommended by SGNEPS 2012. High densities were observed throughout the ground, and also close to boundaries. Using the 2018 abundance estimate and updated stock data implies catch of 5,320 t and landings of 4,325 t in 2019 when MSY approach is applied (assuming that discard rates and fishery selection patterns do not change from the average of 2015–2017). One species of sea-pen (Virgularia mirabilis) were recorded as present at the stations surveyed. Trawl marks were observed at 33% of the stations surveyed.
    • The Labadie, Jones and Cockburn Banks Nephrops Grounds (FU20-21) 2019 UWTV Survey Report and catch scenarios for 2020.

      White, J.; Aristegui, M.; Blaszkowski, M.; Fee, D.; O'Connor, S.; Power, J.; Notaro, D. A.; O’ Brien, S.; Doyle, J. (Marine Institute, 2019)
      This report provides the main results of the 2019 underwater television survey on the ‘Labadie, Jones and Cockburn Banks’ ICES assessment area; Functional Unit 20-21. The 2019 survey was multi-disciplinary in nature collecting UWTV, and other ecosystem data. A total of 95 UWTV stations were completed at 6 nm intervals over a randomised isometric grid design. The mean burrow density was 0.06 burrows/m2 compared with 0.27 burrows/m2 in 2018. The 2019 geostatistical abundance estimate was 617 million, a 77% decrease on the abundance for 2018, with a CV of 5% which is well below the upper limit of 20% recommended by SGNEPS 2012. Low densities were observed throughout the ground. Using the 2019 estimate of abundance and updated stock data implies catch in 2020 that correspond to the F ranges in the EU multi annual plan for Western Waters are between 1131 and 1150 tonnes (assuming that discard rates and fishery selection patterns do not change from the average of 2016–2018). One species of sea-pen (Virgularia mirabilis) were recorded as present at the stations surveyed. Trawl marks were observed at 32% of the stations surveyed.
    • The Labadie, Jones and Cockburn Banks Nephrops Grounds (FU2021) 2014 UWTV Survey Report and catch options for 2015

      Doyle, J.; Lordan, C.; Hehir, I.; Fitzgerald, R.; O'Connor, S.; Keith, M.; Sheridan, M. (Marine Institute, 2014-10)
      This report provides the main results of the 2014 underwater television survey on the ‘Labadie, Jones and Cockburn Banks’ ICES assessment area; Functional Unit 20-21. Some exploratory UWTV stations were carried out in 2006 and 2012. In 2013 ~60% of the ground was surveyed. This was the first survey to achieve full coverage of the newly defined area. The 2014 survey was multi-disciplinary in nature collecting UWTV, CTD and other ecosystem data. A randomised isometric grid design was employed with 98 UWTV stations at 6.0 nmi intervals. The mean burrow density was 0.19 burrows/m2 compared with 0.16 burrows/m2 in 2013. The 2014 geostatistical abundance estimate was 2.1±0.1 billion a 26% increase on the extrapolated abundance for 2013. Highest densities were general observed towards the middle of the ground, but there were also high densities observed close to boundaries. Using the 2014 abundance and recent fisheries data it is possible to estimate harvest ratios consistent with various landings options. These can be used by ICES to provide catch options for 2015. The occurrence of sea-pens and trawl marks on the UWTV footage and processed CTD is also presented.
    • The Labadie, Jones and Cockburn Banks Nephrops Grounds (FU2021) 2015 UWTV Survey Report and catch options for 2016

      Lordan, C.; Doyle, J.; Fitzgerald, R.; O’Connor, S.; Blaszkowski, M.; Stokes, D.; Ni Chonchuir, G.; Gallagher, J.; Butler, R.; Sheridan, M.; et al. (Marine Institute, 2015)
      This report provides the main results of the 2015 underwater television survey on the ‘Labadie, Jones and Cockburn Banks’ ICES assessment area; Functional Unit 20-21. This was the second survey to achieve full coverage of the full area. The 2015 survey was multidisciplinary in nature collecting UWTV, CTD and other ecosystem data. A total of 96 UWTV stations were completed at 6 nmi intervals over a randomised isometric grid design. The mean burrow density was 0.20 burrows/m2 compared with 0.19 burrows/m2 in 2014. The 2015 geostatistical abundance estimate was 2.0±0.02 billion a 2% decrease on the abundance for 2014 with a CV of 3% which is well below the upper limit of 20% recommended by SGNEPS 2012. Highest densities were general observed towards the north and southwest of the ground, and there were also high densities observed close to boundaries. Using the 2015 abundance estimate and updated stock data implies catch of 3045 tonnes and landings of 2225 tonnes. Only one species of sea pen Virgilaria mirabilis was recorded as present at the stations surveyed. Trawl marks were observed at 30% of the stations surveyed.
    • The Labadie, Jones and Cockburn Banks Nephrops Grounds (FU2021) 2017 UWTV Survey Report and catch options for 2018

      Doyle, J.; Fitzgerald, R.; O’Brien, S.; Ryan, G.; McGeady, R.; Lordan, C. (Marine Institute, 2017)
      This report provides the main results of the 2017 underwater television survey on the ‘Labadie, Jones and Cockburn Banks’ ICES assessment area; Functional Unit 20-21. This was the fourth survey to achieve full coverage of the full area. The 2017 survey was multi-disciplinary in nature collecting UWTV, CTD and other ecosystem data. A total of 86 UWTV stations were completed at 6 nmi intervals over a randomised isometric grid design. The mean burrow density was 0.44 burrows/m2 compared with 0.18 burrows/m2 in 2016. The 2017 geostatistical abundance estimate was 4.4±0.01 billion a 236% increase on the abundance for 2016 with a CV of 4% which is well below the upper limit of 20% recommended by SGNEPS 2012. Highest densities were generally observed throughout the ground, and there were also high densities observed close to boundaries. Using the 2017 abundance estimate and updated stock data implies catch of 8,673 tonnes and landings of 6,553 tonnes in 2018 when MSY approach is applied (assuming that discard rates and fishery selection patterns do not change from the average of 2014–2016). One species of sea-pen were recorded as present at the stations surveyed Virgilaria mirabilis. Trawl marks were observed at 32% of the stations surveyed.
    • Laboratory Experiments on Pumping and Filtration in 'Mytilus edulis L.using Suspensions of Colloidal Graphite

      Wilson, J H; Seed, R (Department of Agriculture and Fisheries (Fisheries Division), 1974)
      Pumping and filtration of colloidal graphite and shell movements of Mytilus edulis from Carlingford Lough, Northern Ireland, were recorded in the laboratory. Pumping and filtration rates fluctuated widely even in undisturbed animals. Long term recordings demonstrated an inverse relationship between pumping rate and filtration efficiency. The effects of light, tidal cycle, particle concentration, temperature and salinity on pumping rate have been examined. Periods of light and dark did not affect pumping rate nor was there evidence for any intrinsic tidal rhythm in feeding. Pumping increased to a maximum at graphite concentrations of 20-25 mg/l. The rate prior to the addition of graphite influenced the response at certain particle concentrations. Filtration was most efficient at 18.5°C and decreased above 22.5°. Pumping steadily increased to a maximum at 22.5°. Filtration of acclimated mussels was maximal at 25-34‰ whilst feeding ceased at the extreme salinities of 15 and 50‰.
    • Laboratory investigations into the absorption of dissolved free amino acids by the gill of the mussel Mytilus edulis L.

      Elliott, A J (Department of Fisheries and Forestry, 1979)
      Experiments were undertaken to investigate the uptake of dissolved free amino acids by the isolated gill of Mytilus edulis L., from concentrations approximating to those in sea water. Both neutral and basic amino acids were found to be absorbed against a concentration gradient and a proportion of each amino acid was incorporated in the tissue in ethanol-insoluble form. L-alanine was actively absorbed against a gradient by a process following Michaelis-Menten kinetics (Kt O.33mM, Vmax O.38μmoles/g dry wt/min) and was susceptible to metabolic inhibition. 14C D-alanine was absorbed against a concentration gradient and the label incorporated in the tissue in ethanol-insoluble form. The fate of the absorbed amino acids is considered in relation to efflux from and metabolism in the mussel. The significance of amino acid uptake is discussed with reference to their availability in the environment and their contribution to the nutrition of bivalves.
    • Large scale Phaeocystis blooms off the west cost of Ireland in 1990

      Pybus, C; McGrath, D (Department of the Marine, 1992)
      The occurrence of blooms of Phaeocystis are reported from the West Coast of Ireland in the spring of 1990. Populations were observed along the coastlines of counties Clare, Galway, Mayo, Sligo and Donegal. The causative species is believed to have been P. globosa. These blooms represent the largest scale development of this or any other phytoplanktonic species recorded from this geographic area.
    • Larval distribution of commercial fish species in waters around Ireland

      Dransfeld, L.; Dwane, O.; McCarney, C.; Kelly, C. J.; Danilowicz, B. S.; Fives, J.M. (Marine Institute, 2004)
      In April 2000 a base line survey was conducted on the larval distribution of commercial fish species off the west, north and south coasts of Ireland. Ichthyoplankton samples and in situ CTD data were collected, whilst simultaneously capturing remote sensing images of chlorophyll and sea surface temperatures. The survey sampling area covered the Celtic Sea from the Irish south coast to 49 degree N, the western shelf including the Porcupine Bank and the northern shelf up to the Stanton Bank. The sample grid design was based on the international mackerel & horse mackerel egg survey with station spacings of 0.5 degree latitude and 0.5 degree longitude. Ichthyoplankton samples were collected with a Gulf III plankton sampler, which was deployed on oblique tows from the surface to within 5 metres of the bottom (200m max). A self-logging CTD sensor (Promonitor) was attached to the Gulf and recorded depth, temperature and salinity profiles for each deployment. Results from the Promonitor CTD showed that strong temperature and salinity gradients were encountered during the survey. Lowest temperatures coincided with lowest salinity in the North Channel of the Irish Sea while highest salinities and temperatures were found to the south west of Ireland.Thermal fronts were found in the eastern Celtic Sea and on the north west coast of Ireland.The AVHRR images showed a progressive increase in surface temperatures in the Celtic Sea and west of Ireland. Highest surface chlorophyll concentrations were associated with cooler less saline water in the Irish Sea and the coastal areas around Ireland. In the western Celtic Sea surface chlorophyll concentrations increased as the survey progressed to form a phytoplankton bloom towards the end of the survey. Larvae of interest showed distinct distribution patterns, with some species being confined to particular areas or spawning grounds while others were spread over the whole survey area. The survey identified two important larval hotspots: Cod larvae were concentrated in the eastern Celtic Sea, where other gadoid species such as haddock, whiting, pollack and saithe were also found in high numbers.This area is associated with the Celtic Sea front and shows increased primary productivity, which could present a favourable environment for successful larval survival. Stations in the southwest of Ireland sustained high concentrations of hake, megrim and mackerel larvae. The waters with high numbers of these three species stretched from shallow inshore stations to deeper ones along the continental shelf and were characterised by high temperatures and salinities. SeaWIFS satellite images suggest the formation of a phytoplankton bloom within this larval hotspot, which would provide the necessary resources for successful larval growth.
    • Latitude and lake size are important predictors of over-lake atmospheric stability

      Woolway, R. Iestyn; Verburg, Piet; Merchant, Christopher J.; Lenters, John D.; Hamilton, David P.; Brookes, Justin; Kelly, Sean; Hook, Simon; Laas, Alo; Pierson, Don; et al. (American Geophysical Union (AGU), 2017)
      Turbulent fluxes across the air‐water interface are integral to determining lake heat budgets, evaporation, and carbon emissions from lakes. The stability of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) influences the exchange of turbulent energy. We explore the differences in over‐lake ABL stability using data from 39 globally distributed lakes. The frequency of unstable ABL conditions varied between lakes from 71 to 100% of the time, with average air temperatures typically several degrees below the average lake surface temperature. This difference increased with decreasing latitude, resulting in a more frequently unstable ABL and a more efficient energy transfer to and from the atmosphere, toward the tropics. In addition, during summer the frequency of unstable ABL conditions decreased with increasing lake surface area. The dependency of ABL stability on latitude and lake size has implications for heat loss and carbon fluxes from lakes, the hydrologic cycle, and climate change effects.