• Irish Multidisciplinary Deepwater Survey 2007 SSTI Project Report

      Dransfeld, L; Davie, S; Johnston, G; Leahy, Y; O'Beirn, F.X.; O'Hea, B; O'Shea, C; Wall, D; White, M; Gerritsen, H.D. (Marine Institute, 2007)
      The Marine Institute with the collaboration of the National University of Galway conducted a multidisciplinary deepwater survey along the continental slope of the Northeast Atlantic. At three selected sites northwest of Ireland and on the northern slopes of the Porcupine Bank, fishing transects were carried out at four depth strata (500m, 1000m 1500m and 1800m) during the day, while oceanographic measurements and plankton and benthic invertebrate sampling was carried out during the night. Data from CTD and ADCP measurements showed following distribution of water masses: The top 700 m was occupied by that of Eastern North Atlantic Water (ENAW) origin which is a basic feature of the upper layer hydrography in the Rockall Trough; small salinity maxima indicated the region associated with the core of the shelf edge current (SEC). At Area 6, immediately north of Porcupine Bank, a salinity maximum at a depth of 900-1000 m indicated the presence of Mediterranean Outflow Water (MOW) with the presence Labrador Sea Water (LSW) at 1800-2000 m. The SEC was identified in both CTD and ADCP transects and was characterised by a number of relatively narrow filaments evident in the salinity data. In terms of benthic invertebrate data, a total of 104 taxa were identified with a maximum number of 33 invertebrate taxa identified per haul (these values were recorded at two 1500m hauls in 2006 and 2007, in Areas 5 and 2, respectively). Overall, no clear relationship between the number of invertebrate species and depth was apparent, however there was some indication that the number of species appears to be more variable in deeper waters. Several species occurred in very large numbers; these were the echinoderms, Cidaris cidaris, Benthegone rosea and Stichopus tremulus and the bivalve, Pseudammusium septemradii. Fisheries data revealed distinct deepwater fish communities that changed with depth and to a lesser extent with area. The number of species increased with depth at all sites to reach a maximum at 1500m before decreasing again at 1800m. At 500m depth the fish community was mainly composed of rabbit fish and rattails with some shelf species present such as hake, ling and silver pout. The 1000m depth strata presented a transition of species composition. The most abundant species overall was Roundnose grenadier which had is highest abundance at 1500m in all three areas but could also be found in the 1000 and 18000m depth strata. Other species of high abundance which also had their highest number of individuals at 1500m were Baird’s smoothhead and other species of grenadiers. Cluster analysis revealed that Roundnose grenadier was a distinct species grouping as was that of Baird’s smoothhead. Species occurrences were similar in all three areas with some regional differences; in area 2, Phycis blennoides, greater forkbeard,occurred among the ten most abundant species while in area 5, species, such as Black Scabbard, Aphanopus carbo, and cut throat eel, Synaphobranchus kaupi, were being caught here in larger numbers while present in the other areas in low numbers. Seven comparative tows were carried out with the Scottish research vessels RV Scotia and indicated that overall similar numbers of species and total number of fish were caught. Size distribution also compared well between the two different vessels, however for some species the numbers or size ranges of fish caught differed.
    • Irish Mussel Fishery 1971-1972

      Crowley, M (Department of Agriculture and Fisheries (Fisheries Division), 1972)
      Since 1966 the landings of mussels in Ireland have increased significantly. Almost all the mussels landed are exported either in the processed form or live in the shell to Britain and the continent; only a small quantity (only a few cwt.) of live mussels are sold weekly during the season in Dublin. The price of such mussels averages about 7½p per pound. The amount of mussels consumed in the rest of the country is negligible.
    • Irish National Phytoplankton Monitoring (Sites 41–45)

      Silke, J.; Cusack, C. (ICES, 2012)
      The Marine Institute in Ireland carries out a national phytoplankton monitoring programme which extends back to the late 1980s. This includes a harmful algal blooms (HABs) monitoring service that warns producers and consumers of concentrations of toxic plankton in Irish coastal waters that could contaminate shellfish or cause fish deaths. This programme is primarily located along the Atlantic seaboard and Celtic Sea. Scientists working on this monitoring programme have developed an understanding of phytoplankton populations and dynamics around the Irish coastline, especially in relation to those that cause shellfish toxicity. Particular emphasis is put on the detection and enumeration of harmful species. The importance of phytoplankton as an indicator of water quality is also studied and is a key component of the European Water Framework.
    • Irish Ocean Climate and Ecosystem Status Report 2009

      Nolan, G (ed); Gillooly, M (ed); Whelan, K (ed) (Marine Institute, 2010)
      This report presents the results from the most comprehensive analysis to date of marine climate change in Irish waters. Using a variety of available datasets from Ireland and elsewhere, the status of Ireland's marine climate is described. These data sets are collected over varying time scales. The longest datasets extend back to the late 1950s while others have been initiated in the past 5-10 years. In some cases data have been put in a wider context by comparison with international data such as the HADSST sea surface temperature analysis and the Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) survey conducted by the Sir Alister Hardy Foundation for Ocean Science (SAHFOS). While the analysis to date has been considerable the brevity of some of the time series means that in 2009 we are relatively poorly equipped to make conclusions as to how climate change will affect Irish waters. This report describes key regulators of ocean climate around Ireland and examines relevant environmental datasets available in 2009. It therefore represents the current status of knowledge regarding the influence of climate on Ireland’s marine ecosystems and resources.
    • Irish participation in EU FP7 (2007 - 2013) funded competitive marine research projects. 2009 Supplement

      O'Sullivan, G; Twomey, S (Marine Institute, 2010)
      The EU Framework Research Programme (FP), and in the current context the 7th Framework Programme (FP7: 2007-2013), continues to be a major source of competitive R & D funding for Irish marine researchers. The 2009 Supplement provides information on new FP7 research awards granted in 2009 to Irish marine researchers and up-dates the 2007-2008 Report published in June 2009. Seventeen research projects are profiled including three 2008 awards (STANDPOINT, WAVETRAIN II and AIRSEA) and fourteen 2009 awards bringing total participation in FP7 over the period 2007 to 2009 to 43 projects worth over €17.5 million in grant-aid. This figure is already in excess of the €10.6m (59) projects won in the FP6 (2002-2006) Programme and represents 11.5% of the total Irish drawdown to-date (FP7: 2007-2009) of €152.7million.
    • Irish participation in EU FP7 funded competitive marine research projects during the period 2007 - 2008

      O'Sullivan, G; McDonough, N; Pedreschi, D (Marine Institute, 2009)
      The EU Framework Research Programme (FP) is a major source of competitive marine R & D funding for Irish Researchers. This report describes Irish marine research successes in the first two years (2007-2008) of the seven year 7th Framework Programme (FP7: 2007-2013). Irish researchers are currently participating in 22 collaborative marine research projects worth over €163 million of which €8.8 million goes to Irish researchers by way of grant-aid. This European grant-aid in turn contributes to the implementation of research priorities identified in the national Strategy for Science, Technology and Innovation (SSTI: 2006- 2013) and its marine component, the Sea Change Strategy(2007-2013). The Irish drawdown of EU grant-aid for marine research represents an impressive 10% of the Irish total drawdown over the period 2007-2008.
    • Irish Pike Investigations

      Kennedy, M. (Department of Agriculture and Fisheries [Fisheries Division], 1969)
      The spawning of pike was studied in 1965 and 1966 in five large Irish limestone lakes-Loughs Sheelin, Ennell, Mask, Corrib and Arrow. The spawning period was found to be February to April. Spawning took place in shallow, sheltered situations where there was a carpet of dead or living vegetation on the bottom at a depth of 20 to 60 cm. Spawning took place by day, at a water temperature of at least 9-1O C, when lake levels were high or rising. Gill-net catches reached a peak during periods of spawning. Weather conditions in February and March were much milder in 1966 than in 1965, and spawning began about a month earlier than in 1965. The eggs of Irish pike are 2.7 to 3.0 cm in diameter. They are golden to honey coloured, with a great many minute oil-globules distributed through the yolk in numerous tiny clusters. The incubation period in the field is probably 8-14 days, and the newly hatched larva is 8.0-9.0 mm long. For the first 10 days or so, the larvae hang vertically from the vegetation by means of adhesive glands on the head. They then become free-swimming, and soon afterwards begin to feed. At this stage they measure 13.0-13.5 mm. Their first food consists of small cladocera and copepods. Later, they feed on larger cladocera, amphipods, isopods, young stages of aquatic insects, and fish fry.
    • The Irish Pilchard Fishery

      Went, A. E. J. (Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, 1946)
    • Irish Ports Offshore Renewable Energy Services (IPORES): A Review of Irish Ports Offshore Capability in Relation to Requirements for the Marine Renewable Energy Industry

      Murphy, G. (Research & Editorial); O'Toole, M.(Research & Editorial); McGuire, R. (Research & Editorial) (Irish Maritime Development Office, 2012)
      The report provides a detailed summary of information on Irish port infrastructure, facilities and management plans in relation to meeting requirements of marine renewable energy developers. The report found that at least seven Irish ports are in a good situation to facilitate and service both current and future demands of the offshore marine renewable sector. The report identifies that large scale development projects in particular have strong potential to generate several hundred new jobs and other positive economic benefits for the regions. The study involved a detailed stakeholder consultation process and analysis of 14 ports around the island of Ireland including a comparison with some key renewable energy services ports in the UK and Germany. Irish Ports were categorised according to criteria that would meet the requirements to service the offshore renewable energy sector which included port infrastructure, available quay space and hinterland, depth of water, past experience with the sector, proximity to markets, potential for job creation and availability of skills and maritime services. The report provides a number of recommendations including the establishment of clear targets to deliver new offshore ocean renewable projects at Irish ports leading to new investment and employment opportunities. Ireland’s offshore renewable energy resources are amongst the highest in the world with a potential of between 63,000 and 73,000 MW of power available for harnessing. Ports will play a key role in facilitating future large-scale developments and operations of ocean energy devices (wind turbines, wave energy converters and tidal turbines).
    • Irish Ports Offshore Renewable Energy Services (IPORES): A Review of Irish Ports Offshore Capability in Relation to Requirements for the Marine Renewable Energy Industry. UPDATED EDITION

      Murphy, G. (Research & Editorial); O'Toole, M.l (Research & Editorial); McGuire, R. (Research & Editorial) (Irish Maritime Development Office, 2012)
      The report provides a detailed summary of information on Irish port infrastructure, facilities and management plans in relation to meeting requirements of marine renewable energy developers. The report found that at least seven Irish ports are in a good situation to facilitate and service both current and future demands of the offshore marine renewable sector. The report identifies that large scale development projects in particular have strong potential to generate several hundred new jobs and other positive economic benefits for the regions. The study involved a detailed stakeholder consultation process and analysis of 14 ports around the island of Ireland including a comparison with some key renewable energy services ports in the UK and Germany. Irish Ports were categorised according to criteria that would meet the requirements to service the offshore renewable energy sector which included port infrastructure, available quay space and hinterland, depth of water, past experience with the sector, proximity to markets, potential for job creation and availability of skills and maritime services. The report provides a number of recommendations including the establishment of clear targets to deliver new offshore ocean renewable projects at Irish ports leading to new investment and employment opportunities. Ireland’s offshore renewable energy resources are amongst the highest in the world with a potential of between 63,000 and 73,000 MW of power available for harnessing. Ports will play a key role in facilitating future large-scale developments and operations of ocean energy devices (wind turbines, wave energy converters and tidal turbines).
    • Irish Sea Marine Aggregate Initiative (IMAGIN) Technical Synthesis Report

      Sutton, G (ed) (Marine Institute, 2008)
      The Irish Sea Marine Aggregates Initiative (IMAGIN) is a collaborative project between Ireland and Wales focused on the sustainable management of marine aggregate resources. IMAGIN was a 2-year project with a total budget of €1.1 million. IMAGIN was part funded (66%) under the Ireland/Wales Inter Regional (INTERREG) IIIA Community Initiative Programme 2000-2006. The remaining project budget was met by contributions from partner organisations (19%) and aggregate companies – CEMEX, Lagan Ltd., Kilsaran Concrete and Roadstone Ltd. (15%). The IMAGIN grouping was a collaborative partnership comprising experts in Ireland and Wales from 3rd level Institutes, State agencies and industry. The grouping included the Coastal and Marine Resources Centre – University College Cork, Marine Institute, Geological Survey of Ireland, Geoscience Wales and representatives from the aggregate companies. The overall aim of the IMAGIN project is to facilitate the evolution of a strategic framework within which the exploitation of marine aggregate resources from the Irish Sea may be sustainably managed with minimum risk of impact on marine and coastal environments, ecosystems and other marine users. IMAGIN was structured around a series of work packages, each focusing on the different aspects of the marine aggregate question. Marine aggregates can be defined as sedimentary material - sand or gravel of various grain and class sizes (grades). Extraction of marine aggregates typically involves dredging of the deposit to remove it from the seabed. Aggregates may be screened at sea before being transported to a port or wharf facility for unloading and then further processing, if required, and subsequent transportation. In common with terrestrial aggregates, sands and gravels sourced from the seabed are an important economic resource, which can contribute to the development and maintenance of infrastructure, e.g. buildings, roads and bridges. Marine aggregates are also used for beach nourishment and coastal defence purposes, the demands for which have become more pressing when set against the predicted implications of climate change, sea level rise and associated effects on low lying coastal areas. A number of countries have sought to meet the demand for aggregates by utilising sources from the seabed to replace or complement terrestrial sources. Belgium, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom are primary examples of countries within Europe that have a long established practice of marine aggregate extraction, providing an alternative to sole reliance on terrestrial sources.
    • Irish Sea Young Herring Survey

      Molloy, J. (An Roinn Iascaigh agus Foraoiseachta, 1979)
      Corrected proof
    • Irish Shellfish Biotoxin Monitoring Programme

      Silke, J.; McMahon, T.; Hess, P. (Marine Institute, 2006)
      Since its initial development in the early 1970s the Irish aquaculture industry has grown to be an important contributor to the national economy. There has been a steady increase, in both output and value, as well as in job creation. The total production of farmed shellfish has increased from approximately 5,000 tonnes in 1980 to 44,678 tonnes in 2003 (Figure 1), with a first sale value of €41.8m and directly employing some 1100 people (Parsons et al, 2004). Mussels (Mytilus edulis), native oysters (Ostrea edulis), Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas), Clams (Tapes semidecussata) and scallops (Pecten maximus) are the main species produced. With a growing recognition and awareness internationally of the potential human health effects of the consumption of shellfish containing algal toxins, a monitoring programme was established in Ireland in the early 1980s and has continued since then. In this paper the evolution and development of the programme is described and discussed.
    • The Irish shellfish industry 1948-1967

      Gibson, F A (Department of Agriculture and Fisheries (Fisheries Division), 1969)
      The term shellfish is used to group together two very large orders of the animal kingdom, namely the Crustacea and the Molluscs. These orders are not closely related to each other; the main characteristics they have in common being that neither of' them has an internal supporting structure or skeleton. However, they live in similar environments, mainly in the sea, although a few inhabit fresh water, Many hundreds of individual species occur in Irish waters, but only a small number of these are commercially important. These include lobsters, crawfish, Dublin Bay prawns (Nephrops), crabs (all crustaceans), periwinkles, oysters, escallops, mussels, cockles, whelks and clams (all molluscs). During the twenty year period 1948 to 1967, reviewed in this paper, the Irish shellfish industry has changed in many respects. In some sectors methods of fishing have been improved, farming techniques have been introduced and the development of markets on Continental Europe has encouraged the use of improved methods of handling and transport of shellfish to these distant destinations, Nevertheless the rate of expansion of the shellfish industry has been comparatively slow.
    • Irish Short Sea Shipping Inter–European Trade Corridors

      Marine Institute (Irish Maritime Development Office, 2004)
      The study in this report is focused on 12 economies in the North European and Baltic area. All are now members of the EU. In addition to drawing conclusions and providing recommendations, the work in this report can be divided into three main elements. The first is to provide a mapping of the structure of freight flows to and from Ireland, to provide projections of changes in Ireland’s trade with other countries in the study area, and to examine the determinants of this structure. The second is to examine the cost variables in relation to this structure and to estimate the potential for imminent developments to affect this structure. The third is to examine the nature of the logistics sector in Europe and to provide indications of the potential response of this sector to changes in the policy and economic environment.
    • Irish Sprats and Sandeels

      Molloy, J (Department of Agriculture and Fisheries (Fisheries Division), 1967)
      In 1965, Ireland imported approximately 13,235 tons of fishmeal for animal feeding stuffs, valued at £827,506. For some time now cosideration has been given to the fish resources around our coasts and whether it would be possible to provide a constant source of supply of materials to the fishmeal industry and the growing number of mink and trout farms. This paper investigates this issue.
    • Isolation of Streptococcus agalactiae and an aquatic birnavirus from doctor fish Garra rufa L.

      Ruane, N.M.; Collins, E.M.; Geary, M.; Swords, D.; Hickey, C.; Geoghegan, F. (BioMed Central, 2013)
      Background The doctor fish, Garra rufa, has become increasingly popular as a treatment for skin disorders and for pedicures in recent years. Despite this there is very little information available regarding the welfare of these fish and the range of potential pathogens they may carry. In this study, a group of fish suffering from post-transport mortalities were examined and the isolated pathogens identified. Findings Group B Streptococcus agalactiae was isolated from kidney swabs of the fish and found to be resistant to a number of antibiotics. In addition to this, a fish virus belonging to the aquabirnavirus group, serogroup C was isolated for the first time in Ireland. However, no clinical signs of disease typical of bacterial or viral infections were observed in any fish examined. Conclusions As no clinical signs of disease attributable to either of the pathogens identified were found it was concluded that the mortalities were most likely due to transport related stress exacerbated by the presence of the pathogens. Further work is required to assess the suitability of current transport strategies and to examine the potential risk associated with the transport of live ornamental fish.
    • Isolation of Yersinia ruckeri type I (Hagerman strain) from goldfish Carassius auratus. (L.)

      McArdle, J.F.; Dooley-Martyn, C. (European Association of Fish Pathologists, 1985)
    • Isolations and purifications of AZAs from naturally contaminated materials, and evaluation of their toxicological effects (ASTOX)

      Hess, P; McCarron, P; Rehmann, N; Kilcoyne, J; McMahon, T; Ryan, G; Ryan, M P; Twiner, M J; Doucette, G J; Satake, M; et al. (Marine Institute, 2007)
      Since 1995, when several people became ill following consumption of shellfish from Ireland, azaspiracids (AZAs) have been known as shellfish toxins, causing symptoms associated with gastro-intestinal disorders, including diarrhoea, vomiting, headaches and others. The aims of the ASTOX-project were to provide control tools for the analysis of AZAs in shellfish, i.e. calibration standards and tissue reference materials (RMs), and to clarify the toxicity of AZAs in qualitative and quantitative terms, i.e. to understand the mode of action of AZAs and to derive a No Observable Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) for safe consumption of shellfish.
    • Issues and Recommendations for the Development and Regulation of Marine Aggregate Extraction in the Irish Sea

      O'Mahony, C; Sutton, G; McMahon, T; Ó Cinneide, M; Nixon, E (Marine Institute, 2008)
      This report details the work undertaken as part of the INTERREG IIIA Irish Sea Marine Aggregates Initiative (IMAGIN) project which aims “to develop recommendations for a strategic policy framework for an administrative and regulatory process, and operational guidelines under which dredging for marine aggregates in the Irish Sea can be sustainably managed.” It considers policy and regulatory issues from an Irish context. Aggregates in the form of sand and gravel deposits are a vital natural resource, providing essential material to support societal needs for infrastructure and the construction industry. Thus, the importance of aggregate supply to the economy of many nations cannot be understated. As a result of Ireland’s economic boom since the early 1990s, the national consumption of aggregates per head of population in Ireland has spiralled upward and is currently standing at four times the European average. At present, all aggregate used in the Irish market is extracted from terrestrial sources. This project set out to examine the marine extraction option for current supply and future Irish demand.