• Inclusion of ecological, economic, social, and institutional considerations when setting targets and limits for multispecies fisheries

      Rindorf, Anna; Dichmont, Catherine M.; Thorson, James; Charles, Anthony; Clausen, Lotte Worsøe; Degnbol, Poul; Garcia, Dorleta; Hintzen, Niels T.; Kempf, Alexander; Levin, Phillip; et al. (Oxford University Press (OUP), 2017)
      Targets and limits for long-term management are used in fisheries advice to operationalize the way management reflects societal priorities on ecological, economic, social and institutional aspects. This study reflects on the available published literature as well as new research presented at the international ICES/Myfish symposium on targets and limits for long term fisheries management. We examine the inclusion of ecological, economic, social and institutional objectives in fisheries management, with the aim of progressing towards including all four objectives when setting management targets or limits, or both, for multispecies fisheries. The topics covered include ecological, economic, social and governance objectives in fisheries management, consistent approaches to management, uncertainty and variability, and fisheries governance. We end by identifying ten ways to more effectively include multiple objectives in setting targets and limits in ecosystem based fisheries management.
    • Indexing and selection of well-lit details in underwater video using vignetting estimation

      Sooknanan, K.; Kokaram, A.; Corrigan, D.; Wilson, J.; Harte, N. (IEEE, 2012)
      Video is an important tool in underwater surveys today, yet its useful field of view is restricted to image details within well lit regions on the seafloor. In this paper we present a novel vignetting-based weighting scheme for selecting these well lit details for use in the creation of a wide area view (mosaic) of the surveyed seafloor. Apart from this detail selection novelity,two other contributions are made. Firstly, because some of these scenes contain very little image texture, we introduce a hybrid homography estimation procedure that uses both feature-based and exhaustive searching techniques. Secondly, to facilitate cross referencing with the video, sections of the mosaic were indexed with the frame number in which the respective image details was selected from. We test our algorithm with real seabed survey video, whose scientific mission was population census of the particular species of lobster, Nephrops norvegicus. High quality mosaics were obtained that captured image details from well lit regions of the scene, which expert marine biologists agreed was a useful analysis tool. This work was supported by the Science Foundation Ireland PI Programme: SFI-PI 08/IN.1/I2112, and was done in collaboration with the Marine Institute Galway.
    • Industry-Led Awards 2018, Floating Solar Hybrid Energy Project

      Howlin, E. (Marine Institute, 2020)
      SolarMarine Energy Ltd (SME) applied under the Marine Institute’s Industry-Led Awards Call 2018 and was awarded grant-aid funding to research the design of a floating solar energy (FSPV) structure and evaluate how hydrogen could be produced using power from the floating solar plant. This was essentially a ‘Power to Gas’ (PtG) project model where we designed a floating solar plant, specified the H2 electrolyser and designed the interface between the two. Our engineers’ extensive experience across the marine industry from the initial design stage to final installation enabled us to take on this challenging marine renewable energy project. We believe that a floating solar/wind/hydrogen hybrid energy plant has the potential to be a disruptive innovative technology as it leverages the technical advantages of photovoltaics and energy storage without the environmental and cost disadvantages of competitor technologies.
    • Industry-led awards 2018. Marine Institute Grant Awards in Support of the Marine Economy.

      Marine Institute (Marine Institute, 2019)
      Innovation 2020, Ireland’s strategy for research and development, science and technology states that despite the importance of research and innovation for firms, firms under-invest in research. Therefore there is a strong case for the state to encourage firms to undertake research by providing co-investment. However, this investment must be targeted at areas of commercial opportunity that are strategically important. This is the underpinning rationale of Research Prioritisation (2018-2023), which identifies 6 Themes and 14 Priority Areas that present particular market opportunities for Ireland. The first goal of Harnessing Our Ocean Wealth is “A Thriving Maritime Economy”, which focuses on the marine opportunities to achieve economic recovery with socially inclusive and sustainable growth. The Development Task Force Report developed a strategic framework identifying three interventions to drive growth across five thematic areas and create economic growth opportunities for the marine sector. In May 2018, the Marine Institute launched the Industry-Led Call, designed to provide funding for SMEs to raise the maturity levels for their research theme across these three dimensions (human capacity, infrastructure and networks & relationships). The call aims to fulfil national strategic objectives as follows: National Marine Research and Innovation Strategy 2017-2021 - Implementation of Action 8 Increase opportunities for SMEs to participate in marine research. Innovation 2020 - Action point 2.4 Optimising Enterprise RDI Supports. The funding aims to: Support research and innovation costs for the development of innovative technologies, products and services from existing or new marine-based business. Help marine companies to develop capacity, capability and their networks & relationships. Support “novel” marine research that has not previously received funding to create new knowledge or a new product, process or service or to substantially improve existing products, processes or services.
    • Infectious Haematopoietic Necrosis

      Marine Institute (Marine Institute, 2011)
      This leaflet gives information on infectious haematopoietic necrosis. This disease is caused by a single stranded RNA virus of the family Rhabdoviridae, genus Novirhabdoviridae. IHN is listed as a non-exotic disease under EU Directive 2006/88/EC, and is notifiable in Ireland, according to S.I. No. 261 of 2008.
    • Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis

      Marine Institute (Marine Institute, 2011)
      This leaflet gives information on Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis (IPN). This disease is a highly contagious systemic disease, caused by a double stranded RNA virus of the family Birnaviridae.
    • Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis Virus and its impact on the Irish Salmon Aquaculture and Wild Fish sectors

      Geoghegan, F; Ó Cinneide, M; Ruane, N. M. (Marine Institute, 2007)
      Infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN) is an economically significant viral disease of salmonid fish worldwide. Infectious pancreatic necrosis is categorised as a List III disease under Annex A of EU Council Directive 91/67/EEC. List III diseases are present within the EU and up to 2004 were regulated under national control programmes within each member state. The disease was first described in freshwater trout in North America in the 1950’s (Wood et al., 1955) and has been reported in Europe since the early 1970’s (Ball et al., 1971). Initially, IPN was regarded as a serious disease affecting rainbow trout fry and fingerlings (Roberts & Pearson, 2005). However as the salmon farming industry began to expand during the 1970’s, incidence of IPN disease in salmon also increased with the result that IPN is now widespread in the salmon farming industry in both Norway and Scotland. The economic loss due to the disease is large and outbreaks may occur in Atlantic salmon juveniles in fresh-water and in post-smolts after transfer to sea-water. Historically in Ireland, isolations of the IPN virus have been rare and occasional outbreaks have occurred in both rainbow trout and Atlantic salmon facilities. The Marine Institute and its predecessor, the Fisheries Research Centre, have been testing farmed and wild fish for disease pathogens since the mid 1980’s. The first reported clinical outbreak of IPN in Atlantic salmon occurred in 2003. However in 2006 severe outbreaks in a number of freshwater salmon hatcheries occurred which were all linked to imports from a specific single source. To date, clinical outbreaks of IPN in Ireland have been associated with imports of infected ova and their subsequent movement within the country. This report reviews the prevalence of the IPN virus in the Irish salmon farming industry and also in wild fish from selected rivers. It describes the steps taken by the industry to control the disease in 2006 and aims to provide some practical solutions to reduce the prevalence of the virus in farmed and wild fish and to prevent future outbreaks of the disease.
    • Infectious Salmon Anaemia

      Marine Institute (Marine Institute, 2011)
      This leaflet gives information on infectious salmon anaemia (ISA). ISA is caused by a single stranded RNA virus of the family Orthomyxoviridae. ISA is listed as a non-exotic disease under EU Directive 2006/88/EC, and is notifiable in Ireland, according to S.I. No. 261 of 2008.
    • Inferring marine distribution of Canadian and Irish Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) in the North Atlantic from tissue concentrations of bio-accumulated Caesium 137

      Spares, Aaron D.; Reader, Jeffery M.; Stokesbury, Michael J.W.; McDermott, Tom; Zikovsky, Lubomir; Dadswell, Michael J. (Oxford University Press, 2007)
      Atlantic salmon returning from marine migrations to eastern Canada and western Ireland during 2002 and 2003 were analysed for tissue concentrations of bio-accumulated caesium 137 (137Cs). Salmon from Canadian and Irish waters demonstrated concentrations (0.20 ± 0.14 Bq kg-1 and 0.19 ± 0.09 Bq kg-1, mean ± s.d., respectively) suggesting similar oceanic feeding distributions during migration. Canadian aquaculture escapees had a similar mean tissue concentration (0.28 ± 0.22 Bq kg-1), suggesting migration with wild salmon. However, significantly higher concentrations in 1-sea-winter (1SW) escapees (0.43 ± 0.25 Bq kg-1) may alternatively suggest feeding within local estuaries. High concentrations in some Canadian 1SW salmon indicated trans-Atlantic migration. Low concentrations of Canadian multi-sea-winter (MSW) salmon suggested a feeding distribution in the Labrador and Irminger Seas before homeward migration, because those regions have the lowest surface water 137Cs levels. Estimates of wild Canadian and Irish salmon feeding east of the Faroes (~8oW) were 14.2% and 10.0% (1SW, 24.7% and 11.5%; MSW, 2.9% and 0.0%), respectively. We propose that most anadromous North Atlantic salmon utilize the North Atlantic Gyre for marine migration and should be classified as a single trans-Atlantic straddling stock.
    • INFOMAR Marine Mapping Study. Options Appraisal Report: Final Report 30 June 2008

      Price Waterhouse Coopers (Marine Institute, 2008)
      The Integrated Mapping for the Sustainable Development of Ireland’s Marine Resource (INFOMAR) programme is Ireland’s national marine mapping programme. It is the successor to the Irish National Seabed Survey (INSS), and is a joint venture of the Geological Survey of Ireland (GSI) and the Marine Institute (MI). The focus of the INFOMAR programme is to create a range of integrated mapping products of the physical, chemical and biological features of the seabed, in the near-shore (Zone 1, 0m to 50m) area and building on previous INSS offshore survey area (Zone II, 50m to 200m), to complete the mapping programme for the entirety of Ireland’s off-shore waters. Against this background, and to fulfil the NDP Value For Money reporting requirements for Large Capital Projects (>€30 million), PricewaterhouseCoopers (PwC) were commissioned by the Department of Communications, Energy and National Resources (DCENR) to undertake a detailed appraisal of the INFOMAR project. The methodology for undertaking the appraisal involved both primary and secondary research, including extensive consultation with stakeholders of the INFOMAR. A range of options for the INFOMAR programme were identified and appraised in financial and qualitative terms and are presented within this report.
    • INFOMAR Survey Report CE19_01, Celtic Sea.

      Sheehan, Kevin; INFOMAR Survey Team (Marine Institute, 2020)
      The Geological Survey Ireland (GSI) and Marine Institute (MI) conducted seabed mapping between 2003 and 2005 under the auspices of the Irish National Seabed Survey (INSS) and from 2006 to present day under the INtegrated mapping FOr the sustainable development of Irelands MArine Resource (INFOMAR) programme. INFOMAR is a joint venture between the GSI and the MI. The programme succeeded the INSS which was one of the largest marine mapping programmes ever undertaken, with a focus on deep water mapping. INFOMAR is funded by the Irish Government through the Department of Communications, Climate Action and Environment (DCCAE). INFOMAR Phase 1, 2006 to 2015 focused on mapping 26 priority bays and 3 priority areas around Ireland and creating a range of integrated mapping products of the physical, chemical and biological features of the seabed in those areas. INFOMAR Phase 2, 2016 to 2026 intends to map the remainder of Ireland’s entire seabed. Figure 1 shows the extent of the mapped area under INSS and INFOMAR and the outstanding areas as of January 2019. Grey have already been mapped, blue and coloured hatched areas are unmapped.
    • INFOMAR Survey Report CE20_01, Celtic Sea.

      Sheehan, Kevin (Marine Institute, 2021)
      The Geological Survey Ireland (GSI) and Marine Institute (MI) conducted seabed mapping between 2003 and 2005 under the auspices of the Irish National Seabed Survey (INSS) and from 2006 to present day under the INtegrated mapping FOr the sustainable development of Irelands MArine Resource (INFOMAR) programme. INFOMAR is a joint venture between the GSI and the MI. The programme succeeded the INSS which was one of the largest marine mapping programmes ever undertaken, with a focus on deep water mapping. INFOMAR is funded by the Irish Government through the Department of the Environment, Climate and Communications (DECC). INFOMAR Phase 1, 2006 to 2015 focused on mapping 26 priority bays and 3 priority areas around Ireland and creating a range of integrated mapping products of the physical, chemical and biological features of the seabed in those areas. INFOMAR Phase 2, 2016 to 2026 intends to map the remainder of Ireland’s entire seabed. Figure 1 shows the extent of the mapped area under INSS and INFOMAR and the outstanding areas as of January 2020. Grey have already been mapped, blue and coloured hatched areas are unmapped.
    • INFOMAR Survey Report CV18_01, Celtic Sea

      Sheehan, Kevin; INFOMAR Survey Team (Marine Institute, 2018-12-13)
      The Geological Survey Ireland (GSI) and Marine Institute (MI) conducted seabed mapping between 2003 and 2005 under the auspices of the Irish National Seabed Survey (INSS) and this has continued from 2006 to present day under the INtegrated mapping FOr the sustainable development of Irelands MArine Resource (INFOMAR) programme. INFOMAR is a joint venture between the GSI and the MI. The INSS was one of the largest marine mapping programmes ever undertaken globally, with a focus on deep water mapping. INFOMAR is funded by the Irish Government through the Department of Communications, Climate Action and Environment (DCCAE). INFOMAR Phase 1, 2006 to 2015 focused on mapping 26 priority bays and 3 priority areas around Ireland and creating a range of integrated mapping products of the physical, chemical and biological features of the seabed in those areas. INFOMAR Phase 2, 2016 to 2026 intends to map the remainder of Ireland’s entire seabed. Figure 1 shows the extent of the continental shelf mapped area under INSS and INFOMAR and the outstanding areas as of January 2018. Grey have already been mapped, blue and coloured hatched areas are unmapped. As of 2018 the remaining survey area has been split at the 30 nautical mile limit (Nm). The inshore survey fleet, managed by GSI is responsible for mapping inshore of the 30Nm limit and the MI vessels are responsible for mapping the offshore. Outstanding survey areas are defined into gridded survey units known as INFOMAR Survey Units (ISUs). ISUs are all 1000 km2 in size and are uniquely identifiable by a letter on the x axis and number on the y axis. Each ISU is coloured in a shade of blue which indicates the modal water depth in that ISU. Colour scales are used, to denote the three depth bands; 50 to 100m, 100 to 150m and 150m plus.
    • INFOMAR Survey Report CV18_02, Celtic Sea

      Sheehan, Kevin; McManus, Oisin (Marine Institute, 2019-02-26)
      The Geological Survey Ireland (GSI) and Marine Institute (MI) conducted seabed mapping between 2003 and 2005 under the auspices of the Irish National Seabed Survey (INSS) and this continued from 2006 to present day under the INtegrated mapping FOr the sustainable development of Irelands MArine Resource (INFOMAR) programme. INFOMAR is a joint venture between the GSI and the MI. The INSS was one of the largest marine mapping programmes ever undertaken globally, with a focus on deep water mapping. INFOMAR is funded by the Irish Government through the Department of Communications, Climate Action and Environment (DCCAE). INFOMAR Phase 1, 2006 to 2015 focused on mapping 26 priority bays and 3 priority areas around Ireland and creating a range of integrated mapping products of the physical, chemical and biological features of the seabed in those areas. INFOMAR Phase 2, 2016 to 2026 intends to map the remainder of Ireland’s entire seabed. Figure 1 shows the extent of the continental shelf mapped area under INSS and INFOMAR and the outstanding areas as of January 2018. Grey have already been mapped, blue and coloured hatched areas are unmapped. As of 2018 the remaining survey area has been split at the 30 nautical mile limit (Nm). The inshore survey fleet, managed by GSI is responsible for mapping inshore of the 30Nm limit and the MI vessels are responsible for mapping the offshore. Survey areas are defined into gridded survey units known as INFOMAR Survey Units (ISUs). ISUs are all 1000 km2 in size and are uniquely identifiable by a letter on the x axis and number on the y axis. Each ISU is coloured in a shade of blue which indicates the modal water depth in that ISU. Colour scales are used, to denote the three depth bands; 50 to 100m, 100 to 150m and 150m plus.
    • INFOMAR Survey Report CV18_03, Celtic Sea

      Sheehan, Kevin; Quinlan, Vera; INFOMAR Survey Team (Marine Institute, 2019-03-29)
      The Geological Survey Ireland (GSI) and Marine Institute (MI) conducted seabed mapping between 2003 and 2005 under the auspices of the Irish National Seabed Survey (INSS) and this continued from 2006 to present day under the INtegrated mapping FOr the sustainable development of Irelands MArine Resource (INFOMAR) programme. INFOMAR is a joint venture between the GSI and the MI. The INSS was one of the largest marine mapping programmes ever undertaken globally, with a focus on deep water mapping. INFOMAR is funded by the Irish Government through the Department of Communications, Climate Action and Environment (DCCAE). INFOMAR Phase 1, 2006 to 2015 focused on mapping 26 priority bays and 3 priority areas around Ireland and creating a range of integrated mapping products of the physical, chemical and biological features of the seabed in those areas. INFOMAR Phase 2, 2016 to 2026 intends to map the remainder of Ireland’s entire seabed. Figure 1 shows the extent of the continental shelf mapped area under INSS and INFOMAR and the outstanding areas as of January 2018. Grey have already been mapped, blue and coloured hatched areas are unmapped. As of 2018 the remaining survey area has been split at the 30 nautical mile limit (Nm). The inshore survey fleet, managed by GSI is responsible for mapping inshore of the 30Nm limit and the MI vessels are responsible for mapping the offshore. Survey areas are defined into gridded survey units known as INFOMAR Survey Units (ISUs). ISUs are all 1000 km2 in size and are uniquely identifiable by a letter on the x axis and number on the y axis. Each ISU is coloured in a shade of blue which indicates the modal water depth in that ISU. Colour scales are used, to denote the three depth bands; 50 to 100m, 100 to 150m and 150m plus.
    • INFOMAR Survey Report CV19_01, Celtic Sea

      Sheehan, K.; Sacchetti, F; INFOMAR Survey Team (Marine Institute, 2020-02-03)
      Geological Survey Ireland (GSI) and Marine Institute (MI) conducted seabed mapping between 2003 and 2005 under the auspices of the Irish National Seabed Survey (INSS) and this continued from 2006 to present day under the INtegrated mapping FOr the sustainable development of Irelands MArine Resource (INFOMAR) programme. INSS was one of the largest marine mapping programmes ever undertaken globally, with a focus on deep water mapping. INFOMAR is a joint venture between the GSI and the MI and is funded by the Irish Government through the Department of Communications, Climate Action and Environment (DCCAE). INFOMAR Phase 1, 2006 to 2015 focused on mapping 26 priority bays and 3 priority areas around Ireland and creating a range of integrated mapping products of the physical, chemical and biological features of the seabed in those areas. INFOMAR Phase 2, 2016 to 2026 intends to map the remainder of Ireland’s entire seabed. Figure 1 shows the extent of the continental shelf mapped area under INSS and INFOMAR and the outstanding areas as of January 2019. Grey have already been mapped, blue, white and coloured hatched areas are unmapped. As of 2018 the remaining survey area has been split at the 30 nautical mile limit (Nm). The inshore survey fleet, managed by GSI is responsible for mapping inshore of the 30Nm limit and the MI vessels are responsible for mapping the offshore. Survey areas are defined into gridded survey units known as INFOMAR Survey Units (ISUs). ISUs are all 1000 km2 in size and are uniquely identifiable by a letter on the x axis and number on the y axis. Each ISU is coloured in a shade of blue which indicates the modal water depth in that ISU. Colour scales are used, to denote the three depth bands; 50 to 100m, 100 to 150m and 150m plus.
    • INFOMAR Survey Report CV19_02, Celtic Sea.

      Sheehan, Kevin; Sacchetti, Fabio; INFOMAR Survey Team (Marine Institute, 2020-02-03)
      Geological Survey Ireland (GSI) and Marine Institute (MI) conducted seabed mapping between 2003 and 2005 under the auspices of the Irish National Seabed Survey (INSS) and this continued from 2006 to present day under the INtegrated mapping FOr the sustainable development of Irelands MArine Resource (INFOMAR) programme. INSS was one of the largest marine mapping programmes ever undertaken globally, with a focus on deep water mapping. INFOMAR is a joint venture between the GSI and the MI and is funded by the Irish Government through the Department of Communications, Climate Action and Environment (DCCAE). INFOMAR Phase 1, 2006 to 2015 focused on mapping 26 priority bays and 3 priority areas around Ireland and creating a range of integrated mapping products of the physical, chemical and biological features of the seabed in those areas. INFOMAR Phase 2, 2016 to 2026 intends to map the remainder of Ireland’s entire seabed. Figure 1 shows the extent of the continental shelf mapped area under INSS and INFOMAR and the outstanding areas as of January 2019. Grey have already been mapped, blue, white and coloured hatched areas are unmapped. As of 2018 the remaining survey area has been split at the 30 nautical mile limit (Nm). The inshore survey fleet, managed by GSI is responsible for mapping inshore of the 30Nm limit and the MI vessels are responsible for mapping the offshore. Survey areas are defined into gridded survey units known as INFOMAR Survey Units (ISUs). ISUs are all 1000 km2 in size and are uniquely identifiable by a letter on the x axis and number on the y axis. Each ISU is coloured in a shade of blue which indicates the modal water depth in that ISU. Colour scales are used, to denote the three depth bands; 50 to 100m, 100 to 150m and 150m plus.
    • INFOMAR Survey Report CV19_04, Celtic Sea

      Sheehan, Kevin; INFOMAR Survey Team; Sacchetti, Fabio (Marine Institute, 2020-04-09)
      Geological Survey Ireland (GSI) and Marine Institute (MI) conducted seabed mapping between 2003 and 2005 under the auspices of the Irish National Seabed Survey (INSS) and this continued from 2006 to present day under the INtegrated mapping FOr the sustainable development of Irelands MArine Resource (INFOMAR) programme. INSS was one of the largest marine mapping programmes ever undertaken globally, with a focus on deep water mapping. INFOMAR is a joint venture between the GSI and the MI and is funded by the Irish Government through the Department of Communications, Climate Action and Environment (DCCAE). INFOMAR Phase 1, 2006 to 2015 focused on mapping 26 priority bays and 3 priority areas around Ireland and creating a range of integrated mapping products of the physical, chemical and biological features of the seabed in those areas. INFOMAR Phase 2, 2016 to 2026 intends to map the remainder of Ireland’s entire seabed. Figure 1 shows the extent of the continental shelf mapped area under INSS and INFOMAR and the outstanding areas as of January 2019. Grey have already been mapped, blue, white and coloured hatched areas are unmapped. As of 2018 the remaining survey area has been split at the 30 nautical mile limit (Nm). The inshore survey fleet, managed by GSI is responsible for mapping inshore of the 30Nm limit and the MI vessels are responsible for mapping the offshore. Survey areas are defined into gridded survey units known as INFOMAR Survey Units (ISUs). ISUs are all 1000 km2 in size and are uniquely identifiable by a letter on the x axis and number on the y axis. Each ISU is coloured in a shade of blue which indicates the modal water depth in that ISU. Colour scales are used, to denote the three depth bands; 50 to 100m, 100 to 150m and 150m plus.
    • Inland storage of crawfish and lobsters

      Farrell, D P (Department of Agriculture and Fisheries (Fisheries Division), 1974)
      Numerous problems occur in the handling and transport of large live crustaceans. The experienced buyer will become familiar with these difficulties over a period of years and will know how best to surmount them in practice. Often, however, the precise cause of the problems is either not known or not appreciated. Satisfactory storage can be achieved by experience alone but a biological appreciation of the precise conditions required for storage of lobsters and crawfish will be most beneficial to the industry, and particularly to those persons entering it for the first time. With this in mind Fisheries Division has been carrying out investigations in this field, and work was advanced rapidly in 1973 by the availability of a research field station at Dunmore East, Co Waterford. A detailed biological study of the storage behaviour of crawfish based on experiments is being undertaken at this station. Meanwhile this Leaflet has been written to give some preliminary results of these investigations, and also to describe one practical commercial result based on early findings.
    • Inorganic carbon and pH levels in the Rockall Trough 1991-2010

      McGrath, Triona; Kivimäe, Caroline; Tanhua, Toste; Cave, Rachel R.; McGovern, Evin (Elsevier, 2012)
      The accumulation of anthropogenic CO2 in the oceans is altering seawater carbonate chemistry. Investigation and monitoring of the carbonate parameters is therefore necessary to understand potential impacts on ocean ecosystems. Total alkalinity (AT) and dissolved inorganic carbon (CT) were sampled across the Rockall Trough in Feb 2009 (CE0903) and Feb 2010 (CE10002) as part of a baseline study of inorganic carbon chemistry in Irish shelf waters. The results have been compared with data from WOCE surveys A01E (Sept 1991), A01 (Dec 1994), AR24 (Nov 1996) and A24 (June 1997). The 2009 and 2010 datasets provide a snapshot of the biogeochemical parameters which can act as a baseline of inorganic carbon and acidity levels in surface waters of the Rockall Trough in late winter for future comparison since previous surveys in the area have been affected by biological activity. The dataset also offers the possibility to compare decadal changes in subsurface waters. The temporal evolution of anthropogenic carbon (D Cant) between the 1990s and 2010 was evaluated using two separate methods; (i) a comparison of the concentrations of CT between surveys, after correcting it for remineralisation of organic material and formation and dissolution of calcium carbonate (D CT-abio) and (ii) an extended Multiple Linear Regression was used to calculate the D Cant (D Cant eMLR). There was an increase in D CT-abio and D Cant eMLR of 1874 umol kg1 and1974 umol kg1, respectively, in the subsurface waters between 1991 and 2010, equivalent to a decrease of 0.0407± 0.003 pH units over the 19 year period. There was an increasein both D CT-abio and D Cant eMLR of 874 umol kg1 in Labrador Sea Water (LSW) in the Trough between 1991 and 2010, and LSW has acidified by 0.0297±0.002 pH units over the same time period. A reduction in calcite and aragonite saturation states was observed, which may have implications for calcifying organisms in the region.