• Indexing and selection of well-lit details in underwater video using vignetting estimation

      Sooknanan, K.; Kokaram, A.; Corrigan, D.; Wilson, J.; Harte, N. (IEEE, 2012)
      Video is an important tool in underwater surveys today, yet its useful field of view is restricted to image details within well lit regions on the seafloor. In this paper we present a novel vignetting-based weighting scheme for selecting these well lit details for use in the creation of a wide area view (mosaic) of the surveyed seafloor. Apart from this detail selection novelity,two other contributions are made. Firstly, because some of these scenes contain very little image texture, we introduce a hybrid homography estimation procedure that uses both feature-based and exhaustive searching techniques. Secondly, to facilitate cross referencing with the video, sections of the mosaic were indexed with the frame number in which the respective image details was selected from. We test our algorithm with real seabed survey video, whose scientific mission was population census of the particular species of lobster, Nephrops norvegicus. High quality mosaics were obtained that captured image details from well lit regions of the scene, which expert marine biologists agreed was a useful analysis tool. This work was supported by the Science Foundation Ireland PI Programme: SFI-PI 08/IN.1/I2112, and was done in collaboration with the Marine Institute Galway.
    • Industry-led awards 2018. Marine Institute Grant Awards in Support of the Marine Economy.

      Marine Institute (Marine Institute, 2019)
      Innovation 2020, Ireland’s strategy for research and development, science and technology states that despite the importance of research and innovation for firms, firms under-invest in research. Therefore there is a strong case for the state to encourage firms to undertake research by providing co-investment. However, this investment must be targeted at areas of commercial opportunity that are strategically important. This is the underpinning rationale of Research Prioritisation (2018-2023), which identifies 6 Themes and 14 Priority Areas that present particular market opportunities for Ireland. The first goal of Harnessing Our Ocean Wealth is “A Thriving Maritime Economy”, which focuses on the marine opportunities to achieve economic recovery with socially inclusive and sustainable growth. The Development Task Force Report developed a strategic framework identifying three interventions to drive growth across five thematic areas and create economic growth opportunities for the marine sector. In May 2018, the Marine Institute launched the Industry-Led Call, designed to provide funding for SMEs to raise the maturity levels for their research theme across these three dimensions (human capacity, infrastructure and networks & relationships). The call aims to fulfil national strategic objectives as follows: National Marine Research and Innovation Strategy 2017-2021 - Implementation of Action 8 Increase opportunities for SMEs to participate in marine research. Innovation 2020 - Action point 2.4 Optimising Enterprise RDI Supports. The funding aims to: Support research and innovation costs for the development of innovative technologies, products and services from existing or new marine-based business. Help marine companies to develop capacity, capability and their networks & relationships. Support “novel” marine research that has not previously received funding to create new knowledge or a new product, process or service or to substantially improve existing products, processes or services.
    • Infectious Haematopoietic Necrosis

      Marine Institute (Marine Institute, 2011)
      This leaflet gives information on infectious haematopoietic necrosis. This disease is caused by a single stranded RNA virus of the family Rhabdoviridae, genus Novirhabdoviridae. IHN is listed as a non-exotic disease under EU Directive 2006/88/EC, and is notifiable in Ireland, according to S.I. No. 261 of 2008.
    • Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis

      Marine Institute (Marine Institute, 2011)
      This leaflet gives information on Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis (IPN). This disease is a highly contagious systemic disease, caused by a double stranded RNA virus of the family Birnaviridae.
    • Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis Virus and its impact on the Irish Salmon Aquaculture and Wild Fish sectors

      Geoghegan, F; Ó Cinneide, M; Ruane, N. M. (Marine Institute, 2007)
      Infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN) is an economically significant viral disease of salmonid fish worldwide. Infectious pancreatic necrosis is categorised as a List III disease under Annex A of EU Council Directive 91/67/EEC. List III diseases are present within the EU and up to 2004 were regulated under national control programmes within each member state. The disease was first described in freshwater trout in North America in the 1950’s (Wood et al., 1955) and has been reported in Europe since the early 1970’s (Ball et al., 1971). Initially, IPN was regarded as a serious disease affecting rainbow trout fry and fingerlings (Roberts & Pearson, 2005). However as the salmon farming industry began to expand during the 1970’s, incidence of IPN disease in salmon also increased with the result that IPN is now widespread in the salmon farming industry in both Norway and Scotland. The economic loss due to the disease is large and outbreaks may occur in Atlantic salmon juveniles in fresh-water and in post-smolts after transfer to sea-water. Historically in Ireland, isolations of the IPN virus have been rare and occasional outbreaks have occurred in both rainbow trout and Atlantic salmon facilities. The Marine Institute and its predecessor, the Fisheries Research Centre, have been testing farmed and wild fish for disease pathogens since the mid 1980’s. The first reported clinical outbreak of IPN in Atlantic salmon occurred in 2003. However in 2006 severe outbreaks in a number of freshwater salmon hatcheries occurred which were all linked to imports from a specific single source. To date, clinical outbreaks of IPN in Ireland have been associated with imports of infected ova and their subsequent movement within the country. This report reviews the prevalence of the IPN virus in the Irish salmon farming industry and also in wild fish from selected rivers. It describes the steps taken by the industry to control the disease in 2006 and aims to provide some practical solutions to reduce the prevalence of the virus in farmed and wild fish and to prevent future outbreaks of the disease.
    • Infectious Salmon Anaemia

      Marine Institute (Marine Institute, 2011)
      This leaflet gives information on infectious salmon anaemia (ISA). ISA is caused by a single stranded RNA virus of the family Orthomyxoviridae. ISA is listed as a non-exotic disease under EU Directive 2006/88/EC, and is notifiable in Ireland, according to S.I. No. 261 of 2008.
    • Inferring marine distribution of Canadian and Irish Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) in the North Atlantic from tissue concentrations of bio-accumulated Caesium 137

      Spares, Aaron D.; Reader, Jeffery M.; Stokesbury, Michael J.W.; McDermott, Tom; Zikovsky, Lubomir; Dadswell, Michael J. (Oxford University Press, 2007)
      Atlantic salmon returning from marine migrations to eastern Canada and western Ireland during 2002 and 2003 were analysed for tissue concentrations of bio-accumulated caesium 137 (137Cs). Salmon from Canadian and Irish waters demonstrated concentrations (0.20 ± 0.14 Bq kg-1 and 0.19 ± 0.09 Bq kg-1, mean ± s.d., respectively) suggesting similar oceanic feeding distributions during migration. Canadian aquaculture escapees had a similar mean tissue concentration (0.28 ± 0.22 Bq kg-1), suggesting migration with wild salmon. However, significantly higher concentrations in 1-sea-winter (1SW) escapees (0.43 ± 0.25 Bq kg-1) may alternatively suggest feeding within local estuaries. High concentrations in some Canadian 1SW salmon indicated trans-Atlantic migration. Low concentrations of Canadian multi-sea-winter (MSW) salmon suggested a feeding distribution in the Labrador and Irminger Seas before homeward migration, because those regions have the lowest surface water 137Cs levels. Estimates of wild Canadian and Irish salmon feeding east of the Faroes (~8oW) were 14.2% and 10.0% (1SW, 24.7% and 11.5%; MSW, 2.9% and 0.0%), respectively. We propose that most anadromous North Atlantic salmon utilize the North Atlantic Gyre for marine migration and should be classified as a single trans-Atlantic straddling stock.
    • INFOMAR Survey Report CV18_01, Celtic Sea

      Sheehan, Kevin; INFOMAR Survey Team (Marine Institute, 2018-12-13)
      The Geological Survey Ireland (GSI) and Marine Institute (MI) conducted seabed mapping between 2003 and 2005 under the auspices of the Irish National Seabed Survey (INSS) and this has continued from 2006 to present day under the INtegrated mapping FOr the sustainable development of Irelands MArine Resource (INFOMAR) programme. INFOMAR is a joint venture between the GSI and the MI. The INSS was one of the largest marine mapping programmes ever undertaken globally, with a focus on deep water mapping. INFOMAR is funded by the Irish Government through the Department of Communications, Climate Action and Environment (DCCAE). INFOMAR Phase 1, 2006 to 2015 focused on mapping 26 priority bays and 3 priority areas around Ireland and creating a range of integrated mapping products of the physical, chemical and biological features of the seabed in those areas. INFOMAR Phase 2, 2016 to 2026 intends to map the remainder of Ireland’s entire seabed. Figure 1 shows the extent of the continental shelf mapped area under INSS and INFOMAR and the outstanding areas as of January 2018. Grey have already been mapped, blue and coloured hatched areas are unmapped. As of 2018 the remaining survey area has been split at the 30 nautical mile limit (Nm). The inshore survey fleet, managed by GSI is responsible for mapping inshore of the 30Nm limit and the MI vessels are responsible for mapping the offshore. Outstanding survey areas are defined into gridded survey units known as INFOMAR Survey Units (ISUs). ISUs are all 1000 km2 in size and are uniquely identifiable by a letter on the x axis and number on the y axis. Each ISU is coloured in a shade of blue which indicates the modal water depth in that ISU. Colour scales are used, to denote the three depth bands; 50 to 100m, 100 to 150m and 150m plus.
    • INFOMAR Survey Report CV18_02, Celtic Sea

      Sheehan, Kevin; McManus, Oisin (Marine Institute, 2019-02-26)
      The Geological Survey Ireland (GSI) and Marine Institute (MI) conducted seabed mapping between 2003 and 2005 under the auspices of the Irish National Seabed Survey (INSS) and this continued from 2006 to present day under the INtegrated mapping FOr the sustainable development of Irelands MArine Resource (INFOMAR) programme. INFOMAR is a joint venture between the GSI and the MI. The INSS was one of the largest marine mapping programmes ever undertaken globally, with a focus on deep water mapping. INFOMAR is funded by the Irish Government through the Department of Communications, Climate Action and Environment (DCCAE). INFOMAR Phase 1, 2006 to 2015 focused on mapping 26 priority bays and 3 priority areas around Ireland and creating a range of integrated mapping products of the physical, chemical and biological features of the seabed in those areas. INFOMAR Phase 2, 2016 to 2026 intends to map the remainder of Ireland’s entire seabed. Figure 1 shows the extent of the continental shelf mapped area under INSS and INFOMAR and the outstanding areas as of January 2018. Grey have already been mapped, blue and coloured hatched areas are unmapped. As of 2018 the remaining survey area has been split at the 30 nautical mile limit (Nm). The inshore survey fleet, managed by GSI is responsible for mapping inshore of the 30Nm limit and the MI vessels are responsible for mapping the offshore. Survey areas are defined into gridded survey units known as INFOMAR Survey Units (ISUs). ISUs are all 1000 km2 in size and are uniquely identifiable by a letter on the x axis and number on the y axis. Each ISU is coloured in a shade of blue which indicates the modal water depth in that ISU. Colour scales are used, to denote the three depth bands; 50 to 100m, 100 to 150m and 150m plus.
    • INFOMAR Survey Report CV18_03, Celtic Sea

      Sheehan, Kevin; Quinlan, Vera; INFOMAR Survey Team (Marine Institute, 2019-03-29)
      The Geological Survey Ireland (GSI) and Marine Institute (MI) conducted seabed mapping between 2003 and 2005 under the auspices of the Irish National Seabed Survey (INSS) and this continued from 2006 to present day under the INtegrated mapping FOr the sustainable development of Irelands MArine Resource (INFOMAR) programme. INFOMAR is a joint venture between the GSI and the MI. The INSS was one of the largest marine mapping programmes ever undertaken globally, with a focus on deep water mapping. INFOMAR is funded by the Irish Government through the Department of Communications, Climate Action and Environment (DCCAE). INFOMAR Phase 1, 2006 to 2015 focused on mapping 26 priority bays and 3 priority areas around Ireland and creating a range of integrated mapping products of the physical, chemical and biological features of the seabed in those areas. INFOMAR Phase 2, 2016 to 2026 intends to map the remainder of Ireland’s entire seabed. Figure 1 shows the extent of the continental shelf mapped area under INSS and INFOMAR and the outstanding areas as of January 2018. Grey have already been mapped, blue and coloured hatched areas are unmapped. As of 2018 the remaining survey area has been split at the 30 nautical mile limit (Nm). The inshore survey fleet, managed by GSI is responsible for mapping inshore of the 30Nm limit and the MI vessels are responsible for mapping the offshore. Survey areas are defined into gridded survey units known as INFOMAR Survey Units (ISUs). ISUs are all 1000 km2 in size and are uniquely identifiable by a letter on the x axis and number on the y axis. Each ISU is coloured in a shade of blue which indicates the modal water depth in that ISU. Colour scales are used, to denote the three depth bands; 50 to 100m, 100 to 150m and 150m plus.
    • INFOMAR Survey Report CV19_01, Celtic Sea

      Sheehan, K.; Sacchetti, F; INFOMAR Survey Team (Marine Institute, 2020-02-03)
      Geological Survey Ireland (GSI) and Marine Institute (MI) conducted seabed mapping between 2003 and 2005 under the auspices of the Irish National Seabed Survey (INSS) and this continued from 2006 to present day under the INtegrated mapping FOr the sustainable development of Irelands MArine Resource (INFOMAR) programme. INSS was one of the largest marine mapping programmes ever undertaken globally, with a focus on deep water mapping. INFOMAR is a joint venture between the GSI and the MI and is funded by the Irish Government through the Department of Communications, Climate Action and Environment (DCCAE). INFOMAR Phase 1, 2006 to 2015 focused on mapping 26 priority bays and 3 priority areas around Ireland and creating a range of integrated mapping products of the physical, chemical and biological features of the seabed in those areas. INFOMAR Phase 2, 2016 to 2026 intends to map the remainder of Ireland’s entire seabed. Figure 1 shows the extent of the continental shelf mapped area under INSS and INFOMAR and the outstanding areas as of January 2019. Grey have already been mapped, blue, white and coloured hatched areas are unmapped. As of 2018 the remaining survey area has been split at the 30 nautical mile limit (Nm). The inshore survey fleet, managed by GSI is responsible for mapping inshore of the 30Nm limit and the MI vessels are responsible for mapping the offshore. Survey areas are defined into gridded survey units known as INFOMAR Survey Units (ISUs). ISUs are all 1000 km2 in size and are uniquely identifiable by a letter on the x axis and number on the y axis. Each ISU is coloured in a shade of blue which indicates the modal water depth in that ISU. Colour scales are used, to denote the three depth bands; 50 to 100m, 100 to 150m and 150m plus.
    • INFOMAR Survey Report CV19_02, Celtic Sea.

      Sheehan, Kevin; Sacchetti, Fabio; INFOMAR Survey Team (Marine Institute, 2020-02-03)
      Geological Survey Ireland (GSI) and Marine Institute (MI) conducted seabed mapping between 2003 and 2005 under the auspices of the Irish National Seabed Survey (INSS) and this continued from 2006 to present day under the INtegrated mapping FOr the sustainable development of Irelands MArine Resource (INFOMAR) programme. INSS was one of the largest marine mapping programmes ever undertaken globally, with a focus on deep water mapping. INFOMAR is a joint venture between the GSI and the MI and is funded by the Irish Government through the Department of Communications, Climate Action and Environment (DCCAE). INFOMAR Phase 1, 2006 to 2015 focused on mapping 26 priority bays and 3 priority areas around Ireland and creating a range of integrated mapping products of the physical, chemical and biological features of the seabed in those areas. INFOMAR Phase 2, 2016 to 2026 intends to map the remainder of Ireland’s entire seabed. Figure 1 shows the extent of the continental shelf mapped area under INSS and INFOMAR and the outstanding areas as of January 2019. Grey have already been mapped, blue, white and coloured hatched areas are unmapped. As of 2018 the remaining survey area has been split at the 30 nautical mile limit (Nm). The inshore survey fleet, managed by GSI is responsible for mapping inshore of the 30Nm limit and the MI vessels are responsible for mapping the offshore. Survey areas are defined into gridded survey units known as INFOMAR Survey Units (ISUs). ISUs are all 1000 km2 in size and are uniquely identifiable by a letter on the x axis and number on the y axis. Each ISU is coloured in a shade of blue which indicates the modal water depth in that ISU. Colour scales are used, to denote the three depth bands; 50 to 100m, 100 to 150m and 150m plus.
    • INFOMAR Survey Report CV19_04, Celtic Sea

      Sheehan, Kevin; INFOMAR Survey Team; Sacchetti, Fabio (Marine Institute, 2020-04-09)
      Geological Survey Ireland (GSI) and Marine Institute (MI) conducted seabed mapping between 2003 and 2005 under the auspices of the Irish National Seabed Survey (INSS) and this continued from 2006 to present day under the INtegrated mapping FOr the sustainable development of Irelands MArine Resource (INFOMAR) programme. INSS was one of the largest marine mapping programmes ever undertaken globally, with a focus on deep water mapping. INFOMAR is a joint venture between the GSI and the MI and is funded by the Irish Government through the Department of Communications, Climate Action and Environment (DCCAE). INFOMAR Phase 1, 2006 to 2015 focused on mapping 26 priority bays and 3 priority areas around Ireland and creating a range of integrated mapping products of the physical, chemical and biological features of the seabed in those areas. INFOMAR Phase 2, 2016 to 2026 intends to map the remainder of Ireland’s entire seabed. Figure 1 shows the extent of the continental shelf mapped area under INSS and INFOMAR and the outstanding areas as of January 2019. Grey have already been mapped, blue, white and coloured hatched areas are unmapped. As of 2018 the remaining survey area has been split at the 30 nautical mile limit (Nm). The inshore survey fleet, managed by GSI is responsible for mapping inshore of the 30Nm limit and the MI vessels are responsible for mapping the offshore. Survey areas are defined into gridded survey units known as INFOMAR Survey Units (ISUs). ISUs are all 1000 km2 in size and are uniquely identifiable by a letter on the x axis and number on the y axis. Each ISU is coloured in a shade of blue which indicates the modal water depth in that ISU. Colour scales are used, to denote the three depth bands; 50 to 100m, 100 to 150m and 150m plus.
    • Inland storage of crawfish and lobsters

      Farrell, D P (Department of Agriculture and Fisheries (Fisheries Division), 1974)
      Numerous problems occur in the handling and transport of large live crustaceans. The experienced buyer will become familiar with these difficulties over a period of years and will know how best to surmount them in practice. Often, however, the precise cause of the problems is either not known or not appreciated. Satisfactory storage can be achieved by experience alone but a biological appreciation of the precise conditions required for storage of lobsters and crawfish will be most beneficial to the industry, and particularly to those persons entering it for the first time. With this in mind Fisheries Division has been carrying out investigations in this field, and work was advanced rapidly in 1973 by the availability of a research field station at Dunmore East, Co Waterford. A detailed biological study of the storage behaviour of crawfish based on experiments is being undertaken at this station. Meanwhile this Leaflet has been written to give some preliminary results of these investigations, and also to describe one practical commercial result based on early findings.
    • Inorganic carbon and pH levels in the Rockall Trough 1991-2010

      McGrath, Triona; Kivimäe, Caroline; Tanhua, Toste; Cave, Rachel R.; McGovern, Evin (Elsevier, 2012)
      The accumulation of anthropogenic CO2 in the oceans is altering seawater carbonate chemistry. Investigation and monitoring of the carbonate parameters is therefore necessary to understand potential impacts on ocean ecosystems. Total alkalinity (AT) and dissolved inorganic carbon (CT) were sampled across the Rockall Trough in Feb 2009 (CE0903) and Feb 2010 (CE10002) as part of a baseline study of inorganic carbon chemistry in Irish shelf waters. The results have been compared with data from WOCE surveys A01E (Sept 1991), A01 (Dec 1994), AR24 (Nov 1996) and A24 (June 1997). The 2009 and 2010 datasets provide a snapshot of the biogeochemical parameters which can act as a baseline of inorganic carbon and acidity levels in surface waters of the Rockall Trough in late winter for future comparison since previous surveys in the area have been affected by biological activity. The dataset also offers the possibility to compare decadal changes in subsurface waters. The temporal evolution of anthropogenic carbon (D Cant) between the 1990s and 2010 was evaluated using two separate methods; (i) a comparison of the concentrations of CT between surveys, after correcting it for remineralisation of organic material and formation and dissolution of calcium carbonate (D CT-abio) and (ii) an extended Multiple Linear Regression was used to calculate the D Cant (D Cant eMLR). There was an increase in D CT-abio and D Cant eMLR of 1874 umol kg1 and1974 umol kg1, respectively, in the subsurface waters between 1991 and 2010, equivalent to a decrease of 0.0407± 0.003 pH units over the 19 year period. There was an increasein both D CT-abio and D Cant eMLR of 874 umol kg1 in Labrador Sea Water (LSW) in the Trough between 1991 and 2010, and LSW has acidified by 0.0297±0.002 pH units over the same time period. A reduction in calcite and aragonite saturation states was observed, which may have implications for calcifying organisms in the region.
    • Insect Emergence Data from Four Small Lakes in the South and Southwest of Ireland

      Bracken, J. J.; Murray, D A. (Department of Agriculture and Fisheries [Fisheries Division], 1973)
      Emerging insects from four small lakes in Counties Cork and Kerry were captured using floating Mundie emergence traps during the period from late April to early November 1969. The data obtained are examined to provide information on distribution, emergence periods and seasonal fluctuations in numbers of insects present. The traps were serviced at weekly intervals and the weekly maximum/minimum temperature fluctuation was observed. Chironomids were the dominant forms emerging during the period of investigation, 51 species were recorded but only five were present in significant numbers; 19 Trichopteran species were taken, but only four in significant numbers; one species each of Chaoboridae and Ephemeroptera was taken. There does not appear to be a direct correlation between high temperatures and peak emergence within the Chironomidae, however the peak emergence of Chaoborus flavicans in Lough Avaul coincides with the maximum temperature recorded (15 C). Differences in peak emergence periods of some similar species in different lakes are apparent.
    • The inshore pot fishery for brown crab (Cancer pagurus) landing into south east Ireland: estimate of yield and assessment of status

      Fahy, E.; Carroll, J.; Stokes, D. (Marine Institute, 2002)
      Although it is regarded as an important focus of brown crab Cancer pagurus landings, the fishery in south east Ireland is poorly documented and the official statistics are believed to under-record the species by a factor of 2-3. This appraisal of the south east Ireland brown crab fishery is based on >22,000 records of sales transactions from the 1990s and a comparison of the biological characteristics of landings in the late 1960s with thirty years later, in the context of increasing fishing effort. The three buyers who gave access to their books inwards for periods of the 1990s, purchase from the same fishing community and they compete for product but they occupy slightly different market niches: a vivier truck operator exports to Spain, a processor concentrates on autumn purchases of female crab for vacuum packing while the third buys crab claws for human consumption and crab bodies which are used as bait for whelk Buccinum undatum. Only the first sales of crab from 55 km of coastline are considered. In this area fishing effort doubled between 1972 and 1988 but expansion accelerated in the following decade by at least 128%; a single operator increased his effort by 80% between 1988 and 1998. In the 30 years after 1968, the number of pots per km of coastline rose by 241%.The sale of brown crab is recorded in consignments which are raised to live weights in the analysis. Consignment size fell steeply in the late 1980s and early 1990s after which it stabilised; adjusting the figures to allow for increasing effort accentuated the trend; at the same time consignment number rose. Allowing that a decline in consignment size was accompanied by an increase in pot number, consignment number should have risen by 310% to maintain landings at the level recorded in 1990; the largest recorded increase in consignment number was by 230% and while it is accepted that all sales transactions have not been obtained, it is likely that LPUE has been declining over the 1990s in real terms in this fishery. Increasing fishing effort during that time is seen as a product of better technology, stimulated by a desire to compensate for falling LPUE. Comparison of size and sex composition of the landings recorded in the late 1960s and the late 1990s are inconclusive. Depth of water and type of substratum are likely to influence the composition of inshore landings. An argument is presented that the south east inshore crab fishery is fully or over-exploited. It is likely to have an offshore component and such occasional data as are available on brown crab further south suggest that the offshore is an under-exploited fishery. In which case, the rate of interchange between the two components is likely to be crucial to the continued performance of the inshore fishery
    • An integrated approach to the toxicity assessment of Irish marine sediments. Application of porewater Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) to Irish marine sediments.

      Macken, A; Giltrap, M; Foley, B; McGovern, E; McHugh, B; Davoren, M (Elsevier, 2009)
      An integrated approach to the ecotoxicological assessment of Irish marine sediments was carried out between 2004 and 2007. Phase I Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) of sediment porewaters from two sites on the east coast of Ireland were conducted. Initial Tier I screening of three Irish sites identified the need for TIE after significant toxicity was observed with Tisbe battagliai and the Microtox® assay at two of the assayed sites (Alexandra Basin and Dunmore East). Porewaters classified as toxic were characterised using four manipulations, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) chelation, sodium thiosulphate addition, C18 Solid Phase Extraction (SPE) and Cation Exchange (CE) SPE. Prior to initial testing, and TIE manipulations, all porewater samples were frozen at -20 ºC for several months until required. After initial Tier I testing Alexandra Basin porewater was classified as highly toxic by both assays while Dunmore East porewater only warranted a TIE with T. battagliai. Results of TIE manipulations for Alexandra Basin porewater and the Microtox® Basic test were inconclusive. The toxicity of the porewater in this assay was significantly reduced after freezing. Three experimental episodes were conducted with one month between each for the Alexandra Basin porewater. After each month of freezing the baseline toxicity was further reduced in the Microtox® assay, therefore it was not possible to draw accurate conclusions on the nature of the active contaminants in the sample. However, toxicity to T. battalgiai did not change after storage of the porewater. The C18 and CE SPE decreased the toxicity of Alexandra Basin porewater to the copepod indicating that both organic and cationic compounds (e.g. metals) were active in the sample. Dunmore East porewater was assayed with T. battalgiai and again a combination of organic and inorganic compounds were found to be partly responsible for the observed toxicity (C18, CE SPE and EDTA reduced toxicity). Results from these TIEs provide insight into the complexity of interpreting marine TIE data from porewater studies where mixtures of unknown substances are present.
    • Integrating vessel monitoring systems (VMS) data with daily catch data from logbooks to explore the spatial distribution of catch and effort at high resolution.

      Lordan, C; Gerritsen, H.D. (Oxford University Press, 2011)
      Vessel monitoring systems (VMS) automatically collect positional data from fishing vessels. The VMS data can be linked to catch data from logbooks to provide a census of spatially resolved catch-and-effort data. We explore and validate the most appropriate and practical method for integrating Irish VMS and logbook data. A simple speed rule is applied to identify VMS records that correspond to fishing activity. These data are then integrated with the catch data from logbooks using date and vessel identifier. A number of assumptions were investigated, and the resulting distribution maps of catch and effort appear to be unbiased. The method is illustrated with an example of a time-series of spatially explicit catch-per-unit-effort (cpue) estimates. The proposed method is relatively simple and does not require specialist software or computationally intensive methods. It will be possible to generalize this approach to similar datasets that are available within the EU and many other regions. Analysis of integrated VMS and logbook data will allow fisheries data to be analysed on a considerably finer spatial scale than was possible in the past, which opens up a range of potential applications.
    • Interaction between seals and salmon drift net fisheries in the west of Ireland

      McCarthy, D T (Department of Fisheries and Forestry, 1985-05)
      The common seal Phoca vitulina L. and the grey seal Halichoerus grypus F. are both present in colonies along the west coast. The common seal inhabits bays and estuaries and inlets with sandy bars mainly in Galway Bay, Clew Bay, Co. Mayo, Ballysadare Bay, Co. Sligo and Donegal Bay. The grey seal is more widely dispersed particularly in the summer months and can be seen in bays, estuaries and offshore islands. Widespread complaints by salmon fishermen in Galway Bay of severe predation by seals on salmon caught in drift nets in 1978 led to a programme to study the problem. In 1979 and 1981 direct observations on board two salmon drifters were made in Galway Bay and in 1980 and 1981 similar work took place on three boats in Sligo Bay. In addition, two crews were interviewed in port each evening. In 1980 salmon landed in Donegal, Galway and Kenmare were examined at market points and the number of seal damaged fish recorded. This leaflet gives the results of the study and concludes that effective control requires measures against the seals which are actually robbing the nets. Destruction of seals at breeding colonies is unlikely to have any positive effect on the rate of predation.