• Herring Investigations on the North-West and West Coasts 1971-1972

      Kennedy, T D (Department of Agriculture and Fisheries (Fisheries Division), 1972)
      Although the main herring fishery off the north-west coast in 1971/72 covered the period from October, 1971 to February, 1972, a substantial quantity of herrings was landed during the period March to September, 1971.
    • Herring investigations on the North-west and west coasts 1972-1973

      Kennedy, T D (Department of Agriculture and Fisheries (Fisheries Division), 1973)
      Although the main herring fishery off the north west coast in 1972/73, covered the period from October 1972 to February 1973, a considerable quantity of herrings was also landed during the period March to September 1972. The section of this report covering the north west coast is thus divided into two sections, that concerned with the period March to September 1972 (the off season) and that with the period October 1972 to February 1973 (the main season). A further section deals with the fishery off the west coast, in Galway Bay.
    • Herring Investigations on the North-West Coast 1969 and 1970

      Kennedy, T D (Department of Agriculture and Fisheries (Fisheries Division), 1970)
      Although the main herring fishery off the North-West coast of Ireland now takes place from October to January or early February, considerable quantities of herring are also landed throughout the remainder of the year. This report is thus divided into two sections, one dealing with the period March to September, 1969 (the off season) and the other dealing with the period October, 1969 to February, 1970 (the main season).
    • Herring larval surveys in the Celtic Sea and division VIIj in 1982/83

      Grainger, R. J.; Barnwall, E.; Cullen, A. (International Council for the Exploration of the Sea, 1983)
      Surveys for herring larvae in the Celtic Sea were conducted between October 1982 ~ and February 1983 for the fifth successive season. To take account of the amalgamation of the Celtic Sea and Div VIIJ herring for assessment purposes and to ascertain if many larval drift into the Irish Sea, the survey grid of previous years was modified for the 1982/83 season. However, because of the nature of the larvae distribution it appears reasonable to compare the larvae index for 1982/83 with those of the previous seasons. The increase in indices since 1978/79 has continued up to 1982/83 indicating a steady, but slow, recovery of the spawning stock. Very few larvae appear to drift into the Irish Sea.
    • Herring larval surveys in the Celtic Sea and division VIIj in 1983/1984

      Cullen, A.; Barnwall, E.; Grainger, R. J. (International Council for the Exploration of the Sea, 1984)
      Surveys for herring larvae in the Celtic Sea were conducted for the sixth ~ successive season between October 1983 and February 1984. The modifications made to the survey grid in the previous season to take account of the amalgamation of the Celtic Sea and Division VIIj for assessment purposes and to ascertain if larvae drift into the Irish Sea were also adopted for the 1983/84 surveys. A drift of larvae towards the Irish Sea was apparent in 1983/84. The larval abundance index for 1983/84 based on a standard survey area was almost three times higher than any previous value. A continuous increase in larval indices since 1978/79 indicates a recovery of the spawning stock.
    • Herring larval surveys in the Celtic Sea in 1981/82

      Barnwall, E.; Cullen, A.; Grainger, R. J. (International Council for the Exploration of the Sea, 1982)
      The distributions of herring larvae sampled on ten cruises off the south coast of Ireland during the 1981/82 spawning season are described. A new larval abundance index, which is based on the abundances of <10mm larvae prior to 15 December and on <11mm larvae afterwards,has been calculated for the last four seasons. This index shows an increase each year since 1978/79 indicating that the spawning stock biomass has also increased.
    • Herring Larval Surveys off the West and North West Coasts

      Molloy, J.; Barnwall, E. (Department of the Marine, Roinn na Mara, 1988)
      Herring larval surveys provide an index of the size of the herring stock which spawns each October and November along the Donegal, Mayo and Galway coasts. This index is then used as a basis for determining the total allowable catch (TAC) for the stock and subsequently the national quotas. As well as detecting trends which occur in the stock sizes the surveys also indicate the locations and the times at which the main spawnings occur. This Leaflet gives details of the distribution of larvae and seasonal variations in their abundance. It is intended to extend the area covered by these surveys in an effort to improve the reliability of the estimates of the stock sizes obtained.
    • Herring tagging experiments around Ireland, 1991

      Molloy, J; Barnwall, E; Morrison, J (Department of the Marine, 1993-05)
      The assessment and management of the herring fisheries around Ireland assumes that there are three distinct and separate populations. The management units are based on ICES Areas which, however, are not based on the distribution of the stocks and which do not take into account the mixing that takes place between the different stocks. In July 1992 a herring tagging experiment was carried out, designed to provided information on the migration of the herring around Ireland which would be useful in establishing more realistic management units. In the experiment over 20,000 herring were tagged and liberated - 10,000 southwest of the Isle of Man and 10,000 in Broadhaven Bay. Over 450 tagged fish have been recovered to date and the results suggested considerable movement of herring between the different management units. There appears to be a major link between the Irish Sea stocks and the part of the Celtic Sea stock that spawns off the south east coast of Ireland. A small number of fish tagged off the Mayo coast migrated south to the coast of Kerry. The mixing of these stocks should be taken into account when the various stocks are assessed and when the annual TAC's are estimated.
    • Herring: Linking biology, ecology and population status in the context of changing environments

      Clarke, M W; Brophy, D; Dickey-Collas, M; Fiksen, O; Hatfield, E M C; Hay, D E; Nash, R D M; Norcross, B L; Slotte, A (Marine Institute, 2008)
      This Conference took place from 26th to the 29th August 2009 at the national University of Ireland, Galway. It was organized to link our understanding of herring biology, population dynamics and exploitation in the context of ecosystem complexity. It is beyond argument that herring play a pivotal role in shaping the structure and dynamics of many boreal continental-shelf ecosystems. As fisheries management moves towards an ecosystem approach, the time seemed right for ICES to hold another herring symposium. Since the last ICES symposia on herring were in the 1960s (ICES Herring symposium, 1961; Biology of Early Stages and Recruitment Mechanisms of Herring, 1968) many of the former paradigms have been rejected and substantial progress has been made by striking out on new avenues of thought. In addressing this particular topic, we can also follow on from the decadal herring symposia series held in North America and thus cover new research from both the ICES and PICES community. It was fitting that this conference enjoyed the support of ICES, PICES and GLOBEC. Much has changed in the world of herring, since the last ICES symposium. Stocks have collapsed, recovered, and in some cases, have collapsed again. Work in recent years has focused on the development and evaluation of management strategies for herring stocks, and this work continues. The importance of herring in the food chain is an ever present consideration. Despite the many advances in our knowledge of stock structure and biology, herring population still present a challenge in terms of managing highly variable populations. We hope that this summary report, prepared by the science committee and the conveners, accurately represents the variety of presentations and discussions on this most variable of fishes.
    • Herrring Investigations on the North-West and West coasts 1976

      Molloy, J; Kennedy, T D (Department of Agriculture and Fisheries (Fisheries Division), 1977)
      The herring fisheries off Donegal, Mayo and Galway in 1976 are reviewed. A serious decline in catches, particularly in the Donegal fishery, took place but this was compensated for by increased prices. The decline in catches is caused mainly by a decrease in stock size, because the recruitment of young herring in recent years has not compensated for the amounts removed by fishing. To minimise the dangers of poor recruitment it would be unwise to allow any fishing to develop on young immature herring in the area. The total international catch off Galway increased considerably in 1976, largely due to increased Dutch effort. International catch restrictions on the total catch are likely to be even more severe in future years.
    • Histological examination of the gills as a method of detecting asymptomatic carriers of A. Salmonicida in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

      McArdle, J.F.; Dooley-Martyn, C.; McKiernan, F. (European Association of Fish Pathologists, 1986)
    • History 5th and 6th Class The History of Seaweed in Ireland – research and creating an information poster board

      Marine Institute (Marine Institute, 2015)
      The aim of the lesson plan is for the children to develop an understanding of how seaweed has been used for food and farming in Ireland over a number of centuries. Research will also include how seaweed has been used by other countries as a resource and source of food and medicine. *Note: The activities included in this lesson plan can be conducted over a course of study or set as project work for the children.
    • A History of common carp Cyprinus carpio (L.) in Ireland: A Review

      Brazier, B.; Caffrey, J. M.; Cross, T. F.; Chapman, D. V. (Marine Institute, 2012)
      This paper represents the most comprehensive and detailed summary of the history of common carp Cyprinus carpio (L.) in Ireland to date. It charts the earliest known introductions of the species to Irish waters, the rise in popularity of recreational angling for the species from c. 1950 onwards, the work carried out to establish the species in Ireland and explains the primary causes of their more recent distribution increase. Much of the historical research material gathered on common carp in Irish waters, including the first recorded details of introduction, is presented here for the first time.
    • History: 5th and 6th class. The myth behind the naming of Moytirra - Balor and the Battle of Moy Tura

      Marine Institute (Marine Institute, 2018)
      The lesson introduces students to the naming of the Moytirra hydrothermal vents in the mid-Atlantic. The students will learn about how the name that was given to the largest hydrothermal vent was inspired by the Irish legend and story about Balor and the Battle of Moy Tura. The students will learn through readings of myths and legends from Irish culture.
    • How much of the seabed is impacted by mobile fishing gear? Absolute estimates from Vessel Monitoring Systems (VMS) point data

      Gerritsen, H.D.; Minto, C.; Lordan, C. (Oxford University Press, 2013)
      Demersal trawling impacts extensively on the seabed and the extent and frequency of this impact can be assessed using Vessel Monitoring Systems (VMS) data (positional data of fishing vessels). Existing approaches interpolate fishing tracks from consecutive VMS locations (track interpolation) and/or aggregate VMS point data in a spatial grid (point summation). Track interpolation can be quite inaccurate at the current 2-hour time interval between VMS records, leading to biased estimates. Point summation approaches currently only produce relative estimates of impact and are highly sensitive to the grid size chosen We propose an approach that provides absolute estimates of trawling impact from point data and is not sensitive to an arbitrary choice of grid cell size. The method involves applying a nested grid and estimating the swept area (area covered by fishing gear) for each VMS point. We show that the ratio of the swept area to the surface area of a cell can be related to the proportion of the seabed that was impacted by the gear a given number of times. We validate the accuracy of this swept-area ratio approach using known vessel tracks and apply the method to international VMS data in the Celtic Sea.
    • Human Health

      Bresnan, E.; Austin, C. B.; Campos, C. J. A.; Davidson, K.; Edwards, M.; Hall, A.; Lees, D.; McKinney, A.; Milligan, S.; Silke, J. (Marine Climate Change Impacts Partnership, 2017)
      • Toxin producing phytoplankton, pathogenic vibrios (bacteria commonly found in low salinity water) and noroviruses all have the potential to impact human health. • The relationship between climate change and toxin producing phytoplankton is complex. Considerable unknowns remain about how climate change will impact this part of the plankton community and confidence in predicting these impacts in UK waters remains low. • A recent study in Scotland has shown short term weather events as well as wind mediated transport of offshore phytoplankton populations can influence the toxicity of coastal shellfish. This highlights the requirement for long term data sets to identify the impacts of climate change from shorter term seasonal and interannual variability. • Emerging evidence from peer-reviewed scientific studies has suggested that increasing seawater temperatures and extreme weather events such as heatwaves and extreme precipitation, drive the abundance of pathogenic vibrios in the environment. A recent spate of reported infections in Northern Europe underlines these observations. Climate warming in the region may therefore increase human infections.
    • Hydrography, Surface Geology and Geomorphology of the Deep Water Sedimentary Basins to the West of Ireland

      Vermeulen, N J (Marine Institute, 1997)
      This desk study involved the assembly, review and analysis of public domain and available data from an extensive deep water area offshore to the west of Ireland. All major bathymetric and sedimentary basins, in addition to associated shallow plateau and bank areas, were considered. Particular emphasis was placed on the Porcupine Seabight and Rockall Trough as these were considered to be the main areas of interest for the proposed 1996 AIRS (Atlantic Irish Regional Survey) project. Only relatively brief summaries are given for the Hatton Basin, Hatton Bank and the area further west. Also, as the GLORIA side-scan sonar system used in the project is effective only in deeper waters (continental slope and abyssal depths), a considerable portion of the shallow shelf has been ignored. The primary goal of this study was to assemble a large existing data base on the above areas and to present this in a concise format. An introduction for each area describes the geological location and bathymetric characteristics. This is followed in each case by a description of the hydrography, in particular the characteristics of the water column and bottom current dynamics. Finally, an overview of the main geological and geomorphological features is given. Little reference will be made to the pre-Pleistocene geology of the region, with the focus of the project being on the modern sediments. The water column over much of the study area is seen to be highly stratified, with a number of distinct layers of various origin evident. Vigorous bottom currents are also clearly present in many areas, often at significant depth, and undoubtedly have an influence on seafloor sedimentation patterns. Sediment influx related to the cessation of the last glacial cycle has had a profound influence on the sea bed geomorphology. In a number of areas, massive sediment drifts or accumulations are evident, in addition to large scale mass-wasting and slope failure features which determine slope and basin floor character. Vigorous early post-glacial sea bed currents probably determined the distribution of much of the glacial sediment, but currents capable of transporting fine sand to silt grade sediments have been recorded and are still active today.
    • A hydrothermal adVENTure

      Marine Institute; Tulca (Marine Institute, 2018)
    • A hydrothermal AdVENTure - Build Your Own Unknown art and science project

      Dromgool-Regan, Cushla; Burke, Noirin (Marine Institute and Tulca, 2019)
      A hydrothermal AdVENTure - Build Your Own Unknown art and science project provides children with an exciting opportunity to learn about the deep ocean in a meaningful way. The cross-curricular lesson plans and teaching resources are an exemplar of using ICT, art and marine science in the classroom. From science, geography, history and English to creating art pieces, students can use their scientific and creative skills producing film and art pieces to communicate their discoveries.
    • A hydrothermal adventure- Build your own unknown; Fact or fiction student evaluation game.

      Marine Institute (Marine Institute, 2018)
      Taking inspiration from the script of Build Your Own Unknown which merges scientific fact with a fictional narrative, play a game of fact or fiction to evaluate student learning. Play the game twice; at the beginning of the module after the students first viewing of Build Your Own Unknown and at the end of the completed module or related lesson plans. Alternatively create a set of questions based on the glossary and use to play fact or fiction. Record results each time and compare statistics to determine the class percentage increase/decrease in learning.