• Geography: 5th and 6th Class – What would I do with my Local Seashore (Irish and English Version available)

      Marine Institute (Marine Institute, 2015)
      The aim of the lesson plan is for children to identify the beach as a place where people can enjoy and suggest ways that the beach could be kept clean and safe.
    • Geography: Fifth and Sixth Class - Explorers Caring for our Ocean Action Board (Irish and English Version)

      Marine Institute (2017)
      The aim of the lesson is for children to form a greater understanding of the ocean’s influence on them and their influence on the ocean. The lesson aims to guide children with creating a strategy to help care for the marine environment as an individual as well as collectively at a local, national and global level.
    • Geography: Junior Infants and Senior Infants - Keeping our Beaches Clean from Litter (Irish and English Version available)

      Marine Institute (rine Institute, 2014)
      The aim of the lesson plan is for children to identify the beach as a place where people can play and suggest ways that the beach could be kept clean and safe.
    • Geography: Junior Infants and Senior Infants - Observing Features of the Local Beach (Irish and English Version available)

      Marine Institute (Marine Institute, 2014)
      The aim of the lesson plan is for children to become aware of, explore and discuss some aspects of natural environments, such as the seashore, in the immediate locality of the school
    • Geological Appraisal of the Kish, Burford, Bray and Fraser Banks, Outer Dublin Bay Area

      Wheeler, A J; Walshe, J; Sutton, G D (Marine Institute, 2000)
      Geological mapping of the seabed and sub-seabed strata in an area comprising offshore banks and intervening sediments in outer Dublin Bay is presented. Bathymetric comparisons suggest that the offshore banks are quasi-stable over time probably maintaining their position due to the interaction between wave and current regimes. Seven acoustic seabed facies are defined on the basis of side-scan sonar characteristics reflecting differences in bedforms and bottom types. Sediment waves indicative of a mobile substrate are common both on and between banks. Maximum sandwave development occurs on bank flanks and outer limits. The effects of wave action on seabed morphology are clearly discernible in the structure and appearance of the bank crests. Grain-size data and bedform interpretations suggest a northerly sediment transport system with gravel dominant in the south of the area (Bray Bank) grading to sands in the north (Kish and Burford Banks). Sub-bottom profiling reveals a consistent upper unit overlying a hard reflector allowing unit thickness (isopachs) to be defined. No internal structures or “hard” cores were revealed within banks. Two shipwrecks were also imaged. This report forms part of a larger project "Reconnaissance Assessment of Coastal Seabed Sand and Gravel Resources" whose objective is to provide a comprehensive national survey, for the island of Ireland, of near-shore sand and gravel resources, to a water-depth of 50m, pertinent to all end-users e.g. aggregates industry, fisheries, local authorities, etc. The aims of this larger project are to: 1. collate all known information (digital, documentary, archival and other sources) regarding the location and extent of the resources; 2. deliver this data as a national resource inventory using a GIS database in line with national standards; 3. ground-truth and extend the existing data coverage through additional surveys, where perceived data gaps or data ambiguities exist pertinent to national needs. The resulting database (items 1 and 2) is comprised of three elements: •A MS Access database hosting comprehensive records of 63 datasets. Accessible from the metadata record for each dataset are: •An archive of digital thematic data in ArcView shapefile format with associated legends, tables, and imagery; •A bibliographic database containing 406 bibliographic entries. This report addresses Aim 3 of the larger project (above): “ground-truth and extend the existing data coverage through additional surveys, where perceived data gaps or data ambiguities exist pertinent to national needs”.
    • Geology of the seashore

      Marine Institute (Marine Institute, 2013)
      There are many different types of beaches around Ireland. By looking at the geology of the seashore, students can study its rocks, soil, and minerals and learn about its origins. The geology of the seashore also offers a natural environment for many species and plants to live.
    • Gill damage to Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) caused by the common jellyfish (Aurelia aurita) under experimental challenge

      Baxter, E.J.; Sturt, M.M.; Ruane, N.M.; Doyle, T.K.; McAllen, R.; Harman, L.; Rodger, H.D. (PLoS ONE, 2011)
      Background: Over recent decades jellyfish have caused fish kill events and recurrent gill problems in marine-farmed salmonids. Common jellyfish (Aurelia spp.) are among the most cosmopolitan jellyfish species in the oceans, with populations increasing in many coastal areas. The negative interaction between jellyfish and fish in aquaculture remains a poorly studied area of science. Thus, a recent fish mortality event in Ireland, involving Aurelia aurita, spurred an investigation into the effects of this jellyfish on marine-farmed salmon. Methodology/Principal Findings: To address the in vivo impact of the common jellyfish (A. aurita) on salmonids, we exposed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolts to macerated A. aurita for 10 hrs under experimental challenge. Gill tissues of control and experimental treatment groups were scored with a system that rated the damage between 0 and 21 using a range of primary and secondary parameters. Our results revealed that A. aurita rapidly and extensively damaged the gills of S. salar, with the pathogenesis of the disorder progressing even after the jellyfish were removed. After only 2 hrs of exposure, significant multi-focal damage to gill tissues was apparent. The nature and extent of the damage increased up to 48 hrs from the start of the challenge. Although the gills remained extensively damaged at 3 wks from the start of the challenge trial, shortening of the gill lamellae and organisation of the cells indicated an attempt to repair the damage suffered. Conclusions: Our findings clearly demonstrate that A. aurita can cause severe gill problems in marine-farmed fish. With aquaculture predicted to expand worldwide and evidence suggesting that jellyfish populations are increasing in some areas, this threat to aquaculture is of rising concern as significant losses due to jellyfish could be expected to increase in the future.
    • Gill disease in finfish aquaculture with emphasis on amoebic gill disease

      Downes, J.K. (Galway-Mayo Institute of Technology, 2017)
      Gill disease is one of the most significant challenges facing global salmon aquaculture and in terms of economic impact; amoebic gill disease (AGD) caused by the free living protozoan Neoparamoeba perurans is perhaps the most destructive. However, gill disease is often multifactorial, with numerous putative pathogens identified as potentially playing a role. AGD was first described in Irish aquaculture in 1995. Between the years 1995 and 2010, there were sporadic and relatively minor outbreaks of AGD. Since the re-emergence of the disease in 2011/2012, greater focus has been placed on gill health. This research aimed to investigate gill disease and in particular the re-emergence of AGD caused by N. perurans in Irish aquaculture. Through this it was hoped to provide the industry with the tools and information to help improve management of gill disease as well as fish health and welfare. With respect to this, Chapter 2 of this thesis details the effort to develop and validate a real-time TaqMan® PCR assay to detect Neoparamoeba perurans in Atlantic salmon gills. Furthermore, it describes the use of this assay to monitor disease progression on a marine Atlantic salmon farm in Ireland in conjunction with gross gill pathology and histopathology. As molecular diagnosis of AGD remains a high priority for much of the international salmon farming industry, Chapter 3 evaluates the suitability of currently available molecular assays in conjunction with the most appropriate non-destructive sampling methodology. In addition it compares this methodology with traditional screening methods of gill scoring and histopathology. Chapter 4 addresses the complex and multifactorial nature of gill disorders. Co-infections are common on farms and there is a lack of knowledge in relation to interactions and synergistic effects of these agents. The advances in molecular diagnostics have made it possible in Chapter 5 to identify N. perurans as the causative agent in the earliest AGD outbreaks. In addition to this, a number of other putative pathogens were also identified in these early cases of gill disease. Finally, Chapter 6 concludes the findings of this research and how they relate to the current knowledge of gill health and welfare.
    • GILPAT: An Investigation into Gill Pathologies in Marine Reared Finfish

      Ruane, N. M.; Rodger, Hamish; Mitchell, Susie; Doyle, Tom; Baxter, Emily; Fringuelli, Elena (Marine Institute, 2013)
      The aims of the GILPAT project were to take a multidisciplinary approach in order to further understand the underlying causes of gill disease in Irish farmed fish. A specific aim was to establish a pilot zooplankton monitoring programme and use training workshops to enable fish farmers to upskill in areas such as zooplankton sampling and basic identification of the main zooplankton/jellyfish species common to Irish waters. Complimenting this was the development of a number of molecular diagnostic methods for the detection of potential pathogens suspected of being involved in the development of the condition. Together with a comprehensive literature review, epidemiological study, and experimental challenge studies, the project aimed to bring all these elements together with the objective of outlining potential mitigation measures and identifying areas for future research.
    • The GOSHIP A02 Survey 2017 Taking the Pulse and Temperature of the North Atlantic Ocean.

      McGovern, E.; Cusack, C.; Wallace, D.; Croot, P. (The Journal of Ocean Technology, 2017)
    • Grey Seals: Status and Monitoring in the Irish and Celtic Seas

      Kierly, O; Lidgard, D; McKibben, M; Connolly, N; Baines, M (Marine Institute, 2000-06)
      The population size and seasonal distribution of grey seals at principal haul-out sites in the central and southern Irish Sea were investigated in a co-ordinated transnational study conducted between 1996 and 1998. Concurrent studies on human interactions with this population focused on Seal - Fisheries interactions in the western Irish Sea and eastern Celtic Sea, and on the impacts of the Sea Empress oil spill and eco-tourism on breeding colonies in the eastern Irish Sea.
    • Growth and survival of Spisula solidissima similis larvae fed different rations of Tahitian strain Isochrysis species

      Hurley, D.H.; Walker, R.L.; O'Beirn, F.X. (National Shellfisheries Association, 1997)
      Laboratory-spawned veliger-stage larvae of the southern Atlantic surfclam, Spisula solidissima similis (Say 1822), were reared to late pediveliger stage on five different cell concentrations of Tahitian strain Isochrysis species (T-Iso) to determine an optimal food ration for this subspecies. Larvae were fed daily 0, 50,000, 100,000, 200,000, or 300,000 cells/mL of T-Iso. Day-old veliger larvae were stocked in 150 (1-L) replicate flasks at mean densities of 0.7 or 0.8 larvae/mL for trials A and B, respectively. Larval growth and survival were assessed every 2 days over the 14-day trial penods. Significantly greater growth and survival of larvae occurred in both trials in the lower food rations of 50,000 and 100,000 cells/mL. A reduction in larval growth rate and survival was observed at the higher ration treatments. A decline in overall larval health may be associated with the deliterious effects of surplus ration degradation.
    • The growth of Mytilus edulis from Carlingford Lough

      Wilson, J H (Department of Fisheries, 1977)
      The growth of Mytilus edulis at five stations in Carlingford Lough and two in Belfast Lough was calculated from annually produced growth rings. These rings were shown to be annual from measurements of the seasonal growth of marked animals on the shore. Shell tissue ratios were found to vary from station to station. Variations in growth are discussed in relation to sea temperatures, breeding cycles, salinity, pollution and level on the shore.
    • Growth rate fluctuations of herring in the Celtic Sea: a history of life on the edge

      Lynch, D.; Wilson, J.; Clarke, M. (International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES), 2011)
      The most south-western herring populations in Europe occur in the Celtic Sea, south of Ireland. Biological sampling has been conducted since the 1920s and routinely since 1958. This study collated and analysed these long term data for the first time. Overall results were examined in the context of time series of environmental data and population scale indices of population status. Size at age was low in the 1920s and 1950s, but increased to a peak in the 1970s before declining strongly until recently. Condition factor over time declined, whilst growth rates were greater in the 1960s and 1970s than in the 1980s and 1990s. Further analyses suggest that the changes are influenced by environmental factors, especially the North Atlantic Oscillation sea surface temperature, and the abundance of Calanus copepods. The implications of this work, for the rational management of this stock, are discussed.
    • Guide to Best Practice in Seascape Assessment

      Hill, M; Briggs, J; Minto, P; Bagnall, D; Foley, K; Williams, A (Marine Institute, 2001-03)
      Seascape is a crucial element in any maritime nation’s sense of identity and culture. It has played an important part in the history and development of Ireland and Wales. The coast and the sea is a primary holiday and leisure location and is a significant asset in a nation’s recreational resource. The coast and related seascape is a finite resource under almost continual pressure for development. In both Ireland and Wales we are currently experiencing a period of exceptional change around our coasts. The response to sea level rise is generating more proposals for coastal defence works. We have seen the development of new ports and the upgrading of existing facilities, and proposals for aquaculture schemes have become more prevalent around some coasts. Energy strategies are giving rise to wind turbine projects off both coasts. We have also become more aware of how valuable and important our seascapes are to the character and identity of much of our countryside, towns and cities. With all of these development pressures related to the coast and the sea, a systematic approach to issues raised is now timely and essential to ensure that the decision making process has the tools to deal with the upcoming changes. For these reasons development that affects our coasts and seascapes require particular attention and care. Such consideration can best be given in a structure based upon a thorough understanding of the character and values attributable to the relevant seascapes. This guide attempts to provide a methodology to deal with the issues involved.
    • Guidelines for Planning a Marina Development

      Marine Institute (Marine Institute, 2001-07)
      Marine Leisure and boating is an increasingly popular activity in Irish coastal waters. An ESRI (1996) survey indicated that many more people could be encouraged to participate in coastal boating and watersports if facilities were improved. These facilities can range from simple structures such as slipways and floating pontoons to large scale marina complexes. In response to the growing demand for better facilities, funding will be provided under the National Development Plan 2000-2006 for the upgrading or enhancement of coastal facilities and the development of new facilities. This funding will be administered by the Department of the Marine and Natural Resources. The Marine Institute is the national agency charged with responsibility for co-ordinating marine research in Ireland. During 2000-2001 the Marine Institute participated in an Interreg IIc Project MAYA – Marinas and Yachting in the North West Metropolitan area. A key objective of this European project was to develop common standards for marina development. As part of this project, the Institute commissioned Brady Shipman Martin, Kirk McClure Morton and Fitzpatrick Associates to assess planning, technical and safety issues relevant to marina development. The resulting publication, Guidelines for Planning a Marina Development illustrates the steps to be taken when preparing an application for Planning Permission and a Foreshore Lease/Permission for a coastal marina development. The guidelines highlight that the development of marine leisure infrastructure is a process which requires careful planning. Consultation, particularly at an early stage, with both the Department of the Marine and Natural Resources and the relevant Local Authority on key issues such as planning policy, navigation, safety, and conservation designations can greatly enhance the prospect of achieving a successful marina development.
    • Guidelines for the Assessment of Dredge Material for Disposal in Irish Waters

      Cronin, M; McGovern, E; McMahon, T; Boelens, R (Marine Institute, 2006)
      Prior to the present guidelines the assessment, by the Marine Institute on behalf of the Department of Communication, Marine and Natural Resources, of the suitability of dredged materials for disposal at sea had employed provisional action levels as an aid to evaluation. These provisional action levels were based entirely on sediment chemistry. The responsible agencies have decided that these levels now need to be updated and formalised. The approach proposed in this document aims to provide an improved, and more integrated, assessment of the ecological risks associated with individual sediment dredging and disposal activities. It offers flexibility to deal with issues on a case-by-case basis and improves transparency of the decision-making process. The list of parameters to be assessed has been revised and methods for setting numerical guidance values in other countries have been reviewed. Ideally, guidance levels should comprise chemical and ecotoxicological data specifically relating to Irish sediments. In the absence of a comprehensive dataset for Irish sediments, proposed threshold guidance levels have been based on ecotoxicological data from other sources. Wherever possible, lower threshold guidance values have been based on existing Irish background levels of contaminants. Where background data do not exist for a particular parameter, ecotoxicologically-derived values, corresponding to expected no-effect levels, have been taken from reputable sources. Similarly, upper threshold guidance levels (i.e. levels at which effects may be expected) have been based on ecotoxicological data from reputable sources. The assessment strategy has been designed so that decisions concerning the acceptability of sediments for sea disposal will take into account a range of intrinsic and environmental factors i.e. the strategy adopts a Weight of Evidence approach. The guidance will be reviewed and revised as necessary, as more information becomes available. Sampling and storage methodology is presented as well as quality assurance and reporting requirements. Guidance on analytical procedures and approval of analytical laboratories is included.
    • Gutted to round-weight conversion factors for anglerfish (Lophius poscatorius and Lophius budegassa)

      Lordan, C.; Gerritsen, H.D. (Marine Institute, 2006)
      In response to a request from the Department of Communications Marine and Natural Resources and fishing industry, the conversion factors used to estimate round or live weights from gutted anglerfish were re-examined. A number of data sources was available from survey data, port sampling and observer trips. In some cases, the liver is left in place when the fish are gutted. For these landings a separate conversion factor is necessary. The conversion factors were found to be independent of fish size, however, some significant differences between the data sources were found. Significant differences between the conversion factors of the two species of anglerfish (Lophius piscatorius and L. budegassa) were also found. As commercial landings of anglerfish are not usually speciated, a generic conversion factor was estimated for Lophius spp. by combining the data for both species after weighting by the estimated proportions of the two species in the Irish landings. The resultant conversion factor for fully gutted fish is 1.23 and 1.17 when the liver is left in place; both estimates are lower than the current Irish factor of 1.28.
    • Gyrodactylosis

      Marine Institute (Marine Institute, 2011)
      This leaflet gives information on gyrodactylosis. This disease is caused by Gyrodactylus salaris, a freshwater ectoparasite of Atlantic salmon.
    • Harmful and nuisance algal blooms in Irish coastal waters 1990 - 1993

      Silke, J.; Jackson, D. (ICES, 1993)
      Algal blooms occur naturally around our coast. These high concentrations of planktonic algae are associated with favourable conditions of light and nutrients, and often occur at stratification/ mixing fronts. Many blooms are completely harmless, and form the diet of shellfish and zooplankton. Some colour the water red or brown. A few species are toxic and can cause fish kills or make shellfish unsafe to eat. The Fisheries Research Centre monitors phytoplankton in order to detect any toxic or potentially harmful blooms. The harmful and nuisance algal events from 1990 to 1993 are described.