• Fish Kills in Ireland in 1993

      Moriarty, C (Department of the Marine, 1994)
      The pattern of fish kills in 1993 showed a dramatic change from that of the previous ten years. The number of incidents showed a very welcome reduction to a total of 33, the lowest since systematic records began to be kept in 1982. Only one case of damage caused by silage effluent was reported and two from farm effluents - in the recent past these were the most frequent and serious sources. However, fish kills provisionally attributed to 'enrichment' attained a record total of 16, most of them in the lakes in Co. Cavan in the Erne catchment. Sewage and runoff from agricultural land are the main sources of the phosphorous which brings about excessive blooms of microscopic algae. Enrichment has caused extremely serious problems in the past, in particular in Loughs Ennel and Sheelin. In both cases, remedial measures were successful, although problems have arisen again in the case of Lough Sheelin. The more widespread problem in the Erne catchment may be more difficult to contain and there are also signs of trouble in the Rivers Shannon and Lee. The trend of increasing numbers of enrichment-based fish kills does not necessarily mean that even more such incidents will take place in 1994 - but it is virtually certain that similar problems to those of 1993 will arise sooner or later unless action is taken.
    • Fish Kills in Ireland in 1994 and 1995

      Moriarty, C (Marine Institute, 1996-05)
      In 1994, the downward trend in numbers of fish kills continued, the total for the year being 32. However, in 1995 a long spell of dry weather greatly reduced the flow in rivers in all parts of Ireland and the number of fish kills rose to 84, the highest since 1989. In 1994, farmyard effluents, silage and slurry together accounted for one third of the fish kills. Industrial effluents and enrichment both caused 19% of the total. Storm water runoff and cement spillage in building operations were the other identified causes. In 1995, enrichment was the most frequent problem, followed by agriculture. Inadequately treated sewage was implicated in five cases and waterworks effluent in two. In 17 cases the mortalities were associated with reduced water flows or high temperatures or a combination of the two. The dry summer in a number of cases revealed unsatisfactory levels of pollution which are usually masked by higher water flows such as occurred in 1994. The increase in farm-based problems suggested that some of the improved facilities for storage and treatment of farm waste which were made in the late 1980s may now be due for maintenance. Enrichment of lake systems, particularly those of the Erne and Shannon, has now established itself as the most serious threat to the condition of natural waters. Fish kills are an early warning of a situation which may develop and have far-reaching effects on economic interests far removed from the fishery itself.
    • Fish Kills in Ireland: An Analysis of Incidents in 1983 and 1984

      Fahy, E (Department of Fisheries and Forestry, 1985-08)
      An analysis is presented of 200 fish kills recorded in 1983 and 1984. The reports which originated from various sources were corroborated by the water pollution officers of the Regional Fishery Boards. The incidents are evaluated by reference to similar information gathered by the Environmental Protection Agency of the United States of America. Shortcomings in the reporting of incidents include the lapse of time between the onset of a kill and its appraisal and the difficulties of establishing the facts retrospectively. The preponderance of trout among the mortalities might indicate a bias towards reporting incidents which involved this game species. The vast majority of kills occurred in rivers and about 65% took place in June and July, a pattern resembling that in the United States. Where the size of kill was recorded it averaged 269 fish, very small by U.S. standards. The average channel length affected by a fish kill was approximately 2.8 km (1.7 miles) (ranging between 0.01 and 25 km; 0.06 and 16 miles) and there was no relationship between the channel lengths and the numbers of mortalities.
    • Fish species recorded during deepwater trawl surveys on the continental shelf and the Porcupine Bank, 2006-2008

      Johnston, G.; O'Hea, B.; Dransfeld, L. (Marine Institute, 2012)
      The Marine Institute and the National University of Ireland, Galway conducted a deepwater survey each September from 2006-2008 from the RV Celtic Explorer using BT184 deepwater nets with type-D ground gear (ICES 2006). Fish, benthic and hydrographic data were collected. Two-hour fishing trawls (time on bottom) took place in three locations on the continental slope to the north and west of Ireland, and on the Porcupine Bank. The survey objectives were to collect biological data on the main deepwater fish species and invertebrates. In total 166 taxa were recorded over the three years, with a maximum of 129 in 2008.
    • Fisher's preferences and trade-offs between management options

      Fitzpatrick, Mike; Maravelias, Christos D; Eigaard, Ole Ritzau; Hynes, Stephen; Reid, David (Wiley, 2017)
      Failure to understand the potential responses of fishers to management measures creates a significant risk of revisiting the familiar scenario of perverse and unintended consequences of those measures. This paper reports on a choice experiment survey to evaluate fisher's preferences for various management measures proposed under the EU Common Fisheries Policy (CFP) reform process, but the conclusions have wider relevance as similar measures are used by comparable fleets in fisheries globally. The survey was conducted with fishers involved in mixed pelagic and demersal fisheries in Ireland, pelagic fisheries in Denmark and demersal fisheries in Greece. Fisheries management policies were characterized by five attributes designed both to cover the principal CFP reform proposals and to integrate ecological, social, economic and institutional factors affecting fisher's decisions. The study uses a random utility modelling framework to reveal the preferences of the fishers across the alternative policy attributes. Results show that while there are generally preferences both for healthy stocks and for maintaining the importance of fishing to the local community, strong interfishery preference differences exist. These differences are most notable in relation to a discard ban and to the use of individual transferable fishing rights, favoured in Denmark, but not in Ireland for instance. The strength of these interfishery differences supports the assertion that there are no panaceas in fisheries management and that solutions should be tailored within the context of specific fisheries. Not doing so could create a significant risk of inappropriately managed fisheries that may lead to unsustainable outcomes.
    • Fisheries for Ray (Batoidei) in Western statistical area viia, investigated through the commercial catches.

      Fahy, E (Department of the Marine, 1989)
      The status of the Irish Sea ray fishery is investigated using commercial catches of rays landed into two ports, Howth and Arklow. Approximately 80 45kg boxes were examined monthly over a year when approximately 100 individuals of each of the four contributing species were aged and measured. The species are R. naevus, montagui, clavata and brachyura. These are inter-mixed and casually segregated into four grades on their length. Weighting factors are provided to raise the sampled numbers to total landings. The frequency distribution of grades at the two ports is established from an analysis of some 5,700 commercial transactions. At Arklow, the pattern is stable from one year to another and apparently seasonal. Arklow boats have a short range. The pattern of landings at Howth is more complex; these vessels have a longer range and probably exploit various ages of rays. Growth in all four species occurs most actively during the summer months, slowing down in the winter. Annulus formation is not readily associated with the conventional birth date of 1 January. Coefficients of total mortality (Z) are high for the four species (0.38-1.00), higher than those found in a recent study of rays in Carmarthen Bay. R. brachyura is the most valuable species. R. naevus is the most numerous, possibly because it has a competitive advantage due to its age at full recruitment being one year later than those of the other three species. The yield of rays increases moving offshore and in a southerly direction in the Irish Sea. Landings into Irish ports by Irish vessels have increased between 1903 and 1985 although, until recently, ray as a percentage of total demersal landings was declining, from the 1950s.
    • Fisheries Research Centre: Report for 1992

      Department of the Marine (Department of the Marine, 1993)
      This report of the Fishery Research Centre's 1992 programme reflects not only the wide range of the work carried out, but also the extensive multidisciplinary expertise available at the FRC which we deploy in support of resource-based industries and other marine-oriented commercial enterprises. The report also provides information on the important scientific activities which the FRC has been able to initiate or expand by means of the valuable funding received under the EC STRIDE initiative. The £2.02 m allocated to the FRC over the period 1991-1993 (75% funded by the EC) is being used to carry out applied research in the three main areas of our responsibility - fish stocks, aquaculture and marine environment - in support of lreland’s marine based industries. Under STRIDE we have augmented the FRC staff by 23 people (a 50% increase) in order to implement this extended research programme. This intake of contract staff comprises 2 post-doctorates, 10 post-graduates, 8 laboratory technicians and 3 technical (clerical) assistants.
    • Fisheries Research Centre: Report for 1993

      Department of the Marine (Department of the Marine, 1994-11)
      Work carried out at the Fisheries Research Centre in 1993 reflects the impact of the first full year of support funding from the EC STRIDE initiative. As highlighted in the 1992 Report, the extra £2.02 million allocated to FRC (75% provided by the EC) enabled us to initiate or expand, in support of Irish marine-based industries, a broad range of scientific activities in the fields of marine fish stocks, aquaculture and the environment. The 1993 programme enabled by this extra research funding, as described in the following pages, is already yielding benefits on a national scale. More working contact with industry, increased data acquisition and big improvements in our analytical and reporting capabilities have enabled the FRC to provide a better service to management which has greatly strengthened Ireland's hand in negotiating for quotas and other benefits. The improved facilities have also led to an increase in our success rate in applying for European research funds. The success of STRIDE has demonstrated the value of a realistic scale of financial investment in a national programme of scientific R&D (research and development). Financial commitment must be maintained at the same level, or increased, if the benefits – already emerging –for our marine-based industries are to achieve their full impact in the years ahead.
    • Fisheries Research Centre: Report for 1994-1995

      Fisheries Research Centre (Marine Institute, 1997-03)
      This combined annual Report for the years 1994 and 1995 span a critical period in the history of the Fisheries Research Centre. During 1994 the funding support from the EC STRIDE Initiative came to an end, having achieved a notable and wholly innovative impact on marine R&D activities in Ireland. The scientific undertakings at the core of the STRIDE Programme have been maintained through a number of contract research positions at the FRC, where they continue to make a critical contribution to Irish marine science. The year 1995 marked the culmination of almost a century of fisheries related research carried out under the direct control of the Government Service, having been initiated in 1900 by the Department of Agriculture and Technical Instruction for Ireland. On 1 January 1996 the Fisheries Research Centre transferred to the Marine Institute, and thus this FRC Report is the first to be published under the new masthead. The future of Irish marine research, and in particular that part of it carried out at the Fisheries Research Centre, thus looks set to enjoy another boost to its continuing development, similar in impact to that created at the beginning of this century.
    • Fishery Associated Changes in the Whelk Buccinum undatum Stock in the Southwest Irish Sea, 1995-2003

      Fahy, E.; Carroll, J.; Hother-Parkes, L.; O'Toole, M.; Barry, C. (Marine Institute, 2005)
      The whelk fishery of the southwest Irish Sea had a turnover of approximately €18 million and employed 250 people directly and indirectly in catching and processing in 2003. In the nine years, 1995-2003 inclusive, whelk landings to Ireland from the southwest Irish Sea fluctuated between 3,800 and almost 10,000 tonnes(t) per year; from an estimated 5,000 – 15,000 boat-days annually. A collapse in landings was recorded in 1997 and again in the spring of 2004. The fishery is divided for assessment purposes into four sectors, the central two consisting largely of nursery area and the north and south extremities of the fishery populated by more older, larger and mature whelk. Logbooks were not completed by fishermen participating in this fishery which was, in theory, managed by size limit, but the regulations were not enforced. Boats fishing whelk made daily fishing trips and daily weights recorded by processors were used to estimate biomass in each of the sectors by depletion regressions. Total biomass fluctuated between 12,720 t in 1999 and 37,319 t in 2002. The estimates based on a full season’s landings are used to compare the fishery from one year to the next and to supply weighting factors for other parameters of the population. Exploitation rates were lowest in one of the central sectors of the fishery (where they averaged 27% annually). At the southern extremity they averaged 39%. Depletion estimates based on landings records from approximately April to 15 June provided higher exploitation rates and lower biomass. The mortality coefficient Z, calculated from a catch curve, peaked in two years, 1998 and 2002, as did an index of recruitment. The age at full recruitment declined after 2000. Throughout nine years of documented history, one of the central sectors of the fishery assumed progressively greater dominance over the others, providing 77% of the landings from the entire fishery to its ports in 2003. Some sectoral changes to the whelk population may be irreversible: the oldest animals have been removed from the northern extremity of the fishery and while the whelks which are exploited at the southern end between 2000 and 2003 were similar in size to those exploited in the mid-1990s, their tonnage between 1999 and 2003 decreased from 47 to 4% of the landings in 1995. A substantial recruitment in 2001 or 2002 was followed by an increase in fishing effort of 42% between 2002 and 2003 and this is identified as the reason for the collapse in 2004.
    • Fitness reduction and potential extinction of wild populations of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, as a result of interactions with escaped farm salmon

      McGinnity, Philip; Prodohl, Paulo; Ferguson, Andy; Hynes, Rosaleen; Ó Maoiléidigh, Niall; Baker, Natalie; Cotter, Deirdre; O'Hea, Brendan; Cooke, Declan; Rogan, Ger; et al. (The Royal Society, 2003)
      The high level of escapes from Atlantic salmon farms, up to two million fishes per year in the North Atlantic, has raised concern about the potential impact on wild populations. We report on a twogeneration experiment examining the estimated lifetime successes, relative to wild natives, of farm, F1 and F2 hybrids and BC1 backcrosses to wild and farm salmon. Offspring of farm and ‘hybrids’ (i.e. all F1, F2 and BC1 groups) showed reduced survival compared with wild salmon but grew faster as juveniles and displaced wild parr, which as a group were significantly smaller. Where suitable habitat for these emigrant parr is absent, this competition would result in reduced wild smolt production. In the experimental conditions, where emigrants survived downstream, the relative estimated lifetime success ranged from 2% (farm) to 89% (BC1 wild) of that of wild salmon, indicating additive genetic variation for survival. Wild salmon primarily returned to fresh water after one sea winter (1SW) but farm and ‘hybrids’ produced proportionately more 2SW salmon. However, lower overall survival means that this would result in reduced recruitment despite increased 2SW fecundity. We thus demonstrate that interaction of farm with wild salmon results in lowered fitness, with repeated escapes causing cumulative fitness depression and potentially an extinction vortex in vulnerable populations.
    • Fluctuations in the Characteristics in Irish Salmon

      Went, A. E .J.; Twomey, E. (Department of Agriculture and Fisheries [Fisheries Division], 1971)
      Fluctuations in the catches and stocks of fish are exceedingly important and have interested scientific workers for years. As far as the salmon is concerned it is known that great fluctuations occur not only in the number of fish entering the rivers from year to year but also in their character. This paper is an attempt to put on record certain changes, some of which have already been recorded in papers on Irish salmon published in a very wide range of journals.
    • Food for thought: pretty good multispecies yield

      Rindorf, Anna; Dichmont, Catherine Mary; Levin, Phillip S.; Mace, Pamela; Pascoe, Sean; Prellezo, Raul; Punt, André E.; Reid, David G.; Stephenson, Robert; Ulrich, Clara; et al. (Oxford University Press (OUP), 2017)
      MSY principles for marine fisheries management reflect a focus on obtaining continued high catches to provide food and livelihoods for humanity, while not compromising ecosystems. However, maintaining healthy stocks to provide the maximum sustainable yield on a single-species basis does not ensure that broader ecosystem, economic, and social objectives are addressed. We investigate how the principles of a “pretty good yield” range of fishing mortalities assumed to provide .95% of the average yield for a single stock can be expanded to a pretty good multispecies yield (PGMY) space and further to pretty good multidimensional yield to accommodate situations where the yield from a stock affects the ecosystem, economic and social benefits, or sustainability. We demonstrate in a European example that PGMY is a practical concept. As PGMY provides a safe operating space for management that adheres to the principles ofMSY, it allows the consideration of other aspects to be included in operational management advice in both data-rich and data-limited situations. PGMY furthermore provides a way to integrate advice across stocks, avoiding clearly infeasible management combinations, and thereby hopefully increasing confidence in scientific advice.
    • Foresight Brief: Seaweed & Algae as Biofuels Feedstocks

      Marine Institute (Marine Institute, 2008)
      Seaweed is a known potential carbon-dioxide (CO2) neutral source of second generation biofuels. When seaweed grows it absorbs CO2 from the atmosphere and this CO2 is released back to the atmosphere during combustion. What makes seaweed, and in particular micro algae, so promising as a fuel source is their growth rates and high lipid (oil) content. Algae are among the fastest-growing plants in the world. Energy is stored inside the cell as lipids and carbohydrates, and can be converted into fuels such as biodiesel (in the presence of oils) and ethanol (in the presence of carbohydrates). Its high protein content implies that waste from the feedstock conversion process may yield a saleable waste stream as well. The level of interest in the use of algae as a source of biofuels (primarily ethanol and biodiesel but also methane and hydrogen) is rising globally. Several factors appear to account for this. Firstly, despite earlier predictions of stability in world oil prices, such non-renewable hydrocarbon source fuels continue to spiral upwards (having closed at $100 per barrel during Feb. 2008 for the first time) and there is a heightened awareness about the contribution of fossil fuels emissions to rapid climate changes. In this context, algae-based biofuels offer potential solutions since they are known to be a CO2 sorbent and their harvesting may not have a negative CO2 balance due to loss of CO2 absorbing landmass which is the current topic of debate about first generation biofuels. The Marine Institute of Ireland has experienced a rise in interest in seaweed and algae as a potential feedstock for production of biofuels, reflected by requests for data concerning the properties and composition of algae and seaweed, from both the research and industrial communities over the past several months.
    • A Framework for an Action Plan on Marine Biodiversity in Ireland

      Costello, M J (Marine Institute, 2000)
      As this century ends three priorities have emerged in environmental management, namely biodiversity, coastal zone management, and sustainable use of natural resources. At the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in Rio, 1992, the nations of the world agreed that the basis for future economic development must be the maintenance of biodiversity. The Convention on Biological Diversity was signed at this conference and ratified by Ireland in 1996 (Department of Arts, Heritage, Gaeltacht and the Islands, 1998). These priorities are setting the agenda for the management of the marine environment and require people to broaden their understanding of the marine ecosystems and review their approaches to the use of marine resources. This report, with an emphasis on marine ecosystems, firstly defines biodiversity and how it can be measured, and indicates the reasons it is a priority for management. These reasons have been politically recognised at global and European levels, and the action required outlined. The various research approaches required to support management, especially with regard to nature conservation, are described. Marine biodiversity is a priority for management because of the ‘goods and services’ it provides to humanity, including its major role in maintaining the global ecosystem. The services provided by the world’s ecosystems have been calculated to be 33,000 billion US$, of which 21,000 billion US $ is provided by the ocean (Costanza et al. 1997). Coastal seas provide 60 % of the ocean services. The services accounted for were nutrient cycling, recreation, cultural, food production, biological control, disturbance regulation, raw materials, habitats and refugia, waste treatment, and gas regulation. The ocean acts as a sink and buffer against rising levels of carbon dioxide which is a major factor in global warming. The world is a blue planet because the sea covers about 70 % of the earth’s area and it is deeper than land is high. Because more than 51 % of the earth is covered by sea greater than 3000 m deep, most of the planet is dominated by deep-sea life (World Conservation Monitoring Centre 1992). This includes a remarkable diversity of marine life living in extreme conditions of temperature and pressure. While deep sea biodiversity is largely dependent on a rain of food from surface waters, it does include its own chemosynthetically based ecosystems around the ‘deep sea vents’. Life on earth originated in the sea, and there are fundamental differences in the physical and biological structure of marine compared to terrestrial ecosystems. In this report, the consequences of the importance of biodiversity for the management of Ireland’s marine environment are outlined.
    • Francisellosis

      Marine Institute (Marine Institute, 2011)
      This leaflet gives information on francisellosis. This disease is caused by a non-motile, gram negative coccobacillus which is strictly aerobic and facultatively intracellular. The causative organism is, Francisella philomiragia subspecies noatunensis.
    • Freshwater Crayfish 1968

      Moriarty, C (Department of Agriculture and Fisheries (Fisheries Division), 1969)
      The freshwater crayfish inhabits some rivers and lakes in Ireland. The only species known to inhabit Ireland is Astacus palipes. It looks like a lobster but is very much smaller, seldom more than 10 cm (4 ins.) in length. As a rule it hides by day and comes out to hunt at dusk. Apart from the fact that it feeds on various kinds of dead animal matter nothing is known about its feeding habits in Ireland. In other parts of Europe it eats water weed and many kinds of small creatures. The crayfish can be caught easily in special traps which resemble small lobster pots and are baited with raw meat. Boiled crayfish are excellent food but are rarely eaten in Ireland. In other countries, especially Sweden, they are regarded as luxury items and are sold at high prices. Crayfish caught in Ireland for export to Sweden should be worth about 5/- per pound to fishermen.
    • The Fry of Salmon and Trout

      Anon. (Department of Agriculture, 1938)
      Every year large numbers of salmon fry (parr and smolts) are destroyed, sometimes quite unwittingly, by anglers who are unable to distinguish between salmon fry and young trout. Under Section 73 of the Fisheries (Ireland) Act, 1842, it is illegal to take the fry of either salmon or trout. The term “trout fry” has not yet received a legal interpretation but in some Fishery Districts the taking of immature trout below a certain size is prohibited by by-law. The fry of salmon are legally deemed to include also those fish locally called "jenkin" and "gravelling."
    • FU19 Nephrops Grounds 2011 UWTV Survey Report

      Lordan, Colm; Doyle, Jennifer; Fitzgerald, Ross (Marine Institute, 2011)
      This report provides the main results and findings of the second underwater television survey of the various Nephrops grounds in Functional Unit 19. The survey was multi-disciplinary in nature collecting UWTV, CTD and other ecosystem data. In total 35 UWTV stations were successfully completed on the following Nephrops grounds: Bantry Bay, Galley, Cork Channels and Helvick. Raised abundance estimates for these grounds are provided for the first time based on improved knowledge of the boundaries of those areas.
    • FU19 Nephrops Grounds 2013 UWTV Survey and catch options for 2014

      Lordan, C.; Doyle, J.; Hehir, I.; O’Sullivan, D.; Allsop, C.; O’Connor, S.; Blaszkowski, M.; Butler, R.; Burke, C.; Stewart, P. (Marine Institute, 2013)
      This report provides the main results and findings of the fourth underwater television survey of the various Nephrops grounds in Functional Unit 19. The survey was multi-disciplinary in nature collecting UWTV, CTD, multi-beam and other ecosystem data. In 2013 a total 40 UWTV stations were successfully completed. Adjusted burrow density estimates varied considerably across the different grounds. The 2013 raised abundance estimate of 397 million burrows is a 20% decrease from the 2012 estimate. Taking into account the uncertainty (CV of 17%) this is not significantly different from abundance estimates in 2011 or 2012. Using the 2013 abundance and recent mean weight and discard implies 2014 total catch advice fishing at Fmsy (=F35%spr) of 618 tonnes which results in landings of no more than 521 tonnes.