• Explorers teachers resource: Planning a trip to the seashore check list

      Marine Institute (Marine Institute, 2015)
      Planning a trip to the seashore checklist is a useful guide for teachers to use. The checklist covers: Access / Facilities; Risk Assessment; First Aid / Emergency; Tides / Changing Tides / Weather forecast; Volunteers; Games and Activities; Designated Meeting Point; Clothing; Equipment; Games and Activities; Safety on the Seashore - in the classroom / on the seashore; Conservation Code on the Sea Shore; Beach cleaning habits.
    • Exploring the ‘Public Goods Game’ model to overcome the Tragedy of the Commons in fisheries management

      Kraak, S. B. M. (International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES), 2010)
      In situations of declining or depleted fish stocks, exploiters seem to have fallen prey to the Tragedy of the Commons, which occurs when the maximisation of short-term self-interest produces outcomes leaving all participants worse off than feasible alternatives would. Standard economic theory predicts that in social dilemmas, such as fishing from a common resource, individuals are not willing to cooperate and sacrifice catches in the short term, and that, consequently, the resource is overharvested. However, over the last decades, a multitude of research has shown that humans often achieve outcomes that are “better than rational” by building conditions where reciprocity, reputation, and trust help to overcome the temptations of short-term self-interest. The evolution of the natural human tendency to cooperate under certain conditions can be explained, and its neuro-physiological and genetic bases are being unravelled. Nevertheless, fisheries management still often deploys top-down regulation and economic incentives in its aim to regulate fisher behaviour, and under-utilizes the potential for spontaneous responsible fisher behaviour through setting conditions that enhance natural cooperative tendencies. Here I introduce this body of knowledge on how to overcome the Tragedy of the Commons to the audience of fisheries scientists, hoping to open up novel ways of thinking in this field. I do this through a series of thought experiments, based on actual published experiments, exploring under what conditions responsible and cooperative fisher behaviour can be expected. Keys include reputation-building and indirect reciprocity, face-to-face communication, knowledge on the state of the resource, and self-decision on rules and sanctions.
    • Export and Import of Shellfish 1961-1970

      Gibson, F A (Department of Agriculture and Fisheries (Fisheries Division), 1972)
      The greater part of all varieties of shellfish and shellfish preparations, produced from Irish fisheries are exported. Markets for this production are located chiefly in Britain and Europe. The home market has been taking a steady proportion of some varieties, notably, lobsters, Dublin Bay prawns (Nephrops), crabs, oysters and escallops. At the same time, considerable quantities of shellfish are imported.
    • F-Press: A Stochastic Simulation Tool for Developing Fisheries Management Advice and Evaluating Management Strategies

      Codling, E.; Kelly, C. (Marine Institute, 2006)
      F-PRESS is a stochastic simulation tool based on a simple algorithm designed to fit in with the ICES conceptual framework for software development. F-PRESS can be used to develop probabilistic assessment advice or to evaluate management strategies or harvest control rules (HCRs). In this paper, we describe and justify the underlying methodology on which F-PRESS is based and give full details of the modular structure of the simulation algorithm. We use the example of Irish Sea cod to demonstrate how the software can be used to develop probabilistic management advice or to evaluate and compare different HCRs.
    • Factors affecting the concentration of domoic acid in scallop, Pecten maximus

      Bogan, Y. (2006)
      Domoic acid, a neurotoxin produced by some Pseudo-nitzschia species, can accumulate in shellfish, consumption of which can result in Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning. Since its detection in Irish king scallop, Pecten maximus, regulatory monitoring of toxin levels in product entering the human food chain has been undertaken. Only limited data exist on factors that may influence variability in scallop DA concentration in the field. DA concentration in scallop tissues from a range of sites around Ireland, analysed using HPLC-PDA, exhibited high concentrations in hepatopancreas (max. 3834.4 (μg.g-1), much lower in gonad (max. 61.3 μg.g-1) and even lower concentrations in adductor muscle (max. 31.8 μg.g-1). Toxin concentration in hepatopancreas and scallop size usually exhibited no relationship and there was little support for the hypothesis that shellfish size influenced toxin concentration. DA concentration exhibited site-specific relationships with water depth. Toxin concentration in suspended scallops compared to seabed scallops exhibited a statistically significant difference on only one sampling occasion. Attempts to correlate the occurrence of DA in bivalves with the abundance of cells of Pseudo-nitzschia species were unsuccessful. Given the extent of field variability in DA concentration, a landings-based approach to toxin management rather than an area-based approach would reduce the risks of poisoning.
    • The Farmed Salmonid Health Handbook

      Marine Institute (Marine Institute, 2011)
      This handbook was prepared in order to assist producers in establishing a sound framework which will protect animal health and promote fish welfare on Irish farms, as well as providing a platform for training for farm operators and their staff.
    • The fat content of Irish herring

      Molloy, J; Cullen, A (Department of Fisheries and Forestry (Trade and Information Section), 1981)
      The fat content in herrings determines the way in which these fish are presented for human consumption. For example, a high fat content is good for kippering, whilst low fat is suitable for marinating. The Department of Fisheries & Forestry has for many years provided the trade with the fat content data they require. The information is based on routine analyses of herring samples which are now made regularly at the Fisheries Research Centre. Sufficient data have been collected over the past ten years to prepare graphs of the mean monthly fat contents in our four main herring fisheries. These graphs may be used to estimate when herring of a particular fat content will be available. This Leaflet presents the essential data and gives an explanation of the biological background of the changes in fat content.
    • The Fat Contents of Irish Mackerel During 1984/85 and 1985/86

      Barnwall, E (Department of Tourism, Fisheries and Forestry, 1986-06)
      The fat contents of Irish mackerel in recent years (1983-1984) have been published by McArdle, Barrtwall and Nolan (Fishery Leaflet 129). Since then, routine analyses of mackerel including fat content have been continued during the 1984/85 and 1985/86 seasons and the results have been circulated to the trade. Because processors now attach considerable importance to fat contents, and because there have been suggestions that the fat content during 1985/86 may have been abnormally high, it has been decided to publish the complete results of all samples analysed during the last two fishing seasons.
    • The fat/water relationship in the mackerel Scomber scombrus L., pilchard, Sardina pilchardus (Walbaum) and sprat, Sprattus sprattus L., and the seasonal variation in fat content by size and maturity.

      Wallace, P. D.; Hulme, T. J. (Ministry of agriculture, fisheries and food Directorate of fisheries research., 1977)
      Mackerel, pilchard and sprat have the ability to store fat in their body tissues. During the spring and summer, when their main source of food, zooplankton, is abundant, fat reserves are accumulated. These reserves are utilized in the autumn and winter when zooplankton are scarce. Consequently, wide variations in fat content occur throughout a single year of life of these species. This report describes the relationship that exists between fat and water in these species and describes how the fat content varies with size, maturity stage and season.
    • The Fate of Nutrients in Estuarine Plumes

      Raine, R; Williams, P J leB (Marine Institute, 2000-01)
      Estuaries are highly biologically active zones lying between freshwater and marine systems. The classical view is that materials such as nitrates and phosphates which run into rivers as a result of man’s activity are used by the planktonic algae, or phytoplankton, for growth – in some cases causing nuisance blooms of these organisms. The management of the reduction of these blooms is based on the classical assumption that the materials stimulating them are brought into the estuary by the river, and that effective control of the blooms can be achieved by setting limits on the initial discharge of these materials into rivers. Funded under the EU INTERREG II (Ireland-Wales) programme, two groups of marine scientists from the University of Wales, Bangor and the National University of Ireland, Galway made a co-operative study of the Waterford (Ireland) and Conwy (Wales) estuaries. It was found that whereas the source of nitrogen for the estuarine phytoplankton was from the rivers, the main source of phosphate was from the sea. Phytoplankton blooms were being encouraged within the plume zone near the mouth of the estuaries, a region poised between a nitrate-rich freshwater and, relatively, phosphate-rich seawater. The management consequences of the findings are profound. Phosphates contribute significantly to the pollution of rivers and lakes, systems where there is usually an abundance of nitrogen and algal growth is governed by the availability of phosphorus. Management of these freshwater systems is thus achieved through control of the input of phosphates. Results achieved during the present study show that this criterion does not apply to estuaries and estuarine blooms, as material (phosphate) supporting them comes from the seawater end of the system and is therefore obviously unmanageable. The requirement to control nitrogen (nitrate) levels in estuaries is therefore all the more important in order to properly manage phytoplankton blooms, and thus water quality, in estuaries.
    • The fate of oxytetracycline in the marine environment of a salmon cage farm

      Coyne, R; Smith, P; Moriarty, C (Marine Institute, 2001)
      This paper gives a summary of previously published results of studies on the dispersal of oxytetracycline from the vicinity of a typical salmon farm. These studies showed the environmental impact of occasional treatments to be negligible. Concentrations of oxytetracycline (OTC) were measured in the benthic sediments and in mussel Mytilus edulis sampled in the vicinity of an inshore salmon farm on the west coast of Ireland. Concentrations between 1.0 μg/g and 14.7 μg/g were observed in sediments within 120 m from the farm. Concentrations declined exponentially with time, reaching low levels after 32 days and reduced to traces at 66 days. The highest concentrations were observed in the top 2 cm of sediment, falling to trace levels at a depth of 10 cm. The half-life of OTC persistence in mussels was found to be approximately 2 days. Residues in unpolluted sediment beneath the cages were never present in high concentrations and were flushed out rapidly. In the presence of excessive quantities of unconsumed food pellets on the seabed and in anoxic sediment, the persistence of OTC was significantly prolonged. Monitoring the quality of the sediment could therefore provide adequate indication of any risk of accumulation of antibiotic, without the need for elaborate chemical analyses. Residues in sediment, invertebrates and salmon could account for not more than 1.3% of total input of OTC. It was concluded that the antibiotic was very rapidly dispersed in the environment and its use in salmon therapy posed no material risk to human or environmental health.
    • Feasibility study of the use of digital cameras for water quality monitoring in the coastal zone

      Feighery, L; White, M; Bowers, D; Kelly, S; O'Riain, G; Bowyer, P (Marine Institute, 2001-11)
      The coastal zone is characteristically a turbid region of the sea with water clarity being an indicator of coastal dynamics. Turbidity affects water quality and aesthetic value. Previous investigations into water clarity in the Irish Sea have been conducted using imagery obtained from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR). Good correlations were found between light reflectance and suspended sediment concentrations from this imagery. In order to investigate suspended sediment concentrations in the coastal zone, an area where satellite imagery does not ‘see well’, scientists from NUI, Galway, UW, Bangor and Compass Informatics Ltd. undertook a feasibility study to investigate the possibilities of using both in situ and airborne digital cameras to monitor water clarity in the coastal zone. The digital cameras capture visible spectrum imagery with assigned values for red, green and blue light, thus making a quantifiable measurement of the up-welling light of different colours in a similar manner to the UW, Bangor Ocean Colour Sensor used in this project and a previous INTERREG Project (White et al.; 2000). As suspended sediment concentrations were found to correlate well with in situ digital camera output values, it was anticipated that the camera would provide a successful method of monitoring Suspended Particulate Material (SPM) at fixed locations over a predetermined time period. In practice aerial imagery did not prove to be a feasible method for SPM monitoring in the type of dynamic coastal environment under this particular survey. A combination of sun glint, sky reflectance interference, strong tidal currents and time lapse between imagery capture and in situ data collection made the calibration of images very difficult. On the positive side, it was found that aerial imagery is ideally suited to observing coastal dynamical phenomena such as river plume development. These near shore dynamical processes cannot be monitored by satellite imagery and so aerial resolution and aircraft manoeuvrability are ideal for this type of coastal zone remote sensing.
    • Feasibility Study on the Establishment of a Large Scale Inshore Resource Mapping Project

      Parsons, A.; Barton, K.; Brown, C.; Berry, A.; Curtis, J.; Emblow, C.; Hartnett, M.; Nash, S.; Rooney, S. (Marine Institute, 2004)
      In 1999 the Irish Government allocated €27 million to survey all of Ireland’s territorial waters. The National Seabed Survey involves the acquisition and processing of 850,000sq.km of multibeam sonar swath bathymetry, sub-bottom seismic reflection, gravity, magnetic and ancillary geological and water column data in water depths of 50m to 4000m. The area is divided into Zone 3 (water depths 200m to 4000m), Zone 2 (50m to 200m) and Zone 1 (0m to 50m). By 2003, the Geological Survey of Ireland (GSI) had completed Zone 3 data acquisition and the Marine Institute had mapped a large area offshore northwest Ireland (especially Donegal Bay) as part of its Zone 2 responsibilities. Mapping in Zone 2 will continue until 2006, by which time Ireland will be in possession of one of the most comprehensive seabed data sets in oceanic waters. During the planning of the National Seabed Survey, it was obvious that the mapping requirements for Zone 1 (0m to 50m) were more complex than those in deeper waters. This was because of the technical difficulties in mapping Ireland’s variable coastline, its economic importance and the diversity of potential stakeholder interests in Zone 1 waters. As a consequence, the Geological Survey of Ireland and the Marine Institute focused on mapping Zones 3 and 2 respectively, where data could be collected easily and rapidly in spite of the large area. In the meantime, the Marine Institute commissioned this feasibility study to cost and prioritise a comprehensive mapping programme for Zone 1 as the final phase in the Government’s commitment to map Ireland’s entire offshore resource.
    • Fecundity studies on herring from the north west of Ireland

      McArdle, E. (International Council for the Exploration of the Sea, 1982)
      For some time past studies have been performed on herring fecundities by various scientists. Farren (1938) was the first to suggest that stocks could be separated by studying the different fecundity/length relationship of winter and autumn spawing populations from the Irish coast. Burd and Howlett (1974) calculated a fecundity index by length cubed and as a result clearly separated the spawning populations of Banks and Downs herring in the North Sea. Molloy (1979) regressed fecundity on length cubed for Celtic sea samples and was able to distinguish between the autumn spawning component and the winter spawning component in the Celtic Sea. This paper describes fecundity studies carried out on autumn spawning herring from the newly established management unit (V1a Lower and V11b) off the North west of Ireland. The results are compared with fecundity data from other Irish stocks and with the results obtained by Farran on the same stock over 40 years ago. It may be possible to use these results to calculate the spawning potential of the herring and those spawning off the Scottish coast. The spawning grounds from which these herring were taken are situated a few miles off the North West coast.
    • The feeding relationships of a small demersal fish community in the western Irish Sea

      O'Brien, K; Fives, J M (Department of the Marine, 1994)
      The feeding relationships of seasonal and resident fishes captured on a sandy substratum in the lrish Sea, in June and in September, were investigated. Stomach content analysis of the 17 species examined indicated four main feeding tvpes in the June sample and three in the September sample. The majority of the species analysed in both June and September showed the same food preferences in both months. Most of the fish species showed some changes in diet with increasing length (ontogenetic shift) - some became more specialized and others favoured more varied diet. There was no evidence of competition between specialist feeders within size groups.
    • The feeding relationships of the shanny, Lipophyrys pholis (L.) and Montagu's blenny, Coryphoblennius galerita (L.) (Teleostei:Blenniidae)

      O'Farrell, M M; Fives, J M (Department of the Marine, 1990)
      Collections of 279 specimens of Montagu's blenny, Coryphoblennius galerita (L.), and 276 shanny, Lipophrys pholis (L.), were made over a ten month period on a 2km stretch of the western shore of Mweenish Island on the west coast of Ireland. Further collections of 99 L. pholis and 8 C. galerita were made in March and April at two mainland sites. Sampling was confined to rockpools in the upper midshore region. The result of this bias was that while all age groups of C. galerita were collected, most of the L. pholis taken were less than two years old. Both species are omnivorous and exhibit definite seasonal feeding patterns. In general, C. galerita mutilate prey species, whereas only juvenile L. pholis are found to do this. Both species exploit a wide range of intertidal organisms. The ecological differentiation necessary for co-existence is evident, polychaetes are important only in the diet of juvenile C. galerita and bivalves and gastropods are important to L. pholis. There are only two food categories of importance to adult C. galerita and this may reflect the ecological stress on C. galerita of the habitat and the presence of L. pholis.
    • Feeding Relationships of trout salmo trutta L., Perch Perca fluviatilis L., and Roach Rutilus rutilus (L.) in Lough Sheelin, Ireland

      Gargan, P. G.; O'Grady, M. F. (Department of Agriculture and Fisheries [Fisheries Division], 1992)
      Samples of trout, perch and roach were collected by gill netting from eight sampling stations over the period February 1982 - March 1984 to assess competition for food between the three species. At each of the sampling stations quantitative collections of benthic invertebrates were taken in order to examine the relationship between feeding and food availibility. Results indicate a significant correlation in diet between trout and perch, little correlation in diet between trout and roach and moderate correlation between perch and roach. The most important competitive interaction between all three fish species is likely to be at their juvenile stage for a cladoceran diet.
    • Feeding relationships of trout Salmo trutta perch Perca fluviatilis L and roach Rutilus rutilus L in Lough Sheelin Ireland.

      Gargan, P. G.; O'Grady, M. F. (Marine Institute, 1992)
      Samples of trout, perch and roach were collected by gill netting from eight sampling stations over the period February 1982 - March 1984 to assess competition for food between the three species. At each of the sampling stations quantitative collections of benthic invertebrates were taken in order to examine the relationship between feeding and food availibility.
    • Feeding, Growth, and Parasites of Trout Salmo Trutta L. From Mulroy Bay, an Irish Sea Lough

      Fahy, E. (Department of Agriculture and Fisheries [Fisheries Division], 1985)
      The feeding and gut parasite burden of 354 trout collected between May 1980 and April 1981 from Mulroy Bay on the north coast of Ireland are described and compared with a collection of trout from the Irish Sea. The sea ages of the fish ranged between 0 and 2 sea winters, more than 90% being post-smalt. Males and females were equally represented in the younger, females predominated in the older. The food web was larger than in the Irish Sea, insects and crustaceans being its most numerous constituents but fish making up the greatest volume. Shoal fishes were relatively unimportant. Parasites comprised five species of Digenea, one cestode and a nematode. All occurred at a relatively low incidence and burden. Weights of the Mulroy fish were lower than for trout of equivalent length from the Irish Sea.
    • Field and mesocosm trials on passive sampling for the study of adsorption and desorption behaviour of lipophilic toxins with a focus on OA and DTX1

      Fux, E; Marcaillou, C; Mondeguer, F; Bire, R; Hess, P (Elsevier, 2008)
      It has been demonstrated that polymeric resins can be used as receiving phase in passive samplers designed for the detection of lipophilic marine toxins at sea and was referred to as solid phase adsorption toxin tracking (SPATT). The present study describes the uptake and desorption behaviour of the lipophilic marine toxins okadaic acid (OA) and dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX1) from Prorocentrum lima cultures by five styrene—divinylbenzene based polymeric resins Sepabeads® SP850, Sepabeads® SP825L, Amberlite® XAD4, Dowex® Optipore® L-493 and Diaion® HP-20. All resins accumulated OA and DTX1 from the P. lima culture with differences in adsorption rate and equilibrium rate. Following statistical evaluation, HP-20, SP850 and SP825L demonstrated similar adsorption rates. However, possibly due to its larger pore size, the HP-20 did not seem to reach equilibrium within 72h exposure as opposed to the SP850 and SP825L. This was confirmed when the resins were immersed at sea for 1 week on the West Coast of Ireland. Furthermore, this work also presents a simple and efficient extraction method suitable to SPATT samplers exposed to artificial or natural culture media.