• The Development of Alternative Fuel Infrastructure in Irish Ports; A Feasibility Study

      Lacey, L.; Brewster, P.; Fallen Bailey, D. (Irish Maritime Development Office, 2019)
      Transportation across the European Union is almost entirely dependent on fossil fuels. To help reduce this dependency and the associated harmful environmental effects, the EU Commission established an alternative fuels strategy. The strategy identified the lack of supporting infrastructure as a key obstacle to the uptake of alternative fuel technology. As a result, EU Directive 2014/94/EU was developed to address these issues and was published in November 2014. In the maritime sector, the directive obliges Member States to install shore-side electricity (SSE) for seagoing ships in the ports of the TEN-T Core Network1 . In addition, Member States must ensure that an appropriate number of liquefied natural gas (LNG) refuelling points are put in place at maritime ports to enable vessels using LNG to circulate throughout the TEN-T Network. These objectives are to be met by 31 December 2025, unless there is an absence of demand or the relevant costs are disproportionate to the benefits. Motivated by the EU directive, this report has two distinct aims. First, to conduct a feasibility study of SSE for seagoing ships in TEN-T Irish ports and secondly, to assess the market demand for LNG fuelling facilities in major Irish ports. To accomplish the report’s objectives, it is important to understand where best practice has occurred in terms of Alternative Fuel Infrastructure (AFI) deployment. The report examines the factors that determine locational or sectoral concentrations in the deployment of AFI, and discusses the applicability of these factors to the Irish context. The report reaches conclusions about the feasibility of the deployment of AFI in Irish ports.
    • Development of an Efficient Design Technique for the Optimisation of Mooring Systems for Wave Energy Arrays

      Kirrane, P.; Fabricius, P.; Morvan, R. (Marine Insitute, 2011)
      Research, funded by the Marine Institute, was carried out on mooring systems for wave energy arrays. An outline of the research results and outcomes are presented in this report. The objectives of the research were to: review the wave energy industry and define design parameters; establish a comprehensive set of design curves to facilitate the selection of a preliminary mooring system; develop trends in system response from the evaluation of a broad range of Wave Energy Converter (WEC) specifications, water depths and environments; assess the fatigue life of wave energy mooring configurations; prepare a preliminary Integrity Management Strategy (IMS) for wave energy mooring system arrays; and to integrate all progress into a guideline document. Various software packages supported the project and are described in an appendix. A comprehensive set of design curves was compiled for a range of WEC sizes, water depths, mooring configurations and layouts, and environmental conditions. These curves allow identification of feasible configurations for a given set of design parameters. A preliminary Integrity Management Strategy (IMS) was compiled to ensure the safe operation and station-keeping of WECs in a mooring system array. The IMS included a risk assessment to identify potential failures, and an inspection/monitoring strategy to mitigate these risks.
    • Development of the Irish Eel Fishery: Proceedings of a National Workshop - Dun Laoghaire, 7 July 1998

      Watson, L. (ed); Moriarty, C. (ed); Gargan, P. (ed) (Marine Institute, 1999)
      Increasing awareness of the value of eel fishing led to a decision by the Minister for the Marine to formulate a national eel strategy. As a contribution to the necessary gathering of views and information, the principal authorities concerned convened an Eel Management Workshop on 7th July 1998 at the Royal Marine Hotel in Dun Laoghaire. The Workshop was co-hosted by an Bord Iascaigh Mhara (BIM), the Marine Institute (MI) and the Central Fisheries Board (CFB), and was attended by 100 participants representing all sectors, including the eel fisheries and co-operatives, eel farmers, eel processors and smokers, the regional fisheries hoards and the state development and regulatory agencies from both sides of the border. It was decided to hold a workshop on eel to heighten awareness of this most intriguing and valuable resource in Ireland, and to establish the baseline data for a national strategy for the development of the Irish eel fishery to be announced by the Minister for the Marine and Natural Resources during 1998.
    • A Development Strategy for Marine Leisure Infrastructure

      Marine Institute (Marine Institute, 2001)
      In July 1999 the Marine Institute published an Investment Strategy for the Water-based Tourism and Leisure Sector in Ireland 2000-2006. The strategy recommended a programme of investment aimed at; (1) the provision of new infrastructure and facilities strategically positioned around the coastline (2) the development of high quality integrated clusters of water-based tourism and leisure activities which would attract overseas and local visitors. These recommendations were incorporated into the National Development Plan 2000-2006 where investment will be provided via a range of initiatives administered by: the Department of the Marine and Natural Resources (Marine Tourism Measure); Central Fisheries Board (Tourism Angling Measure); Bord Fáilte (Tourism Measure); Local Authorities and Sports Council (Culture, Recreation and Sports and Local Development Measures). Specifically, financial provisions have been made within the NDP to contribute towards the development of new and existing infrastructure for the leisure sector. The Marine Institute has published “A Development Strategy for Marine Leisure Infrastructure” to assist in targeting investment decisions so as to ensure that new developments meet the needs of three key target groups: • Overseas tourists • Domestic tourists • Local residential populations for sport and recreation. The report sets out the criteria which can be used as a guide in the evaluation of future development projects. The report applies these criteria in a national context to produce a balanced development strategy which addresses user demand, scale and spatial and environmental considerations. The economic or technical feasibility of developing any of the proposed locations was not examined in detail. All proposed development will require a full feasibility study. The Marine Institute believes that in order to achieve maximum benefit from the investment programmes that exist, there must be a coherent national plan which seeks to integrate the development requirements of the marine leisure sector with the requirements of other marine sectors. This report should be seen as a contribution to the debate on how best to develop our significant coastal resources for tourism and leisure.
    • Developments in analysis and toxicology of toxaphene compounds

      de Geus, H-J.; Besselink, H.; Brouwer, A.; Klungsøyr, J.; MacGovern, E.; MacHugh, B.; Nixon, E.; Rimkus, G.G.; Wester, P.G.; de Boer, J. (1998)
      Over the last 50 years toxaphene has been produced and used as a pesticide extensively. The US Environmental Protection Agency banned it in 1982. In the early 1990s the presence of toxaphene in marine fish in Europe caused concern with regard to human health in relation with consumption. This paper gives a brief overview of recent developments in the analytical and toxicological research on toxaphene.
    • Diatom assemblages and their associated environmental factors in upland peat forest rivers

      O'Driscoll, Connie; de Eyto, Elvira; Rodgers, Michael; O'Connor, Mark; Asam, Zaki-ul-Zaman; Xiao, Liwen (Elsevier, 2012)
      The acid-sensitive upland blanket peat catchments are important habitats for diatom assemblages. In this study, the distribution patterns of epilithic diatom assemblages in the streams of upland forested blanket peat in north-west of Ireland are presented and the associated environmental factors are discussed. A total of 43 sites in 16 rivers were sampled. Multivariate analysis highlighted alkalinity and conductivity as the main physicochemical drivers of riverine diatom assemblages. Contrary to expectations nutrients were not found to have a major influence on the diatoms. A major flood event had a significant impact on the diatom assemblage, and one year after the event, long stalked diatom taxa were still largely absent from the river, indicating that floods could be one of the important factors affecting diatom assemblages. However, the ecological status of the affected sites, as determined by the EQR, did not alter from before to after the flood. The results of this study could be applied to similar acid-sensitive upland peat forest catchments and used as the benchmark to assess the impact of forest operations and peat degradation on ecological status.
    • The diatom Pseudo-nitzschia (Peragallo) in Irish waters

      Cusack, Caroline K. (National University of Ireland, Galway, 2002)
      The objectives of this study were to: 1. Determine which Pseudo-nitzschia species are present in Irish waters using light microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy; 2. Investigate the hydrographic conditions that relate to the distribution of the genus Pseudo-nitzschia; 3. Determine which species are capable of producing domoic acid in unialgal cultures; 4. Compare SSU and ITS1 and part of the 5.8S ribosomal DNA sequences of Irish Pseudo-nitzschia isolates with available sequences of Pseudo-nitzschia isolates from other geographic regions; 5. Examine the efficacy of existing oligonucleotide probes to aid identification of Pseudo-nitzschia strains in Irish waters.
    • Diel Surface Temperature Range Scales with Lake Size

      Woolway, R.I.; Jones, I.D.; Maberly, S.C.; French, J.R.; Livingstone, D.M; Monteith, D.T; Simpson, G.L.; Thackeray, S.J.; Andersen, M.R.; Battarbee, R.W.; et al. (PLoS ONE, 2016)
      Ecological and biogeochemical processes in lakes are strongly dependent upon water temperature. Long-term surface warming of many lakes is unequivocal, but little is known about the comparative magnitude of temperature variation at diel timescales, due to a lack of appropriately resolved data. Here we quantify the pattern and magnitude of diel temperature variability of surface waters using high-frequency data from 100 lakes. We show that the near-surface diel temperature range can be substantial in summer relative to long-term change and, for lakes smaller than 3 km2, increases sharply and predictably with decreasing lake area. Most small lakes included in this study experience average summer diel ranges in their near-surface temperatures of between 4 and 7°C. Large diel temperature fluctuations in the majority of lakes undoubtedly influence their structure, function and role in biogeochemical cycles, but the full implications remain largely unexplored.
    • Differences in habitat selection of male and female megrim(Lepidorhombus whiffiagonis, Walbaum) to the west of Ireland. A result of differences in life-history strategies between the sexes?

      Lordan, C; McGrath, D; Gerritsen, H.D. (Elsevier, 2010)
      The sex ratio in the catches of megrim (Lepidorhombus whiffiagonis, Walbaum) varied systematically with depth on three independent trawl survey series off the west coast of Ireland. Female megrim dominated the shallow catches, while males were more common in catches from deeper waters. The size difference between the sexes alone cannot explain this pattern because it remained evident when fish length was taken into account. Therefore size-specific habitat preferences or size-selective fishing mortality cannot fully explain the observed trend in the sex ratio of megrim. Female megrim grow to a larger size, at a faster rate than males and it is likely that their differences in habitat preferences are related to this. Shallower waters are warmer during the growing season and are likely to provide better conditions for fast growth. An understanding of the mechanisms behind these patterns is an important consideration in the management and conservation of this fish stock, which might be particularly vulnerable because the commercial landings are to a large extent dominated by female megrim
    • Dinoflagellate cysts in Irish coastal sediments - a preliminary report

      O'Mahony, J.H.; Silke, J. (1993)
      Since the mid 1970's the production of bivalve shellfish in Ireland has increased annually to a present level of some 17,000 tonnes. Several problems limit the continued expansion of the industry, most notably the problem of natural biotoxins. These toxins are accumulated in the product by the ingestion of toxic phytoplankton. This causes no obvious ill effects to the shellfish themselves but upon consumption may be transferred to human or other vertebrate consumers causing illness and sometimes death. In Ireland the most common of the toxins are those associated with Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP) which causes diarrhoea. Other more serious toxins which to date have not been confirmed in Ireland are those associated with Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP) which causes paralysis or even death and Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning (ASP) which causes short term memory loss. Of the phytoplankton species which can result in toxicity, under both bloom and non bloom conditions, the dinoflagellates play an important role. Many of these dinoflagellates have been shown to include a dormant benthic cyst stage in their life cycle. Therefore a better understanding of the dynamics of toxic events may be obtained by studying the distribution and abundance of benthic cysts. There is growing international concern about the transport of harmful aquatic organisms, including cysts, into new areas via the discharge of ships ballast water. Also, as a result of EC directive 91/67/EEC permitting the free movement of shellfish between EU member states there is now increasing concern in Ireland that harmful cysts may be introduced with shipments of imported shellfish. Little research has been carried out on the distribution of dinoflagellate cysts in Irish marine sediments. In this paper preliminary results of a study designed to map the distribution and undertake taxonomic studies on dinoflagellate and other cysts in Ireland are presented and discussed. Also presented are the results of the examination of cysts associated with imported shellfish.
    • The dinophycean genus Azadinium and related species – morphological and molecular characterization, biogeography, and toxins

      Tillmann, U.; Elbrächter, M.; Gottschling, M.; Gu, H.; Jeong, H.J.; Krock, B.; Nézan, E.; Potvin, E.; Salas, R.; Soehner, S. (International Society for the Study of Harmful Algae, 2014)
      Azaspiracids (AZAs) are the most recently discovered group of lipophilic marine biotoxins of microalgal origin. It took about twelve years from the first human poisoning event until a culprit for AZA production was unambiguously identified and described as a novel species, Azadinium spinosum, within a newly created genus. Since then, knowledge on the genus has increased considerably, and an update on the current circumscription of the genus is presented here including various aspects of morphology, phylogeny, biogeography, and toxin production. There are currently five described species: A. spinosum, A. obesum, A. poporum, A. caudatum, and A. polongum. As indicated by molecular sequence variation detected in field samples, there are probably more species to recognize. Moreover, Amphidoma languida has been described recently, and this species is the closest relative of Azadinium based on both molecular and morphological data. Amphidoma and Azadinium are now grouped in the family Amphidomataceae, which forms an independent lineage among other monophyletic major groups of dinophytes. Initially, azaspiracids have been detected in A. spinosum only, but AZA production within the Amphidomataceae appears complex and diverse: A new type of azaspiracid, with a number of structural variants, has been detected in A. poporum and Amphidoma languida, and AZA-2 has now been detected in Chinese strains of A. poporum.
    • Dinophysis species in Irish waters 1990 - 1993

      Jackson, D.; Silke, J. (ICES, 1993)
      The distribution and abundance of Dinophysis species as recorded in the national phytoplankton monitoring programme are described. An apparent spread in the occurrence of Dinophysis to the west coast of Ireland is reported. The lack of correlation between the concentrations of Dinophysis in the water and DSP toxicity in shellfish is reported on and discussed.
    • Discarding

      Marine Institute (Marine Institute, 2006)
      Discarding occurs because most methods of fishing catch more fish than the fisherman can legally land and sell. Therefore any commercial fishing activity will result in discarding of unwanted catch. Discards can be defined as that portion of the total weight of undersized, un-saleable or otherwise undesirable whole fish discarded at the time of capture or shortly afterwards.
    • Disposal and Re-utilisation of Fish and Fish Processing Waste (including Aquaculture Wastes)

      Pfeiffer, N. (Marine Institute, 2003)
      The following report results from a desk study conducted by Nautilus Consultants for the Marine Institute as part of the Marine RTDI Measure. The objectives of the study are to further the debate regarding the improved utilisation of fish waste and specifically to: 1) Describe the current. a) National and International regulations on the disposal of fish/aquaculture waste. b) Practice for disposal of fish/aquaculture waste. 2) Describe the current national infrastructure for handling of fish/aquaculture waste and identify future requirements. 3) Quantify by region, season and source, current fish/aquaculture waste arising. 4) Estimate trends in amount of waste. 5) Reduction at Source a) Assess realistic options for minimisation of fish/aquaculture waste arisings at source. b) Outline where such an approach could be applied and c) evaluate obstacles for the implementation of such a strategy. 6) Realistic options for reuse and recycling of fish/aquaculture waste arisings. 7) Guidelines and site selection criteria for disposal at sea (in certain emergency situations), taking into account potential transfer of fish diseases.
    • Dissolved azaspiracids are absorbed and metabolized by blue mussels (Mytilus edulis)

      Jauffrais, T.; Kilcoyne, J.; Herrenknecht, C.; Truquet, P.; Séchet, V.; Miles, C.O.; Hess, P. (Elsevier, 2013)
      The relationship between azaspiracid shellfish poisoning and a small dinoflagellate, Azadinium spinosum, has been shown recently. The organism produces AZA1 and -2, while AZA3 and other analogues are metabolic products formed in shellfish. We evaluated whether mussels were capable of accumulating dissolved AZA1 and -2, and compared the toxin profiles of these mussels at 24 h with profiles of those exposed to live or lysed A. spinosum. We also assessed the possibility of preparative production of AZA metabolites by exposing mussels to semi-purified AZA1. We exposed mussels to similar concentration of AZAs: dissolved AZA1 + 2 (crude extract) at 7.5 and 0.75 μg L−1, dissolved AZA1+2 (7.5 μg L−1) in combination with Isochrysis affinis galbana, and lysed and live A. spinosum cells at 1 × 105 and 1 × 104 cell mL−1 (containing equivalent amounts of AZA1 + 2). Subsequently, we dissected and analysed digestive glands, gills and remaining flesh. Mussels (whole flesh) accumulated AZAs to levels above the regulatory limit, except at the lower levels of dissolved AZAs. The toxin profile of the mussels varied significantly with treatment. The gills contained 42–46% and the digestive glands 23–24% of the total toxin load using dissolved AZAs, compared to 3–12% and 75–90%, respectively, in mussels exposed to live A. spinosum. Exposure of mussels to semi-purified AZA1 produced the metabolites AZA17 (16.5%) and AZA3 (1.7%) after 4 days of exposure, but the conversion efficiency was too low to justify using this procedure for preparative isolation.
    • The Distribution and Abundance of Animals and Plants on the Rocky Shores of Bantry Bay

      Crapp, G B (Department of Agriculture and Fisheries (Fisheries Division), 1973)
      A survey of the rocky shores of Bantry Bay is described. This is intended to serve as a means by which future changes may be detected, as well as providing an account of a hitherto undescribed area of the Irish coast. The abundance of littoral animals and plants was assessed at regular vertical intervals on forty transects, and the distribution patterns of these species are described and discussed in relation to two major environmental variables, emersion and exposure to wave action. The method adopted may be suitable as a standard method for surveying rocky shores, and this is discussed in relation to the objectives of the survey.
    • The distribution and abundance of cephalopod species caught during demersal trawl surveys west of Ireland and in the Celtic Sea

      Lordan, C.; Warnes, S.; Cross, T. F.; Burnell, G. M. (Marine Institute, 2001)
      Distributional and abundance data on seventeen cephalopod species from three demersal trawl series are presented. Data from one the CEFAS March Celtic Sea Groundfish Survey cover the years 1994-1998 inclusive and a depth range of 57-580 m. Data from two Marine Institute surveys was for October-November 1997 only. One of these surveys was west and south west of Ireland between depths of 27-328 m, the other was conducted in deepwater (520-1174 m) to the northwest. Eleven cephalopod species were caught (14,981 individual cephalopods) during the five CEFAS surveys. Spatial and bathymetric distribution data are presented for the species caught and the interannual variability is discussed. The most numerous species in catches was Loligo forbesi (n = 6,803), however, the highest biomass caught was Illex coindetii (418.3kg). Alloteuthis subulata were common close to shore in water depth of less than 75 m. Swept area density estimates are reported for the most abundant species in catches. Ten cephalopod species were caught during the Marine Institute west coast groundfish survey (774 specimens were examined out of an estimated 8,712 caught). The results show broadly similar patterns in species composition, distribution and abundance to the CEFAS survey. Todaropsis eblanae was the second most numerous species in the survey. Only six cephalopod species (n =196) were caught in the Marine Institute deepwater trawl survey. Todarodes sagittatus was the most common species caught. Deepwater octopods including Benthoctopus piscatorum, Benthoctopus ergasticus and Opisthoteuthis massyae were also caught. This chapter provides a base line of data on cephalopod species which are caught in trawl surveys west of Ireland and in the Celtic Sea.
    • The Distribution and Abundance of Elasmobranch Fish in Tralee, Brandon and Dingle Bays in 2018-2019

      Tully, Oliver; Palma-Pedraza, S.; Clarke, Maurice; Keane, Julie (Marine Institute, 2021)
      Surveys of skates and rays were undertaken in Tralee, Brandon and Dingle Bays in north Kerry during 2018 and 2019. The area was previously shown, from angling records and more recent shore surveys of egg cases, to support a high diversity of these species some of which are critically endangered in Ireland, the Atlantic or globally. Twelve species were recorded in the area and their geographic and seasonal distribution is described in this report. Their relative abundance in the surveys confirms their presence in the Tralee Bay area and the importance of that area as a refuge for them. Three of the species recorded, angel shark, blue skate and flapper skate are critically endangered globally. White skate was not recorded in the surveys but a single individual was captured separately in commercial tangle nets in 2018 in the area. This species is critically endangered in the Atlantic. Data from other broad scale fisheries surveys and fisheries sampling at sea, not reported here, confirm that these species are rarely found elsewhere. In addition, and in order of abundance, thornback ray, painted ray, sting ray, undulate ray, blonde ray, spotted ray, spurdog, tope and greater spotted dogfish were recorded. Endangered species of skates and rays are listed on various species red lists internationally and are prohibited species (from being landed) under Common Fisheries Policy regulations. The main source of mortality is from fishing. The current regulations, however, do not necessarily remove this source of impact because accidental by-catch and mortality can still occur. Populations that are at critically low levels locally are unlikely to be able to sustain this additional mortality and there is an ongoing risk of local extinction. Effective protection and restoration will need to consider additional measures such as marine protected areas or other mitigations of the effects of fisheries where they pose a high risk to the viability of local populations. Waters off north Kerry are important internationally as they hold some of the last remaining refuges for angel shark and white skate.
    • Distribution and ecology of oysters, Ostrea edulis (L.) in Kilkieran and Bertraghboy Bays, Connemara, Co. Galway

      Barry, M D (Department of Agriculture and Fisheries (Fisheries Division), 1981)
      An account of Kilkieran and Bertraghboy Bay oysters is presented, including data on their distribution and ecology in these bays. Growth and population structure are compared with other oyster-producing areas in Ireland. These data are reviewed in relation to the feasibility of redeveloping such areas of former extensive oyster production.
    • The Distribution of Irish Char (Salvelinus Alpinus)

      Went, A. E. J. (Department of Agriculture and Fisheries [Fisheries Division], 1971)
      Char* (Salvelinus alpinus) are rare in most places in Ireland to-day but they were formerly more widespread and abundant. About twenty-five years ago the Fisheries Division of the Department of Agriculture and Fisheries started to offer rewards for char submitted for examination and this has had the result of providing specimens which would otherwise have been lost. Many of these specimens wcre taken on rod and line but in recent years considerable numbers have been obtained in connection with either the improvement schemes of the Inland Fisheries Trust, Inc. or investigations concerned with the effects of drainage operations on Lough Conn.