• Celtic Sea Herring Acoustic Survey Cruise Report 2019, 09 - 29 October, 2019

      O'Donnell, C.; Mullins, E.; Lynch, D.; Lyons, K.; Connaughton, P.; Power, J. (Marine Institute, 2019)
      In the southwest of Ireland and the Celtic Sea (ICES Divisions VIIaS, g & j), herring are an important commercial species to the pelagic and polyvalent fleet. For a period in the 1970s and1980s, larval surveys were conducted for herring in this area. However, since 1989, acoustic surveys have been carried out, and currently are the only tuning indices available for this stock. In the Celtic Sea and VIIj, herring acoustic surveys have been carried out since 1989. Since 2004 the survey has been fixed in October and carried out onboard the RV Celtic Explorer. The geographical confines of the annual 21 day survey have been modified in recent years to include areas to the south of the main winter spawning grounds in an effort to identify the whereabouts of winter spawning fish before the annual inshore spawning migration. Spatial resolution of acoustic transects has been increased over the entire south coast survey area. The acoustic component of the survey has been further complemented since 2004 by detailed hydrographic, marine mammal and seabird surveys.
    • Celtic Sea Herring Acoustic Survey Cruise Report and Biomass Estimate, 2007

      O'Donnell, C; Egan, A; Lynch, D; Dransfeld, L; Boyd, J; Lyons, K; Wall, D (Marine Institute, 2007)
      In the southwest of Ireland and the Celtic Sea (ICES Divisions VIIaS, g & j), herring are an important commercial species to the pelagic and polyvalent fleet. The local fleet is composed of dry hold polyvalent vessels and a small number of purpose built RSW (Refrigerated seawater) vessels. The stock is composed of both autumn and winter spawning components and the fishery targets pre-spawning and spawning aggregations. The Irish commercial fishery has historically taken place within 1-20nmi (nautical miles) of the coast and focused on aggregated schools within the spawning cycle. In recent years the larger RSW vessels have actively targeted offshore summer feeding aggregations in the south Celtic Sea. In VIIj, the fishery traditionally begins in early October and is concentrated within several miles of the shore including many bays and inlets. The VIIaS fishery peaks towards the year end in December, but may be active from mid October depending on location. In VIIg, along the south coast herring are targeted from October to January at a number of known spawning sites and surrounding areas. Overall, the protracted spawning period of the two components extends from October through to January, with annual variation of up to 3 weeks. Spawning occurs in successive waves in a number of well known locations including large scale grounds and small discreet spawning beds. The geographical confines of the annual 21 day survey have been modified in recent years to include areas to the south of the main winter spawning grounds in an effort to identify the whereabouts of winter spawning fish before the annual inshore spawning migration. Spatial resolution of acoustic transects has been increased over the entire south coast survey area. The acoustic component of the survey has been further complimented by detailed hydrographic and marine mammal and seabird work programs first initiated during this survey in 2004.
    • Celtic Sea Herring Acoustic Survey RV Celtic Explorer 1st – 21st October 2006

      O'Donnell, C; Doonan, I; Lynch, D; Egan, A; Boyd, J; Wall, D; Ullgren, J (Marine Institute, 2006)
      In the Celtic Sea and ICES Division VIIj the herring fishery is divided into 3 main catching seasons. In quarters four and one, the fishery is focused on autumn and winter pre-spawning and spawning aggregations. In the 2004/05 season 34 vessels participated in the fishery, ranging from small dry hold polyvalent vessels (<20m) to purpose built RSW (Refrigerated seawater) vessels of 23-40m. Single and pair midwater trawling are common, with the latter representing the preferred catching method. In recent years a quarter-3 summer fishery has developed targeting offshore feeding aggregations, 78nmi (nautical miles) offshore on the Labadie Bank. This offshore fishery is restricted to the RSW fleet on the grounds of product quality delivered to processors. The 2006 autumn survey is the most comprehensive survey carried out in the current time series. The geographical extent of the annual 21 day survey was extended further offshore to include areas to the south of the main coastal spawning grounds to target winter spawning fish on an inward spawning migration. Spatial resolution of acoustic transects were increased over the entire south coast survey areas, with a special focus on spawning grounds throughout the survey confines. The acoustic component of the survey was complimented by a continuation of the detailed hydrographic work first established in the Celtic Sea in 2004.
    • Celtic Sea Herring Acoustic Survey, 07 - 28 October, 2011

      O'Donnell, Ciaran; Lynch, Deirdre; Lyons, Kieran; Ni Riogain, Paula; Volkenandt, Mareike (Marine Institute, 2011)
      In the Celtic Sea and VIIj, herring acoustic surveys have been carried out since 1989, and this survey is the 20th in the overall acoustic series or the seventh in the modified time series (i.e. conducted in October). The geographical confines of the annual 21 day survey have been modified in recent years to include areas to the south of the main winter spawning grounds in an effort to identify the whereabouts of winter spawning fish before the annual inshore spawning migration. Spatial resolution of acoustic transects has been increased over the entire south coast survey area. The acoustic component of the survey has been further complimented since 2004 by detailed hydrographic and marine mammal and seabird surveys.
    • Celtic Sea Herring Acoustic Survey, 09 - 29 October, 2012

      O’Donnell, Ciaran; Nolan, Cormac; Sullivan, Mairead; Lyons, Kieran; McKeogh, Enda; McAvoy, Stephen; Ingham, Sarah (Marine Institute, 2012)
      In the Celtic Sea and VIIj, herring acoustic surveys have been carried out since 1989. This survey was undertaken in early October. The geographical confines of the annual 21 day survey program have been modified in recent years to include areas to the south of the main winter spawning grounds in an effort to identify the whereabouts of winter spawning fish before the annual inshore spawning migration. Spatial resolution of acoustic transects has been increased over the entire south coast survey area. The acoustic component of the survey has been further complimented since 2004 by detailed hydrographic and marine mammal and seabird surveys.
    • Celtic Sea Herring Acoustic Survey, Cruise Report 2009

      Saunders, R; O'Donnell, C; Campbell, A; Lynch, D; Lyons, K; Wall, D (Marine Institute, 2009)
      In the southwest of Ireland and the Celtic Sea (ICES Divisions VIIaS, g & j), herring are an important commercial species to the pelagic and polyvalent fleet. The local fleet is composed of dry hold polyvalent vessels and a small number of purpose built Refrigerated seawater vessels (RSW). The stock is composed of both autumn and winter spawning components and the fishery targets pre-spawning and spawning aggregations. The Irish commercial fishery has historically taken place within 1-20 nmi (nautical miles) of the coast and focused on aggregated schools within the spawning cycle. In recent years the larger RSW vessels have actively targeted offshore summer feeding aggregations in the south Celtic Sea. In VIIj, the fishery traditionally begins in mid September and is concentrated within several miles of the shore including many bays and inlets. The VIIaS fishery peaks towards the year end in December, but may be active from mid October depending on location. In VIIg, along the south coast herring are targeted from October to January at a number of known spawning sites and surrounding areas. Overall, the protracted spawning period of the two components extends from October through to January, with annual variation of up to 3 weeks. Spawning occurs in successive waves in a number of well known locations including large scale grounds and small discreet spawning beds. The stock structure and discrimination of herring in this area has been investigated recently. Hatfield et al. (2007) has shown the Celtic Sea stock to be fairly discrete. However, it is known that fish in the eastern Celtic Sea recruit from nursery areas in the Irish Sea, returning to the Celtic Sea as young adults (Brophy et al. 2002; Molloy et al., 1993). The stock identity of VIIj herring is less clear, though there is evidence that they have linkages with VIIb and VIaS (ICES, 1994; Grainger, 1978). Molloy (1968) identified possible linkages between young fish in VIIj and those of the Celtic Sea herring. For the purpose of stock assessment and management divisions VIIaS, VIIg and VII j have been combined since 1982. For a period in the 1970s and1980s, larval surveys were conducted for herring in this area. However, since 1989, acoustic surveys have been carried out, and currently are the only tuning indices available for this stock. In the Celtic Sea and VIIj, herring acoustic surveys have been carried out since 1989, and this survey represents the 18th in the overall acoustic series or the fourth in the modified time series. The geographical confines of the annual 21 day survey have been modified in recent years to include areas to the south of the main winter spawning grounds in an effort to identify the whereabouts of winter spawning fish before the annual inshore spawning migration. Spatial resolution of acoustic transects has been increased over the entire south coast survey area. The acoustic component of the survey has been further complimented by detailed hydrographic and marine mammal and seabird work programs first initiated during this survey in 2004.
    • Celtic Sea Nephrops Grounds 2007 UWTV Survey Report

      Lordan, Colm; Doyle, Jennifer (Marine Institute, 2008-05)
      This is the second in a time series of UWTV surveys on the ‘Smalls grounds’. The 2006 survey covered the distinct mud patches of the Smalls Grounds and also indicator stations on the Labadie Bank, Nymphe Bank and Seven Heads, whereas the survey 2007 covered the Smalls Grounds only due to poor weather. This report details the results of the surveys on the Smalls Grounds to date.
    • Celtic Sea Nephrops Grounds 2008 UWTV Survey Report

      Lordan, Colm; Doyle, Jennifer (Marine Institute, 2009-05)
      This is the third in a time series of UWTV surveys on the ‘Smalls grounds’. The 2006 survey covered the distinct mud patches of the Smalls Grounds and also indicator stations on the Labadie Bank, Nymphe Bank and Seven Heads, whereas the 2007 and 2008 survey covered the Smalls Grounds only due to poor weather and time contraints. This report details the results of the surveys on the Smalls Grounds only to date.
    • Celtic Sea Nephrops Grounds 2009 UWTV Survey Report

      Lordan, C; Doyle, J (Marine Institute, 2010-05)
      This is the fourth in a time series of UWTV surveys on the ‘Smalls grounds’. The 2006 survey covered the distinct mud patches of the Smalls Grounds and also indicator stations on the Labadie Bank, Nymphe Bank and Seven Heads, whereas the 2007 to 2009 survey covered the Smalls grounds only due to poor weather and time constraints. This report details the results of the 2009 survey for the Smalls ground Nephrops stock.
    • Celtic Sea Nephrops Grounds 2010 UWTV Survey Report

      Lordan, Colm; Doyle, Jennifer (Marine Institute, 2011-04)
      This is the fifth in a time series of UWTV surveys on the ‘Smalls grounds’. The 2006 survey covered the distinct mud patches of the Smalls Grounds and also indicator stations on the Labadie Bank, Nymphe Bank and Seven Heads, whereas the 2007 to 2010 survey covered the Smalls grounds only due to poor weather and time contraints. This report details the results of the 2010 survey for the Smalls ground Nephrops stock.
    • Celtic Sea Nephrops Grounds 2011 UWTV Survey Report

      Doyle, Jennifer; Lordan, Colm; Fitzgerald, Ross; O’Connor, Sean; Fee, Dermot; Nolan, Cormac; Hayes, Joan (Marine Institute, 2011)
      The prawn (Nephrops norvegicus) are common in the Celtic Sea occurring in geographically distinct sandy/muddy areas were the sediment is suitable for them to construct their burrows. The Celtic Sea area (Functional Units 19-22) supports a large multi-national targeted Nephrops fishery mainly using otter trawls and yielding landings in the region of ~6,000 t annually over the last decade (ICES, 2011). Nephrops spend a great deal of time in their burrows and their emergence behaviour is influenced many factors; time of year, light intensity and tidal strength. Underwater television surveys and assessment methodologies have been developed to provide a fishery independent estimate of stock size, exploitation status and catch advice (ICES, 2009 & 2011).This is the sixth in a time series of UWTV surveys in the Celtic Sea carried out by the Marine Institute, Ireland. The 2011 survey was multi disciplinary in nature and this report details the final UWTV results of the 2011 survey and also documents other data collected during the survey.
    • Certified Reference Materials for Marine Monitoring

      Pellizzato, Francesca; McGovern, Evin; Quevauviller, Philippe (J. Wiley & Sons, Chichester, West Sussex, 2011)
    • Characterisation of norovirus contamination in an Irish shellfishery using real-time RT-qPCR and sequencing analysis

      Rajko-Nenow, Paulina; Keaveney, Sinéad; Flannery, John; O'Flaherty, Vincent; Doré, William (Elsevier, 2012)
      Norovirus (NoV) is the single most important agent of foodborne viral gastroenteritis worldwide. Bivalve shellfish, such as oysters, grown in areas contaminated with human faecal waste may become contaminated with human pathogens including NoV. A study was undertaken to investigate NoV contamination in oysters (Crassostrea gigas) from a shellfishery over a 24 month period from October 2007 to September 2009. Oyster samples were collected monthly from a commercial shellfish harvest area classified as category B under EU regulations, but that had had been closed for commercial harvesting due to its previous association with NoV outbreaks. Real-time reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) was used to determine the concentration of human NoV genogroups I and II (GI and GII) in monthly samples. Total NoV (GI and GII) concentrations in NoV positive oysters ranged from 97 to 20,080 genome copies g− 1 of digestive tissue and displayed a strong seasonal trend with greater concentrations occurring during the winter months. While NoV GII concentrations detected in oysters during both years were similar, NoV GI concentrations were significantly greater in oysters during the winter of 2008/09 than during the winter of 2007/08. To examine the NoV genotypes present in oyster samples, sequence analysis of nested RT-PCR products was undertaken. Although NoV GII.4 is responsible for the vast majority of reports of outbreaks in the community, multiple NoV genotypes were identified in oysters during this study: GI.4, GI.3, GI.2, GII.4, GII.b, GII.2, GII.12, and GII.e. NoV GI.4 was the most frequently detected genotype throughout the study period and was detected in 88.9% of positive samples, this was followed by GII.4 (43.7%) and GII.b (37.5%). This data demonstrates the diversity of NoV genotypes that can be present in sewage contaminated shellfish and that a disproportionate number of non-NoV GII.4 genotypes can be found in environmental samples compared to the number of recorded human infections associated with non-NoV GII.4 genotypes.
    • Chemical aspects of ocean acidification monitoring in the ICES marine area.

      Hydes, D.J.; McGovern, E.; Walsham, P. (International Council for the Exploration of the Sea, 2013)
      It is estimated that oceans absorb approximately a quarter of the total anthropogenic releases of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere each year. This is leading to acidification of the oceans, which has already been observed through direct measurements. These changes in the ocean carbon system are a cause for concern for the future health of marine ecosystems. A coordinated ocean acidification (OA) monitoring programme is needed that integrates physical, biogeochemical, and biological measurements to concurrently observe the variability and trends in ocean carbon chemistry and evaluate species and ecosystems response to these changes. This report arises from an OSPAR request to ICES for advice on this matter. It considers the approach and tools available to achieve coordinated monitoring of changes in the carbon system in the ICES marine area, i.e. the Northeast Atlantic and Baltic Sea.
    • Chemical characteristics of water masses in the Rockall Trough

      McGrath, Triona; Nolan, Glenn; McGovern, Evin (Elsevier, 2011)
      Direct observations of physical and chemical data in the Rockall Trough during February of 2008, 2009 and 2010 are presented. Results are compared to a similar WOCE transect, AR24, completed in November/December 1996. Temperature and salinity data have been used to identify the water masses present in the Trough, and have been combined with nutrient (nitrate, nitrite, phosphate, silicate) and oxygen data to produce a table outlining the chemical characteristics of each of the water masses. Eastern North Atlantic Water (ENAW) moving north through the Trough gains nutrients from a branch of the North Atlantic Current (NAC). Mediterranean Water (MW) was identified as a warm saline core, with characteristically low oxygen and low preformed nutrients along the Irish continental shelf break near 53°N. Found at a similar density level at the southern entrance to the Trough, Sub Arctic Intermediate Water (SAIW) has relatively high oxygen and preformed nutrients, likely entrained from the subpolar gyre when it was formed. LSW was identified as a prominent water mass between 1500–2000 m deep, with characteristically high oxygen content. Lower silicate, and to a lesser extent preformed nitrate, in 2009 coincide with a freshening of Labrador Sea Water (LSW) relative to other years, and could indicate a stronger influence from the Labrador Current when it was formed. Finally, traces of Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) were found as far north as 53°N, indicated by a sharp increase in nutrient concentrations, particularly silicate in the deepest parts of the Trough.
    • Chemical contaminants in Irish estuarine and coastal waters, 1978 to 1988

      O'Sullivan, M. P.; Nixon, E. R.; McLaughlin, D.; O'Sullivan, M. L.; O'Sullivan, D. (Department of the Marine, 1991)
      Observations on the concentrations of heavy metals (mercury, cadmium, copper, lead and zinc) and chlorinated hydrocarbons (PCBs and the pesticides, lindane, dieldrin, DDTs and chlordanes) are presented. Sources comprise mussels and oysters from twenty six estuarine and coastal locations and in fin fish landed from all coasts. Data on heavy metals and nutrients in sea water and heavy metals in sediments for nine estuaries are also reported. Data were collected to comply with the Joint Monitoring Programme of the Oslo and Paris Commissions and with the Cooperative Monitoring Programme of the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea. The locations sampled included Boyne estuary, Dublin Bay, Wexford Harbour, Barrow estuary, Waterford Harbour, Cork Harbour, Bandon estuary, Tralee Bay, Shannon estuary, Clarinbridge, Kilkieran Bay, Clew Bay, Killary Harbour and Mulroy Bay. Four cases of elevated concentrations of cadmium, two each of copper, zinc and mercury and one of lead are reported. The general overall temporal trend in metal levels has been of stability or, in the case of more marked contamination, of reduction. The degree of organochlorine contamination was low in all the estuaries and shellfish growing areas monitored. No instances of contamination exceeding tolerance levels in shellfish and fin fish for human consumption were recorded. With very few exceptions, it was found that Irish coastal waters enjoyed exceptionally low levels of contamination.
    • Chemical Residue in Irish Farmed Finfish, 2011

      Glynn, D.; McGovern, E.; Slattery, T.; Ó Conchubhair, D.; Toomey, M.; Kelly, C.; Reid, A.; Moffat, R. (Marine Institute, 2013)
      On behalf of the Department of Agriculture, Food and Marine (DAFM), the Marine Institute carries out monitoring of chemical residues in aquaculture in accordance with Council Directive 96/23/EC of 29 April 1996, on measures to monitor certain substances and residues thereof in animals and animal products. The main objectives of the Aquaculture National Residue Control Plan (NRCP) is to ensure farmed fish are fit for human consumption, to provide a body of data showing that Irish farmed fish is of high quality, to promote good practices in aquaculture and to comply with EU Directive 96/23. In 2011, in excess of 630 tests and 1,566 individual measurements for substances were carried out on 140 samples of farmed finfish taken on farms and at processing plants for a range of residues. In accordance with Council Directive 96/23/EC, the following species were sampled and tested: Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), freshwater and seareared trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Tests were carried out for banned substances such as growth promoters, and other unauthorised substances such as malachite green, which should not be present. Harvested fish were also tested for authorised veterinary treatments such as antibiotics and sea lice treatments, environmental contaminants such as trace metals, polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides, to check for compliance with Maximum Residue Levels (MRL) where available. As in previous years, no non-compliant results were reported in the surveillance monitoring programme for farmed finfish. Overall, in recent years the outcome for aquaculture remains one of consistently low occurrence of residues in farmed finfish, with 0.23% non-compliant results from routine targeted monitoring in 2004, 0.09% in 2005 and 0% for the period 2006-2011.
    • Chemical Residues in Irish Farmed Finfish, 2012-2014

      Glynn, D.; Kelly, C.; Moffat, R.; Reid, A.; Toomey, M.; O'Hea, L.; Elliott, M.; Hickey, C.; Geary, M.; Ruane, N. M.; et al. (Marine Institute, 2015)
      The Marine Institute carries out monitoring of chemical residues in aquaculture in accordance with Council Directive 96/23/EC of 29 April 1996, on measures to monitor certain substances and residues thereof in animals and animal products, also known as the Residues Directive. This is carried out on behalf of the Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine (DAFM). For the aquaculture sector, the Sea Fisheries Protection Authority (SFPA) with technical support from the Institute is responsible for residue controls on farmed finfish on behalf of the national residue monitoring plan. Annually, the National Residues Control Plan (NRCP) for Aquaculture is prepared by the Institute and this sets out the monitoring requirements for residues in animal products in required by the directive. The main objectives of the National Residue Control Plan for Aquaculture is to ensure farmed fish are fit for human consumption; to provide a body of data showing that Irish farmed fish is of high quality; to promote good practices in aquaculture; and to comply with EU Directive 96/23/EC. Based on production tonnage, the following species for the period of 2012 to 2014 were sampled and tested: Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), freshwater and sea reared trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss & Salmo trutta). In excess of 2,141 tests and a total of 4,972 residue measurements were carried out over this three year period. Tests were carried out for banned substances such as growth promoters and other unauthorised substances such as malachite green, which should not be present. Harvest fish were also tested for authorised veterinary treatments such as antibiotics and sea lice treatments, environmental contaminants such as trace metals, polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides, to check for compliance with Maximum Residue Levels (MRL) where available. As in previous years, no non-compliant results were reported in the surveillance monitoring programme for farmed finfish during the period 2012 to 2014. Overall, in recent years the outcome for aquaculture remains one of consistently low occurrence of residues in farmed finfish, with 0.23% non-compliant results from routine targeted monitoring in 2004, 0.09% in 2005 and one of full compliance with 0% non-compliant target residue results for the period 2006-2014.
    • Chemical species concentration measurement via wireless sensors

      SFI; MarineInstitute; EPA (World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, 2011)
    • Clean Coasts/Clean Seas

      Tambini, L; Dubsky, K; Jones, B (Marine Institute, 2001-12)
      Clean Seas/Clean Coasts was an INTERREG IIA partnership project between Keep Wales Tidy and Coastwatch Ireland. The ultimate aim of the project was to reduce the input of marine litter and oil to the Irish Sea and onto the shores of the West Coast of Wales and the East Coast of Ireland. This was to be achieved by litter awareness raising events, collecting of marine litter/ oil data and disseminating information on impacts of marine pollution, as well as legislation on marine waste management and best practice prevention. In this context, partners jointly focussed on port waste plans and facilities.