• Tools for Appropriate Assessment of Fishing and Aquaculture Activities in Marine and Coastal Natura 2000 Sites. Report VII: Intertidal and Subtidal Reefs.

      ABPmer (ABP Marine Environmental Research Ltd, 2013)
      Ireland has many coastal and marine habitats and species that are of national and international conservation importance. The value of these has been recognised by the designation of a number of Special Areas of Conservation and Special Protected Areas through the EU Habitats Directive (92/43/EEC) and EU Birds Directive (2009/147/EC). Together these sites form part of the European network of Natura 2000 sites. This report and accompanying annexes is part of a series of documents that present a risk assessment tool developed by ABPmer to assess the effects of fishing and aquaculture activities on the Annex I habitats and Annex II species present in Natura 2000 sites. The tool is designed to support the preparation of screening statements and Appropriate Assessments. Specifically this report presents the project deliverables for the assessment of littoral and sublittoral reefs and associated biological assemblages and describes the potential use of the risk assessment tool.
    • Tools for Appropriate Assessment of Fishing and Aquaculture Activities in Marine and Coastal Natura 2000 Sites. Report VIII: Vegetation Dominated Communities (Saltmarsh and Seagrass).

      ABPmer (ABP Marine Environmental Research Ltd, 2013)
      Ireland has many coastal and marine habitats and species that are of national and international conservation importance. The value of these has been recognised by the designation of a number of Special Areas of Conservation and Special Protected Areas through the EU Habitats Directive (92/43/EEC) and EU Birds Directive (2009/147/EC). Together these sites form part of the European network of Natura 2000 sites. This report and accompanying annexes is part of a series of documents that present a risk assessment tool developed by ABPmer to assess the effects of fishing and aquaculture activities on the Annex I habitats and Annex II species present in Natura 2000 sites. The tool is designed to support the preparation of screening statements and Appropriate Assessments. Specifically this report presents the project deliverables for the assessment of vegetation dominated communities (saltmarsh and seagrass)and describes the potential use of the risk assessment tool.
    • The Torrey Canyon Disaster: A review of methods employed to combat large scale oil pollution

      Griffith, David de G (Department of Agriculture and Fisheries (Fisheries Division), 1969)
      In this review an attempt has been made to collate the central points of the most important of the multitudinous reports which have appeared in connection with the Torrey Canyon oil pollution. The content has been limited to the biological aspects of a large-scale oil spillage and its subsequent treatment, although the importance of tourist amenities also receives consideration in the discussion. Consequently, several related topics which lie outside the scope of the biologist have either been omitted or just mentioned in passing: they include the technical problems of the salvage of oil from a crippled tanker, the control or collection of floating oil, and the administrative organisational requirements for effective action in an emergency of this kind.
    • Toward design criteria in constructed oyster reefs: oyster recruitment as a function of substrate type and tidal height

      O'Beirn, F.X.; Luchenbach, M.W.; Nestlerode, J.A.; Coates, G.M. (National Shellfisheries Association, 2000)
      Restoration of degraded oyster reef habitat generally begins with the addition of substrate that serves as a reef base and site for oyster spat attachment. Remarkably, little is known about how substrate type and reef morphology affect the development of oyster populations on restored reefs. Three-dimensional, intertidal reefs were constructed near Fisherman's Island, Virginia: two reefs in 1995 using surfclam (Spisula solidissima) shell and six reefs in 1996 using surfclam shell, oyster shell, and stabilized coal ash. We have monitored oyster recruitment and growth quarterly at three tidal heights (intertidal, mean low water, and subtidal) on each reef type since their construction. Oyster recruitment in 1995 exceeded that observed in the two subsequent years. High initial densities on the 1995 reefs decreased and stabilized at a mean of 418 oyster/m2. Oyster settlement occurred on all reef types and tidal heights in 1996; however, postsettlement mortality on the surfclam shell and coal ash reefs exceeded that on the oyster shell reefs, which remained relatively constant throughout the year (mean = 935 oysters/m2). Field observations suggest that predation accounts for most of the observed mortality and that the clam shell and coal ash reefs, which have little interstitial space, suffer greater predation. Oyster abundance was consistently greatest higher in the intertidal zone on all reefs in each year studied. The patterns observed here lead to the preliminary conclusion that the provision of spatial refugia (both intertidal and interstitial) from predation is an essential feature of successful oyster reef restoration in this region. In addition, high levels of recruitment can provide a numerical refuge, whereby the oysters themselves will provide structure and increase the probability of an oyster population establishing successfully on the reef.
    • Towards a flexible Decision Support Tool for MSY-based Marine Protected Area design for skates and rays

      Dedman, Simon; Officer, Rick; Brophy, Deirdre; Clarke, Maurice; Reid, David G. (Oxford University Press (OUP), 2017)
      It is recommended that demersal elasmobranchs be managed using spatial proxies for Maximum Sustainable Yield. Here we combine escapement biomass—the percentage of the stock which must be retained each year to conserve it—with maps of predicted Catch Per Unit Effort (CPUE) of four ray species [cuckoo (Leucoraja naevus), thornback (Raja clavata), blonde (Raja brachyura), and spotted (Raja montagui)], created using Boosted Regression Tree modelling. We then use a Decision Support Tool to generate location and size options for Marine Protected Areas to protect these stocks, based on the priorities of the various stakeholders, notably the minimisation of fishing effort displacement. Variations of conservation/fishing priorities are simulated, as well as differential priorities for individual species, with a focus on protecting nursery grounds and spawning areas. Prioritizing high CPUE cells results in a smaller closed area that displaces the most fishing effort, whereas prioritizing low fishing effort results in a larger closed area that displaces the least fishing effort. The final result is a complete software package that produces maps of predicted species CPUE from limited survey data, and allows disparate stakeholders and policymakers to discuss management options within a mapping interface.
    • Toxic phytoplankton in Irish waters

      Silke, J.; McMahon, T.; Nolan, A. (1995)
      The subject of harmful and toxic marine algae has recently gained a growing public and scientific interest both in Ireland and abroad because of the occurrence of these toxins in shellfish.
    • Toxicological risks to humans of toxaphene residues in fish

      Leonards, P.E.G.; Besselink, H.; Klungsøyr, J.; McHugh, B.; Nixon, E.; Rimkus, G.G.; Brouwer, A.; de Boer, J. (Wiley, 2011)
      A revised risk assessment for toxaphene was developed, based on the assumption that fish consumers are only exposed to toxaphene residues that differ substantially from technical toxaphene due to environmental degradation and metabolism. In vitro studies confirmed that both technical toxaphene and degraded toxaphene inhibit gap junctional intercellular communication that correlates with the mechanistic potential to cause tumour promotion. In vivo rat studies established the NOAEL for degraded and technical toxaphene at the highest dose tested in the bioassay. Toxaphene residue intakes from European fishery products were estimated and compared to the provisional tolerable daily intakes (TDIs) from various regulatory agencies including Canada, the United States, Germany. The estimated intake was also compared to a new calculated provisional MATT pTDI. The MATT pTDI is based upon new toxicological information (in vivo rat studies) developed on a model for environmental toxaphene residues rather than technical toxaphene. A MATT pTDI (1.08 mg total toxaphene for a person of 60 kg) for tumour promotion potency was adopted for use in Europe and is hitherto referred to as the MATT pTDI. These new data result in a better estimate of safety and a higher TDI than previously used. Based on realistic fish consumption data and recent baseline concentration data of toxaphene in European fishery products the toxaphene intake for the consumers of Germany, Ireland, Norway and The Netherlands was estimated. For an average adult fish consumer the average daily intake of toxaphene was estimated to be 1.2 µg, and 0.4, 0.5, and 0.2 µg for the consumers of Norway, Germany, Ireland, and The Netherlands, respectively. The toxaphene intake of these average fish consumers was far below the MATT pTDI of 1.08 mg/60 kg body weight. In conclusion, based on the most relevant toxicological studies and the most realistic estimates of fish consumption and recent concentrations of toxaphene in European fishery products, adverse health effects are unlikely for the average European consumer of fishery products. In no case is the MATT pTDI exceeded.
    • Trace Metal and Chlorinated Hydrocarbon Concentrations in Shellfish and Fin-Fish from Irish Waters - 1996

      Bloxham, M; Rowe, A; McGovern, E; Smyth, M; Nixon, E (Marine Institute, 1998-11)
      In accordance with the monitoring requirements of the 1979 Council Directive 79/923/EC on the quality of shellfish waters, water and shellfish samples were collected from 22 major shellfish growing areas and analysed for physicochemical parameters, trace metal levels and chlorinated hydrocarbon concentrations. Fin-fish were also collected from five Irish fishing ports and analysed for total mercury content in compliance with the European Commission's Decision of 19 May 1993 on mercury in fisheries products. Selected samples of fin-fish were also analysed for trace metal and chlorinated hydrocarbon concentration. As there are no generally accepted European standards for the concentration of these contaminants in shellfish or fin-fish, the levels were compared with the available standards and guidance values compiled by the Oslo and Paris Commission (OSPAR) countries for human consumption. As in previous years, the water quality from shellfish growing areas was good and conformed to the guidelines and requirements of the Directive. Petroleum hydrocarbons were not observed in any of the shellfish waters or as deposits on the shellfish. Chlorinated hydrocarbon levels were very low, evidence of the clean, unpolluted nature of Irish shellfish and shellfish producing waters. Trace metal levels were consistently low with the exception of lead in mussel tissue from Wexford Harbour, which was elevated, and cadmium in oyster tissue, which was slightly elevated in some samples but did not exceed the Dutch human consumption tolerance value of 1.0mg/kg. The concentration of mercury in fin-fish selected from catches at Irish fishing ports ranged from 0.02 to 0.27µg/g wet weight. These levels were well within the maximum limits set down in the EC Decision for mercury in fisheries products. Chlorinated hydrocarbon and trace metal levels were also very low in fish tissue. This survey confirms previous studies that show Irish fishery products are effectively free from trace metal and chlorinated hydrocarbon contamination.
    • Trace Metal and Chlorinated Hydrocarbon Concentrations in Shellfish from Irish Waters 2001

      Glynn, D; Tyrrell, L; McHugh, B; Rowe, A; Monaghan, E; Costello, J; McGovern, E (Marine Institute, 2003)
      Major shellfish growing areas were sampled in accordance with the monitoring requirements of Council Directive 79/923/EEC, on the quality required of shellfish waters, and Council Directive 91/492/EEC, laying down the health conditions for the production and placing on the market of live bivalve molluscs. Data for physicochemical parameters in water, trace metal levels and chlorinated hydrocarbon concentrations in shellfish are presented. In 2001, a total of 23 samples from 20 different shellfish sites were analysed for trace metals and chlorinated hydrocarbons. The median concentration of mercury in shellfish sampled in 2001 was <0.03 mg/kg wet weight, with a maximum of 0.04 mg/kg wet weight which is well within the maximum limit of 0.50 mg/kg wet weight for mercury in bivalve molluscs set by the EU. The levels of lead and cadmium detected were low, with means of 0.20 and 0.24 mg/kg wet weight and maxima of 0.37 and 0.74 mg/kg wet weight respectively, also within the respective maximum levels of 1.50 and 1 mg/kg wet weight set by the EU. There are no internationally agreed standards or guidelines available for the remaining trace metals and chlorinated hydrocarbons in shellfish. However these results were compared with the strictest standard or guidance values for shellfish, which are applied by contracting countries to OSPAR, and were found to be well below the strictest values listed. This is evidence of the clean, unpolluted nature of Irish shellfish and shellfish producing waters. As in previous years, the water quality from shellfish growing areas was good and conformed to the requirements of the Directive. Petroleum hydrocarbons were not visible in any of the shellfish waters or as deposits on the shellfish. This survey confirms previous studies (Glynn et al., 2003; McGovern et al., 2001; Bloxham et al., 1998; Smyth et al., 1997 and Nixon et al., 1995, 1994, and 1991), which show that contamination from trace metals and chlorinated hydrocarbons is low in Irish shellfish aquaculture.
    • Trace Metal and Chlorinated Hydrocarbon Concentrations in Shellfish from Irish Waters 2002

      Glynn, D; Tyrrell, L; McHugh, B; Monaghan, E; Costello, J; McGovern, E (Marine Institute, 2004)
      Major shellfish growing areas were sampled in accordance with the monitoring requirements of Council Directive 79/923/EEC, on the quality required of shellfish waters, and Council Directive 91/492/EEC, laying down the health conditions for the production and placing on the market of live bivalve molluscs. Data for physicochemical parameters in water and trace metal levels and chlorinated hydrocarbon concentrations in shellfish are presented. In 2002, a total of 24 samples from 22 different shellfish sites were analysed for chlorinated hydrocarbons and trace metals, including nickel and silver. The median concentration of mercury in shellfish sampled in 2002 was <0.03 mg/kg wet weight, which is well within the European maximum limit of 0.50 mg/kg wet weight for mercury in bivalve molluscs. The levels of lead and cadmium detected were low, with means of 0.16 and 0.33mg/kg wet weight and maxima of 0.34 and 0.66 mg/kg wet weight respectively, also within the respective European maximum levels of 1.50 and 1 mg/kg wet weight. There are no internationally agreed standards or guidelines available for the remaining trace metals and chlorinated hydrocarbons in shellfish. Therefore, these results were compared with the strictest standard or guidance values for shellfish, which are applied by contracting countries to the OSPAR Convention, and were found to be well below the strictest values listed. This is evidence of the clean, unpolluted nature of Irish shellfish and shellfish producing waters. As in previous years, the water quality from shellfish growing areas was good and conformed to the requirements of the Directive. Petroleum hydrocarbons were not visible in any of the shellfish waters or as deposits on the shellfish. This survey confirms previous studies (Glynn et al., 2003a, 2003b; McGovern et al., 2001; Bloxham et al., 1998; Smyth et al., 1997 and Nixon et al., 1995, 1994, and 1991), which show that contamination from trace metals and chlorinated hydrocarbons is low in Irish shellfish aquaculture.
    • Trace Metal and Chlorinated Hydrocarbon Concentrations in Shellfish from Irish Waters, 1997-1999

      McGovern, E; Rowe, A; McHugh, B; Costello, J; Bloxham, M; Duffy, C; Nixon, E (Marine Institute, 2001)
      In accordance with the monitoring requirements of Council Directive 79/923/EEC, on the quality required of shellfish waters, and Council Directive 91/492/EEC, laying down the health conditions for the production and placing on the market of live bivalve molluscs, the Marine Institute collected water and shellfish samples from major shellfish growing areas and analysed for physicochemical parameters, trace metal levels and chlorinated hydrocarbon concentrations. Since, with the exception of mercury, there are no currently applicable European standards for the concentration of these contaminants in shellfish, the levels were compared with the available standards and guidance values for human consumption, as compiled by the Oslo and Paris Commission (OSPAR) countries. As in previous years, the water quality from shellfish growing areas was good and conformed to the guidelines and requirements of the Directive. Petroleum hydrocarbons were not observed in any of the shellfish waters or as deposits on the shellfish. Chlorinated hydrocarbon levels were very low, evidence of the clean, unpolluted nature of Irish shellfish and shellfish producing waters. Trace metal levels were consistently low with the exception of cadmium in oyster tissue, which was slightly elevated in the 1999 samples from Clew Bay, Inner Tralee Bay, Aughinish Limerick and Kilkieran. However these levels did not exceed the Dutch human consumption standard value or the EU maximum limit of 1.0 mg/kg wet weight due to apply from 2002. This survey confirms previous studies which show Irish shellfish products are effectively free from trace metal and chlorinated hydrocarbon contamination.
    • Trace Metal and Chlorinated Hydrocarbon Concentrations in Shellfish from Irish Waters, 2000

      Glynn, D; Tyrrell, L; McHugh, B; Rowe, A; Costello, J; McGovern, E (Marine Institute, 2003)
      Major shellfish growing areas were sampled in accordance with the monitoring requirements of Council Directive 79/923/EEC, on the quality required of shellfish waters, and Council Directive 91/492/EEC, laying down the health conditions for the production and placing on the market of live bivalve molluscs. Data for physicochemical parameters in water, trace metal levels and chlorinated hydrocarbon concentrations in shellfish are presented. EU Commission Regulation 466/2001/EC (as amended by Regulation 221/2002/EC) came into effect on 5th April 2002. This set maximum levels for mercury, cadmium and lead in bivalve molluscs of 0.5mg/kg, 1mg/kg, and 1.5mg/kg wet weight respectively. In the absence of EU standards for other contaminants in shellfish, monitoring results have been compared to strictest guidance or standard values available in other OSPAR Convention contracting countries. As in previous years, the water quality from shellfish growing areas was good and conformed to the requirements of the Directive. Petroleum hydrocarbons were not visible in any of the shellfish waters or as deposits on the shellfish. Levels of chlorinated hydrocarbons and trace metals in shellfish tissue were very low in all areas, which is evidence of the clean, unpolluted nature of Irish shellfish and shellfish producing waters. This survey confirms previous studies (McGovern et al., 2001; Bloxham et al., 1998; Smyth et al., 1997 and Nixon et al., 1995, 1994, and 1991), which show that contamination from trace metals and chlorinated hydrocarbons is low in Irish shellfish products.
    • Trace Metal and Chlorinated Hydrocarbon Concentrations in Various Fish Species Landed at Selected Irish Ports, 1997-2000

      Tyrrell, L; Glynn, D; Rowe, A; McHugh, B; Costello, J; Duffy, C; Quinn, A; Naughton, M; Bloxham, M; Nixon, E; et al. (Marine Institute, 2003)
      The Marine Institute samples a range of finfish species landed at five major Irish ports on an annual basis, in accordance with the monitoring requirements of various European legislation designed to ensure food safety. During 1997 – 2000, a total of 112 samples from 23 different species of finfish were collected from five major Irish fishing ports and analysed for total mercury concentration in the edible. The concentration of mercury ranged from 0.03 to 0.18 mg/kg wet weight in 1997, <0.03 to 0.19 mg/kg wet weight in 1998, <0.03 to 0.29 mg/kg wet weight in 1999 and 0.03 to 0.33 mg/kg wet weight in 2000. These levels are well within the maximum limit of 0.50 mg/kg wet weight for mercury in fishery products set by the EC. This survey confirms previous studies, which show that Irish seafoods are effectively free from mercury contamination. Selected samples were also analysed for other trace metals and chlorinated hydrocarbons. Overall, the levels of lead and cadmium detected in the edible portion of the fish were low and well within the standard values of 0.20 and 0.05 mg/kg wet weight respectively, set by the EU. There are no internationally agreed standards or guidelines available for the remaining trace metals and chlorinated hydrocarbons in fishery products. Therefore results are compared with the strictest standard or guidance value for fish tissue, which are applied by contracting parties to OSPAR. The levels of these additional contaminants are well below the strictest values listed.
    • Trace Metal and Chlorinated Hydrocarbon Concentrations in Various Fish Species Landed at Selected Irish Ports, 2001

      Tyrrell, L; Glynn, D; McHugh, B; Rowe, A; Monaghan, E; Costello, J; McGovern, E (Marine Institute, 2003)
      The Marine Institute sample a range of finfish species landed at major Irish ports on an annual basis, in accordance with the monitoring requirements of various European legislation designed to ensure food safety. During 2001, a total of 44 samples from 20 different species of finfish were collected from six major Irish fishing ports and analysed for total mercury concentration in the edible tissue. The concentration of mercury ranged from less than the limit of quantitation (0.03 mg/kg wet weight) to 0.42 mg/kg wet weight with a mean and median of 0.09 and 0.07 mg/kg respectively. These levels are within the maximum limit of 0.50 mg/kg wet weight for mercury in fishery products set by the EC (1 mg/kg for selected species). This survey confirms previous studies, which show that Irish seafood is effectively free from mercury contamination. Selected samples were also analysed for other trace metals and chlorinated hydrocarbons. Overall, the levels of lead and cadmium detected in the edible portion of the fish were low and well within the standard values of 0.20 and 0.05 mg/kg wet weight respectively, set by the EU. There are no internationally agreed standards or guidelines available for the remaining trace metals and chlorinated hydrocarbons in fishery products. Therefore results are compared with the strictest standard or guidance value for fish tissue, which are applied by contracting parties to the OSPAR Convention. The levels of these additional contaminants are well below the strictest values listed.
    • Trace Metal and Chlorinated Hydrocarbon Concentrations in Various Fish Species Landed at Selected Irish Ports, 2002

      Tyrrell, L; Twomey, M; Glynn, D; McHugh, B; Joyce, E; Costello, J; McGovern, E (Marine Institute, 2004)
      The Marine Institute sample a range of finfish species landed at major Irish ports on an annual basis, in accordance with the monitoring requirements of various European legislation designed to ensure food safety. During 2002, a total of 38 samples from 20 different species of finfish were collected from five major Irish fishing ports and analysed for total mercury concentration in the edible tissue (Common names and species names are listed in Appendix 3). The concentration of mercury ranged from less than the limit of quantitation (0.03 mg/kg wet weight) to 0.46 mg/kg wet weight with a mean and median of 0.09 and 0.06 mg/kg respectively. These levels are within the maximum limit of 0.50 mg/kg wet weight for mercury in fishery products set by the EU (1 mg/kg for selected species). This survey confirms previous studies, which show that Irish seafood is effectively free from mercury contamination. Selected samples were also analysed for other trace metals and chlorinated hydrocarbons. Overall, the levels of lead and cadmium detected in the edible portion of the fish were low and well within the standard values of 0.20 and 0.05 mg/kg wet weight respectively, set by the EU. There are no internationally agreed standards or guidelines available for the remaining trace metals and chlorinated hydrocarbons in fishery products. Therefore results are compared with the strictest standards or guidance values for fish tissue, which are applied by contracting parties to the OSPAR Convention. The levels of these additional contaminants are well below the strictest values listed.
    • Trace Metal Concentrations in Shellfish from Irish Waters, 2003

      Boyle, B; Tyrrell, L; McHugh, B; Joyce, E; Costello, J; Glynn, D; McGovern, E (Marine Institute, 2006)
      In accordance with the monitoring requirements of Council Directive 79/923/EEC, on the quality required of shellfish waters, and Council Directive 91/492/EEC, laying down the health conditions for the production and placing on the market of live bivalve molluscs, water samples from major shellfish growing areas were tested for physicochemical parameters and shellfish were tested for trace metal levels. In 2003, a total of 30 samples were analysed for trace metals. All mercury concentrations measured were below or close to the limit of quantification, 0.03 mg/kg wet weight, which is well within the European maximum level of 0.50 mg/kg wet weight for mercury in bivalve molluscs. Levels of lead were typically low, with a mean of 0.26 mg/kg wet weight and maxima of 1.04 mg/kg wet weight, also below the respective European maximum level of 1.50 mg/kg wet weight. In addition, levels of cadmium were all below the European maximum level of 1 mg/kg wet weight, though the level of cadmium determined at Castlegregory in Tralee Bay was 0.97 mg/kg, close to the European limit. Castlegregory has not been included in the sampling programme since 1994, but will be included in future monitoring. There are no internationally agreed standards or guidelines available for the remaining trace metals in shellfish. A compilation by the OSPAR Commission of standard and guidance values applied by member states of OSPAR indicated the Spanish standard for copper in shellfish of 20 mg/kg wet weight to be the strictest available. This excludes oysters for which a higher standard of 60 mg/kg wet weight has been set, as oysters accumulate copper to higher levels. All copper results were within these Spanish standards. The results obtained provide evidence of the clean, unpolluted nature of Irish shellfish and shellfish producing waters. As in previous years, the water quality from shellfish growing areas was good and conformed to the requirements of the Directive. Petroleum hydrocarbons were not visible in any of the shellfish waters or as deposits on the shellfish. This survey confirms previous studies (Glynn et al., 2004, 2003a, 2003b; McGovern et al., 2001; Bloxham et al., 1998; Smyth et al., 1997 and Nixon et al., 1995, 1994, and 1991), which show that contamination from trace metals is low in Irish shellfish aquaculture.
    • Trace Metal Concentrations in Various Fish Species Landed at Selected Irish Ports, 2003

      Tyrrell, L; McHugh, B; Glynn, D; Twomey, M; Joyce, E; Costello, J; McGovern, E (Marine Institute, 2005)
      The Marine Institute sample a range of finfish species landed at major Irish ports on an annual basis, in accordance with the monitoring requirements of various European legislation designed to ensure food safety. During 2003, a total of 45 samples from 22 different species of finfish were collected from five major Irish fishing ports and analysed for total mercury concentration in the edible tissue. The concentration of mercury ranged from less than the limit of quantitation (0.03 mg/kg wet weight) to 0.60 mg/kg wet weight with a mean and median of 0.08 and 0.06 mg/kg respectively. The maximum level was found in a dogfish sample (species tentatively identified as Lesser Spotted Dogfish) from Howth. It is most likely that the fish from which this sample was taken were destined for whelk bait and as such there are no human health implications. The remainder of the mercury levels were within the maximum limit of 0.50 mg/kg wet weight for mercury in fishery products set by the EU (1 mg/kg for selected species). This survey confirms previous studies, which show that Irish seafoods are effectively free from mercury contamination. A total of 20 samples were analysed for lead and cadmium. Overall, the levels of lead and cadmium detected in the edible portion of the fish were low and well within the standard values of 0.20 and 0.05 mg/kg wet weight respectively set by the EU. Randomly selected samples were also analysed for other trace metals. There are no internationally agreed standards or guidelines available for the remaining trace metals in fishery products. Therefore results are compared with the strictest standard or guidance value for fish tissue, which are applied by contracting countries to the OSPAR Convention. The levels of these additional contaminants are well below the strictest values listed.
    • Tralee Bay Oyster Investigations (1965-1968)

      Duggan, C (Department of Agriculture and Fisheries (Fisheries Division), 1969)
      Investigations by the Department of Agriculture and Fisheries into the Tralee Bay oyster beds first commenced in a small way in 1965. Since then, especially during the summer of 1968, a more intensive programme has been carried out involving the collection of spat (oyster young) and plankton samples, the study of currents and temperatures in relation to spat-fall (settlement) and, finally, test trials on various types of spat collectors.
    • Transatlantic ocean climate sections (Rockall Trough and Iceland Basin): Cruise CE14008

      Marine Institute (Marine Institute, 2015)
      Cruise objectives: • Collect CTD profile data along the standard offshore sections to include: o Nutrient sampling o Salinity samples o DIC, DOC and TA samples • Collect grab samples at Eudoras Bank for Plymouth Marine Laboratory • Grapple for upper section of M6 mooring at Porcupine Bank • Collect phytoplankton samples at select locations along the extended section. • Collect multi-beam bathy data in the vicinity of Inishturk and Inishboffin.