• Survey Report: Biological Sampling Survey 22 February – 2 March 2008 North-west of Ireland

      Gerritsen, H.D. (Marine Institute, 2009)
      The Biological Sampling Survey took place from 22 February to 2 March in the area to the north-west of Ireland on the Celtic Voyager. Information on growth, maturity and sex ratio (biological data) were collected in order to address the requirements of the Data Collection Regulation 1581/2004.
    • Survey Report: Herring Recruit and Biological Sampling Survey 22 February – 2 March 2009 South-west and south of Ireland

      Gerritsen, H.D. (Marine Institute, 2010)
      The Herring Recruit and Biological Sampling Survey took place from 22 February to 2 March in the area to the south-west and south of Ireland on the Celtic Voyager. The survey was aimed at developing a recruit index for herring. Additionally information on growth, maturity and sex ratio (biological data) were collected in order to address the requirements of the Data Collection Regulation 1581/2004.
    • Surveys for Herring Larvae Off the Northwest and West Coasts of Ireland in 1981

      Grainger, R; McArdle, E (Department of Fisheries and Forestry (Trade and Information Section), 1982)
      This Leaflet describes the methods used in sampling and gives the results of the 1981 survey in a series of maps showing the distribution of the young larvae. Sampling took place at fortnightly intervals and recorded the numbers of larvae in three size groups. The area of operation extended from Lough Foyle to Galway Bay. This region has been chosen because it is believed to include the entire spawning stock of a new assessment area for the herring. The survey has shown that spawning moves progressively southwards during the season in October and November and that there are three main spawning areas: north of Fanad Head, west of Aranmore and between Erris Head and Inishbofin. When the survey has been in progress for a few years it will be possible to make an improved annual assessment of the herring stock in the region which can be used by management to ensure that the fishery is exploited to the fullest extent without risk of damage to the stocks in the future.
    • Surveys for herring larvae off the northwest and west coasts of Ireland in 1982 and 1983

      Grainger, R; McArdle, E (Department of Fisheries and Forestry (Trade and Information Section), 1984)
      This Leaflet describes the methods used in sampling and gives the results of the 1982 and 1983 surveys in a series of maps showing the distribution of the young larvae. Sampling took place at fortnightly intervals and recorded the numbers of larvae in three size groups. The area of operation extended from Inishowen Head to Loop Head and thus includes the entire new assessment area for this herring stock. It was first surveyed for herring larvae in 1981 (see Fisheries Leaflet 117). As in1981, these surveys showed spawning to move progressively southwards during the season in October and November. There are three main spawning areas: the north Donegal coast, the west coast of Donegal and the west coast of Mayo. Larval abundance was over 10% higher in 1983 than in 1982. When the survey has been in progress for a few more years it will be possible to make an improved annual assessment of the herring stock in the region. This can be used by management to ensure that the fishery is exploited to the fullest extent without risk of damage to the stocks in the future.
    • Survival and growth of juvenile freshwater mussels (Unionidae) in a recirculating aquaculture system

      O'Beirn, F.X.; Neves, R.J.; Steg, M.B. (American Malacological Union, 1998)
      An indoor recirculating aquaculture system was constructed to provide suitable conditions to culture juvenile freshwater mussels. In the first of three growth trials, Villosa iris (I. Lea, 1829) juveniles were cultured for 22 wk, and grew from an initial mean length of 0.4 mm to 2.7 mm. Survival was 26.8% overall. In the second trial, growth and survival were compared between juveniles of V. iris held in sediment and without sediment. The initial mean length of both groups was 2.7 mm, and this experiment ran for 17 wk. The juvenile mussels in sediment grew to a mean length of 5.7 mm with 85% survival, significantly greater (p < 0.01) than juveniles held without sediment (4.5 mm, 74% survival). In the third trial, two cohorts of juvenile Lampsilis fasciola Rafinesque, 1815, increased in length from I.I mm and 1.4 mm to 3.3 mm and 4.1 mm, respectively, with comparable survival (78.7% versus 64.5%). Results of these trials demonstrate that juvenile mussels can be reared successfully within recirculating systems. One of the factors deemed important in successful culture is continuous feeding of an appropriate food source. In this study, a unialgal culture of Neochloris oleabundans Chantanachat and Bold, 1962, was used throughout. Regular cleaning of the system and water replacement also was important. Finally, the culture of juveniles in sediment appears to be an important factor in ensuring good growth and survival. This phenomenon could be related to pedal feeding behavior, proper orientation of the mussels for filtering efficiency, or stability from physical disturbance.
    • Suspended solid yield from forest harvesting on upland blanket peat

      Rodgers, Michael; O'Connor, Mark; Robinson, Mark; Muller, Markus; Poole, Russell; Xiao, Liwen (Wiley Online Library, 2011)
      Forest harvesting activities, if not carefully carried out, can disturb the forest soils and can cause significant suspended solid concentration increases in receiving water. This study examined how harvesting, following forestry guidelines, influenced suspended solid concentrations and loads in the receiving water of a blanket peat salmonid catchment. The study site comprised of two forest coupes of 34-year-old conifers drained by a first-order stream. The upper coupe was not felled and acted as a baseline ‘control’ catchment; the downstream coupe was completely harvested in summer 2005 and served as the ‘experimental’ catchment. Good management practices such as the proper use of brash mats and harvesting only in dry weather were implemented to minimize soil surface disturbance and streambank erosion. Stream flow and suspended solid measurements at an upstream station (US) and a downstream station (DS) in the study stream commenced over a year before felling took place. The suspended solid concentrations, yields and release patterns at US and DS were compared before and after harvesting. These showed that post-guideline harvesting of upland blanket peat forest did not significantly increase the suspended solid concentrations in the receiving water and the aquatic zone need not be adversely affected by soil releases from sites without a buffer strip.
    • Technical Report: Review and Simulate Climate and Catchment Responses at Burrishoole (RESCALE)

      Fealy, R.; Allott, N.; Broderick, C.; de Eyto, E.; Dillane, M.; Erdil, R.M.; Jennings, E.; Hancox, L.; McCrann, K.; Murphy, C.; et al. (Marine Institute, 2014)
      This report demonstrates that the projected changes in the climate conditions of the Burrishoole catchment, if realised, will have wide ranging implications for all aspects of the catchment system, including water temperature and quality, stream flow hydrology, soil processes, and most notably the well-being of its aquatic environment. While the projected changes in climate and their implications, outlined in this report, are specific to the Burrishoole, they are illustrative of likely changes in similar characteristic catchments along the west coast of Ireland.
    • Temperature and Oxygen Determinations in some Irish Lakes

      Fitzmaurice, P. (Department of Agriculture and Fisheries [Fisheries Division], 1971)
      Information about temperature and dissolved oxygen profiles in Irish lakes has hitherto been lacking. During the period 1966 to 1969 data on temperature and dissolved oxygen content at various depths were determined for a number of Irish lakes. The results are summarised in this paper.
    • Temperature quenching of CDOM fluorescence sensors: temporal and spatial variability in the temperature response and a recommended temperature correction equation

      Ryder, Elizabeth; Jennings, Eleanor; DeEyto, Elvira; Dillane, Mary; NicAonghusa, Caitriona; Pierson, Donald C.; Moore, Karen; Rouen, Martin; Poole, Russell (ASLO, 2012)
      Field-based instruments measuring chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) fluorescence are often used as a proxy for dissolved organic carbon concentrations in lakes and streams. CDOM fluorescence yield is, however, affected by water temperature at the time of measurement, a factor which varies on both diel and seasonal timescales. A temperature correction must therefore be applied to these data. We present data on temporal and site-specific variability in temperature quenching of CDOM fluorescence for water from a humic lake and one of its main inflows in the west of Ireland. In addition, we present a temperature compensation equation and show that this equation is an improvement on methods previously proposed.
    • Temporal and Spatial Distribution of Ostrea edulis Larvae in Kilkieran Bay, Co. Galway

      Wilson, J H (Department of the Marine, 1987)
      Concentrations and size distributions of Ostrea edulis L larvae were recorded in Kilkieran Bay, Co. Galway, Ireland, during 1984 and 1985. Larvae were most abundant during July and August in both years. Large larvae ≥ 250 µm were homogeneously distributed through the vertical water column. Higher percentages of smaller larvae ≤ 250 µm were recorded at stations near the mouth of the bay than at stations on or near the beds. Variations in tidal amplitude and low salinities caused displacement of larvae from the beds. There were no significant losses of larvae from the inner bay.
    • A test battery approach to the ecotoxicological evaluation of cadmium and copper employing a battery of marine bioassays

      Macken, A; Giltrap, M; Ryall, K; Foley, B; McGovern, E; McHugh, B; Davoren, M (Springer, 2009)
      Heavy metals are ubiquitous contaminants of the marine environment and can accumulate and persist in sediments. The toxicity of metal contaminants in sediments to organisms is dependent on the bioavailability of the metals in both the water and sediment phases and the sensitivity of the organism to the metal exposure. This study investigated the effects of two metal contaminants of concern (CdCl2 and CuCl2) on a battery of marine bioassays employed for sediment assessment. Cadmium, a known carcinogen and widespread marine pollutant, was found to be the least toxic of the two assayed metals in all in vivo tests. However CdCl2 was found to be more toxic to the fish cell lines PLHC-1 and RTG-2 than CuCl2. Tisbe battagliai was the most sensitive species to both metals and the Microtox® and cell lines were the least sensitive (cadmium was found to be three orders of magnitude less toxic to Vibrio fischeri than to T. battagliai). The sensitivity of Tetraselmis suecica to the two metals varied greatly. Marine microalgae are among the organisms that can tolerate higher levels of cadmium. This hypothesis is demonstrated in this study where it was not possible to derive an EC50 value for CdCl2 and the marine prasinophyte, T. suecica. Conversely, CuCl2 was observed to be highly toxic to the marine alga, EC50 of 1.19 mg l-1. The genotoxic effect of Cu on the marine phytoplankton was evaluated using the Comet assay. Copper concentrations ranging from 0.25 to 2.50 mg l-1 were used to evaluate the effects. DNA damage was measured as percent number of comets and normal cells. There was no significant DNA damage observed at any concentration of CuCl2 tested and no correlation with growth inhibition and genetic damage was found.
    • Testes and brain gene expression in precocious male and adult maturing Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

      Guiry, A; Flynn, D; Hubert, S; O'Keeffe, A; LeProvost, O; White, S L; Forde, P F; Davoren, P; Houeix, B; Smith, T J; et al. (Biomed Central, 2010)
      Background: The male Atlantic salmon generally matures in fresh water upon returning after one or several years at sea. Some fast-growing male parr develop an alternative life strategy where they sexually mature before migrating to the oceans. These so called ‘precocious’ parr or ‘sneakers’ can successfully fertilise adult female eggs and so perpetuate their line. We have used a custom-built cDNA microarray to investigate gene expression changes occurring in the salmon gonad and brain associated with precocious maturation. The microarray has been populated with genes selected specifically for involvement in sexual maturation (precocious and adult) and in the parr-smolt transformation. Results: Immature and mature parr collected from a hatchery-reared stock in January were significantly different in weight, length and condition factor. Changes in brain expression were small - never more than 2-fold on the microarray, and down-regulation of genes was much more pronounced than up-regulation. Significantly changing genes included isotocin, vasotocin, cathepsin D, anamorsin and apolipoprotein E. Much greater changes in expression were seen in the testes. Among those genes in the testis with the most significant changes in expression were anti-Mullerian hormone, collagen 1A, and zinc finger protein (Zic1), which were down-regulated inprecocity and apolipoproteins E and C-1, lipoprotein lipase and anti-leukoproteinase precursor which were upregulated in precocity. Expression changes of several genes were confirmed in individual fish by quantitative PCR and several genes (anti-Mullerian hormone, collagen 1A, beta-globin and guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein) beta polypeptide 2-like 1 (GNB2L1) were also examined in adult maturing testes. Down-regulation of anti-Mullerian hormone was judged to be greater than 160-fold for precocious males and greater than 230-fold for November adult testes in comparison to July testes by this method. For anti-Mullerian hormone and guanine nucleotide binding protein beta polypeptide 2-like 1 expression changes in precocious males mirrored mature adults (November) but for collagen 1A and beta-globin the pattern was more complex. Conclusions: Expression changes in the fish brain during the process of precocious sexual maturation were small compared to those in the testes. Microarray analysis suggested down-regulation of housekeeping functions and up-regulation of a small number of specific processes. Transcriptional changes in the testes were much more pronounced with anti-Mullerian hormone playing a major role. Expression profiles for mature parr and maturing adult testes indicate subtle differences in gene expression between these two related groups.
    • Tools for Appropriate Assessment of Fishing and Aquaculture Activities in Marine and Coastal Natura 2000 Sites. Report I: Intertidal and Subtidal Muds.

      ABPmer (ABP Marine Environmental Research Ltd, 2013)
      Ireland has many coastal and marine habitats and species that are of national and international conservation importance. The value of these has been recognised by the designation of a number of Special Areas of Conservation and Special Protected Areas through the EU Habitats Directive (92/43/EEC) and EU Birds Directive (2009/147/EC). Together these sites form part of the European network of Natura 2000 sites. This report and accompanying annexes is part of a series of documents that present a risk assessment tool developed by ABPmer to assess the effects of fishing and aquaculture activities on the Annex I habitats and Annex II species present in Natura 2000 sites. The tool is designed to support the preparation of screening statements and Appropriate Assessments. Specifically this report presents the project deliverables for the assessment of intertidal and subtidal mud habitats and describes the potential use of the risk assessment tool.
    • Tools for Appropriate Assessment of Fishing and Aquaculture Activities in Marine and Coastal Natura 2000 Sites. Report II: Intertidal and Subtidal Sands

      ABPmer (ABP Marine Environmental Research Ltd, 2013)
      Ireland has many coastal and marine habitats and species that are of national and international conservation importance. The value of these has been recognised by the designation of a number of Special Areas of Conservation and Special Protected Areas through the EU Habitats Directive (92/43/EEC) and EU Birds Directive (2009/147/EC). Together these sites form part of the European network of Natura 2000 sites.This report and accompanying annexes is part of a series of documents that present a risk assessment tool developed by ABPmer to assess the effects of fishing and aquaculture activities on the Annex I habitats and Annex II species present in Natura 2000 sites. The tool is designed to support the preparation of screening statements and Appropriate Assessments. Specifically this report presents the project deliverables for the assessment of intertidal and subtidal sand habitats and describes the potential use of the risk assessment tool.
    • Tools for Appropriate Assessment of Fishing and Aquaculture Activities in Marine and Coastal Natura 2000 Sites. Report III: Intertidal and Subtidal Muddy Sands and Sandy Muds

      ABPmer (ABP Marine Environmental Research Ltd, 2013)
      Ireland has many coastal and marine habitats and species that are of national and international conservation importance. The value of these has been recognised by the designation of a number of Special Areas of Conservation and Special Protected Areas through the EU Habitats Directive (92/43/EEC) and EU Birds Directive (2009/147/EC). Together these sites form part of the European network of Natura 2000 sites. This report and accompanying annexes is part of a series of documents that present a risk assessment tool developed by ABPmer to assess the effects of fishing and aquaculture activities on the Annex I habitats and Annex II species present in Natura 2000 sites. The tool is designed to support the preparation of screening statements and Appropriate Assessments. Specifically this report presents the project deliverables for the assessment of vegetation dominated communities (Saltmarsh and seagrass) and describes the potential use of the risk assessment tool.
    • Tools for Appropriate Assessment of Fishing and Aquaculture Activities in Marine and Coastal Natura 2000 Sites. Report IV: Intertidal and Subtidal Mixed Sediments

      ABPmer (ABP Marine Environmental Research Ltd, 2013)
      Ireland has many coastal and marine habitats and species that are of national and international conservation importance. The value of these has been recognised by the designation of a number of Special Areas of Conservation and Special Protected Areas through the EU Habitats Directive (92/43/EEC) and EU Birds Directive (2009/147/EC). Together these sites form part of the European network of Natura 2000 sites. This report and accompanying annexes is part of a series of documents that present a risk assessment tool developed by ABPmer to assess the effects of fishing and aquaculture activities on the Annex I habitats and Annex II species present in Natura 2000 sites. The tool is designed to support the preparation of screening statements and Appropriate Assessments. Specifically this report presents the project deliverables for the assessment of intertidal and subtidal mixed sediments habitats and describes the potential use of the risk assessment tool.
    • Tools for Appropriate Assessment of Fishing and Aquaculture Activities in Marine and Coastal Natura 2000 Sites. Report V: Intertidal and Subtidal Coarse Sediments

      ABPmer (ABP Marine Environmental Research Ltd, 2013)
      Ireland has many coastal and marine habitats and species that are of national and international conservation importance. The value of these has been recognised by the designation of a number of Special Areas of Conservation and Special Protected Areas through the EU Habitats Directive (92/43/EEC) and EU Birds Directive (2009/147/EC). Together these sites form part of the European network of Natura 2000 sites. This report and accompanying annexes is part of a series of documents that present a risk assessment tool developed by ABPmer to assess the effects of fishing and aquaculture activities on the Annex I habitats and Annex II species present in Natura 2000 sites. The tool is designed to support the preparation of screening statements and Appropriate Assessments. Specifically this report presents the project deliverables for the assessment of coarse sediments and describes the potential use of the risk assessment tool.
    • Tools for Appropriate Assessment of Fishing and Aquaculture Activities in Marine and Coastal Natura 2000 Sites. Report VI: Biogenic Reefs (Sabellaria, Native Oyster, Maerl).

      ABPmer (ABP Marine Environmental Research Ltd, 2013)
      Ireland has many coastal and marine habitats and species that are of national and international conservation importance. The value of these has been recognised by the designation of a number of Special Areas of Conservation and Special Protected Areas through the EU Habitats Directive (92/43/EEC) and EU Birds Directive (2009/147/EC). Together these sites form part of the European network of Natura 2000 sites. This report and accompanying annexes is part of a series of documents that present a risk assessment tool developed by ABPmer to assess the effects of fishing and aquaculture activities on the Annex I habitats and Annex II species present in Natura 2000 sites. The tool is designed to support the preparation of screening statements and Appropriate Assessments. Specifically this report presents the project deliverables for the assessment of Biogenic Reefs (Sabellaria, Native Oyster, Maerl)and describes the potential use of the risk assessment tool.
    • Tools for Appropriate Assessment of Fishing and Aquaculture Activities in Marine and Coastal Natura 2000 Sites. Report VII: Intertidal and Subtidal Reefs.

      ABPmer (ABP Marine Environmental Research Ltd, 2013)
      Ireland has many coastal and marine habitats and species that are of national and international conservation importance. The value of these has been recognised by the designation of a number of Special Areas of Conservation and Special Protected Areas through the EU Habitats Directive (92/43/EEC) and EU Birds Directive (2009/147/EC). Together these sites form part of the European network of Natura 2000 sites. This report and accompanying annexes is part of a series of documents that present a risk assessment tool developed by ABPmer to assess the effects of fishing and aquaculture activities on the Annex I habitats and Annex II species present in Natura 2000 sites. The tool is designed to support the preparation of screening statements and Appropriate Assessments. Specifically this report presents the project deliverables for the assessment of littoral and sublittoral reefs and associated biological assemblages and describes the potential use of the risk assessment tool.
    • Tools for Appropriate Assessment of Fishing and Aquaculture Activities in Marine and Coastal Natura 2000 Sites. Report VIII: Vegetation Dominated Communities (Saltmarsh and Seagrass).

      ABPmer (ABP Marine Environmental Research Ltd, 2013)
      Ireland has many coastal and marine habitats and species that are of national and international conservation importance. The value of these has been recognised by the designation of a number of Special Areas of Conservation and Special Protected Areas through the EU Habitats Directive (92/43/EEC) and EU Birds Directive (2009/147/EC). Together these sites form part of the European network of Natura 2000 sites. This report and accompanying annexes is part of a series of documents that present a risk assessment tool developed by ABPmer to assess the effects of fishing and aquaculture activities on the Annex I habitats and Annex II species present in Natura 2000 sites. The tool is designed to support the preparation of screening statements and Appropriate Assessments. Specifically this report presents the project deliverables for the assessment of vegetation dominated communities (saltmarsh and seagrass)and describes the potential use of the risk assessment tool.