• A Review and Catalogue of the Amphipoda (Crustacea) in Ireland

      Costello, M J; Holmes, J M C; McGrath, D; Myers, A A (Department of the Marine, 1989)
      The distribution and source of published and unpublished records of 307 marine, freshwater, terrestrial and subterranean amphipod species in Ireland are documented. A historical account of studies on amphipods in Ireland, including the researchers, frequency of publications, localities and habitats surveyed, and sampling methods, is presented. The occurrence of introduced species, commensalism, and parasitism is noted. The amphipod fauna recorded from Galway Bay, Kilkieran Bay, the Clare Island Survey, Belfast Lough, Strangford Lough, Dublin Bay, Carnsore Point, Cork Harbour, Kinsale Harbour, Lough Hyne and Valentia is discussed. The Irish and British lists are compared. Differences with the British list are largely explicable in terms of the latitudinal range of a species. The balance consists of rare, introduced, recently described, and unconfirmed records.
    • Review and Evaluation of Marine Environmental Impact Indicators and their Application in Ireland

      Boelens, R.; Gray, J.; Parsons, A. (Marine Institute, 2004)
      This report, the first of its kind commissioned in Ireland, explains why national administrations responsible for marine environmental protection, and those who monitor the sea and its resources, need to consider carefully the choice of marine environmental indicators. This is because our understanding of the health of the oceans comes almost entirely from monitoring patterns and trends in particular marine features, according to the indicators selected. It is therefore evident that indicators are also important instruments of marine policy formulation and review.
    • Review of phytoplankton monitoring 2005

      Moran, S.; Silke, J.; Salas, R.; Chamberlain, T.; Lyons, J.; Flannery, J.; Thornton, V.; Clarke, D.; Devilly, L. (Marine Institute, 2006)
      A national phytoplankton monitoring programme, has been in operation in Ireland since 1986, and fulfils requirements of the EU Council Directive 91/492/EEC. This programme provides an important part of the baseline data in the overall integrated shellfish monitoring programme. The analysis of samples received on a regular basis from a site can provide very important information in assembling a population profile for the area. This helps in crucial decisions, for example in Management Cell Decisions - conducted by representatives from the industry, MI, FSAI and DCMNR - when borderline toxin results are present. Phytoplankton monitoring is also hugely important in the Water Framework Directive, which all EU countries must follow, in developing an index of water quality in Ireland and Europe. The Irish Monitoring programme also gives valuable public health information to County Councils, Environmental Health Officer’s and the public during times of bloom events. This paper provides an overview of phytoplankton sampling, analysis and reporting in 2005. The occurrence of potentially toxic and harmful phytoplankton found in Irish coastal and shelf waters in 2005 is also reviewed and the quality scheme in operation is described.
    • Review of phytoplankton monitoring 2006

      Moran, S.; Silke, J.; Salas, R.; Chamberlain, T.; Lyons, J.; Shannon, S. (Marine Institute, 2007)
      This paper provides an overview of phytoplankton sampling, analysis and reporting in 2006. The occurrence of potentially toxic and harmful phytoplankton found in Irish coastal and shelf waters in 2006 is compared with the previous year. The succession of phytoplankton blooms in Bantry is described and environmental data that may explain the onset of toxic species is described.
    • Review of phytoplankton monitoring programme and research activities

      Salas, R.; Chamberlain, T.; Lyons, J.; Hynes, P.; Silke, J. (Marine Institute, 2008)
      This paper provides a review of the activities of the Phytoplankton Unit in the Marine Institute as part of the National Monitoring Programme for 2007 and compares the findings with those recorded during 2005 and 2006., It also presents an overview of the research activities carried out by the phytoplankton team during the year with a focus on culturing phytoplankton and the introduction of real time PCR techniques for phytoplankton identification.
    • Review of Port Financial Accounts: Review of Irish Semi-State Port Companies Financial Accounts

      Murphy, G. (Research & Editorial); Curtin, F. (Research & Editorial); Spray, M. (Research & Editorial); Richardson, B.(Research & Editorial) (Irish Maritime Development Office, 2012)
      The focus of this analysis is to extrapolate key data from the annual company financial reports in order to provide a comparative review of the ports. The nine semi state port companies reviewed are all under the auspices of the Minister for Transport, Tourism and Sport. The key findings of the report highlight that after a combined growth of 3% in turnover in 2010, the nine commercial ports recorded a fall in turnover of 3% in 2011 with turnover falling to €120m. The cost of sales remained relatively unchanged at €46.9 million. Despite the downturn last year, five of the ports managed to return profits which contributed to a total operating profit for the industry of €33 million, almost identical to 2010, with four ports recording operating losses totalling €353,640. Dublin Port generated 57% of the total share of turnover, up 3% from 2011, while it was responsible for contributing 83% of the total operating profits from the nine ports last year. Dublin and Cork, contributed a dividend to the State in the financial accounts for 2011 of 16.5million and €634,315 respectively. Galway has also announced their intention to pay a dividend in their 2012 accounts. The latest analysis carried out by the IMDO also suggests that the majority of ports continued to reduce their costs during 2011. Labour costs fell by 8% last year, largely as a result of further reductions in the number of port employees from 429 to 389, which included a reduction of 11 employees as a result of the rationalisation of Dundalk Port Company. The total port labour force has now reduced by 26% since 2007. Eight of the nine companies recorded lower total labour operating costs in 2011. The average return on capital employed (ROCE) increased to 2.44% last year. However only three of the nine ports provided a ROCE higher than the average, with Dublin Port highest at just over 10%. The IMDO believes that trading conditions at Irish ports will remain challenging for the financial year 2012 with no anticipated prospects for overall growth in the principal cargo segments. The openness of the Irish economy will mean that any near to medium term recovery in traffic growth through Irish ports is likely to be dependent on a wider recovery occurring in the European and Global economy. Our forecast is that overall turnover and profits for the Irish ports will fall this year. However we still expect that the larger commercial ports will remain profitable while smaller regional ports are less likely to achieve breakeven levels this year. The review, assumptions and opinions expressed within this report are exclusively those of the IMDO.
    • A review of potential techniques to reduce the environmental impact of demersal trawls

      Linnane, A.; Ball, B.; Munday, B.; Van Marlen, B.; Bergman, M.; Fonteyne, R. (Marine Institute, 2007)
      Concern over the possible effects of trawls on the seabed has existed almost as long as the fishing method itself, with early concerns being voiced by fishermen themselves as far back as the 14th century. With the advance in technological developments of trawling gears (i.e. weight and size), particularly over the latter part of this century, the increase in the number of fishing vessels, engine power etc., these concerns are increasingly gaining international public and political importance. This review is divided into two sections. Section 1 gives an overview of the physical and biological effects of bottom trawling and section 2 gives an overview of potential gear modifications.
    • Review of sea lice monitoring and seatrout/sealice database

      Poole, R; O'Maoileidigh, N; Jackson, D; Gargan, P; Keatinge, M (2001)
      In February 1998, the Minister of State at the Department of the Marine requested that the Marine Institute, the Central Fisheries Board and the Salmon Research Agency review the effectiveness of the national sea trout research and monitoring programmes. It was agreed to review the scientific database, methodologies and data collection/ collation, identify steps to address any unidentified deficiencies in the programme techniques, and re-run data analysis in light of the previously commissioned independent reports and any subsequent responses from the various agencies involved in data collection. A thorough re-examination of the sea lice sampling programme, including changes and improvements made since 1997, for sea trout was carried out and suggestions for improvements in this programme were made. A comprehensive examination of the sea lice/sea trout was carried out in light of the independent reports which identified discrepancies in the original data.
    • A Review of the Dunmore East Herring Fishery (1962-1968)

      Molloy, J (Department of Agriculture and Fisheries (Fisheries Division), 1969)
      The winter herring fishery off the south coast of Ireland, based on what is commonly called the Dunmore stock, has been studied in detail by earlier workers and particularly by Bracken and Burd (1965). In their paper, they reviewed the fishery up to 1963 and arrived at conclusions regarding the economic yield of the fishery. They stated that, “ with the major spawning grounds (where the intense fishery takes place) situated within Irish exclusive fishery limits, there is considerable scope for the control of effort in such a way that, for the first time, a herring stock might be rationally exploited”. Since 1963, certain changes have taken place in respect of the stocks themselves and the fishing to which they are subjected. The purpose of this paper is to bring these changes to light and to compare the state of the fishery during the seasons 1962/63 to 1967/68 with that during the period of Braken’s and Burd’s observations.
    • A Review of the Irish Lobster Fishery

      Gibson, F A (Department of Agriculture and Fisheries (Fisheries Division), 1969)
      Records of the actual numbers of lobsters caught in Irish waters prior to 1887, are difficult to obtain. However, during the last thirteen years of the 19th century, the fishery had assumed such importance as to be included with the other major ones of the period i.e. salmon, herring, mackerel and cod. In 1891, the Inspector of Irish Fisheries, W.S. Green, commented that "the lobster fishery had reached such proportions as to deserve separate reporting". The help of the Coast Guard officers was sought for the task of compiling catch statistics, with the result that, from 1892 until the outbreak of the 1914-18 war, excellent records of the catch in the fishery are available. Since then the system of statistics collection has changed and now both catch and effort in the lobster fishery are assessed. This paper deals mainly with the period 1900 to 1967.
    • Review of the Irish Salmon Industry

      Went, A. E. J. (Department of Agriculture and Fisheries [Fisheries Division], 1965)
      For centuries the salmon has been an important item of commerce in Ireland and in many parts of the country today it is still very important in the general economy of the people, who gain a living directly or indirectly from it. It is important from two points of view. It provides sport for the angler and it supports a commercial fishery. There are three other articles in this issue: II. SALMON OF THE RIVER SHANNON (1957 to 1962) - Eileen Twomey; III. THE EFFECTS OF ARTERIAL DRAINAGE WORKS ON THE SALMON STOCK OF A TRIBUTORY OF THE RIVER MOY - E.D. Toner, Ann O’Riordan & Eileen Twomey; IV. RECAPTURES OF IRISH TAGGED SALMON OFF GREENLAND - A.E.J. Went.
    • A review of the national sea trout catch

      Fahy, E (Department of Fisheries and Forestry, 1981)
      Statistical coverage of the sea trout catch is not so comprehensive as for salmon but a number of recent studies, providing information on aspects of the national or regional catches, are available for comparison with official catch statistics. The proportion of the official catch attributed to drift nets in the post 1968 period is thought to have been overstated. Draft nets account for a large proportion of the catch, averaging 29% in the 1970s but rod and line take the largest share of the fish, varying between an average of 47% in the 1940s to 66% of the national catch in the 1960s. Estimated catch has risen with the number of rod licences and two phases in these statistics have been noted: prior to 1959 and thereafter. On the other hand both official figures for the mean weight of catch per licence issued in the Connemara district and the catch per rod day recorded by fishery managers there have declined since 1927. Analysis of the national catch on the basis of licence returns in 1980 indicates that 8 tonnes of sea trout were taken by draft, 0.25 tonnes by drift nets and less than 51 tonnes by rod and line.
    • Review of the phytoplankton monitoring programme and research activities in 2008

      Salas, R.; Lyons, J.; Hynes, P.; Chamberlain, T.; Silke, J. (Marine Institute, 2009)
      The National Monitoring programme for phytoplankton is a well established programme and this was shown through the improvement and refinement of Phytoplankton shellfish and finfish sites around the country. One important development in the last 2 years has been to increase the number of sentinel sites. A sentinel site is a designated sampling site where a total community Phytoplankton cell count and identification is carried out. The number of sentinel sites has increased from 11 in 2005 to 24 in 2008. This means a better coverage of all the bays around the country. The number of phytoplankton samples analysed in 2008 has seen an increase from the previous year.
    • Review of the Potential Mechanisation of Kelp Harvesting in Ireland

      Werner, A; Kraan, S (Marine Institute, 2004)
      A diverse seaweed industry has developed in Ireland over the past few decades. The seaweed industry today comprises several sectors, such as biopolymers, agriculture/horticulture, cosmetics, thalassotherapy and human consumption, with the former two sectors being of most economic importance. Approximately sixteen seaweed species are commercially utilised, three of which are of particular commercial importance. These are the calcified red algae, referred to as maërl, which mainly comprises of two species (Phymatolithon calcareum and Lithothamnion corallioides) and are exploited by a single company for agricultural, horticultural, food and cosmetic applications. The other bulk species is the brown alga Ascophyllum nodosum, which is used for alginate extraction and agriculture/horticulture applications. The latter species sustains an industry, which is an important factor in contributing to the maintenance of coastal communities especially in rural areas of the west coast, particularly in the Gaeltacht of Connemara (Guiry 1997, National Seaweed Forum, 2000). Mechanical harvesting of seaweeds in Ireland is limited to the exploitation of maërl. At present, one company has a licence to harvest calcified algae in the south-west of Ireland (Bantry Bay) with 8,000 - 10,000 wet tonnes of maërl being extracted from the seabed annually in recent years. The supply of raw material for the Ascophyllum-processing industry as well as for the other industrial sectors relies on harvesters who harvest the seaweed by hand. Although hand-harvesting provides a source of employment in rural areas along the west coast, the age profile is increasing and the numbers of harvesters are declining due to insufficient recruitment of younger harvesters (National Seaweed Forum 2000; Kelly et al. 2001). With growing demands for seaweeds, it is uncertain whether hand-harvesting will provide sufficient raw material in the long-term. The National Seaweed Forum has evaluated the current state of the Irish Seaweed Industry. The forum was launched by the Minister for Marine and Natural Resources in 1999 and consists of 19 members from state agencies, third-level institutions and industry. In the final report (National Seaweed Forum, 2000) it was stated that the natural sustainable seaweed resources in Ireland are under-utilised and the industrial potential, including high-value applications, has not been fully realised. The National Seaweed Forum identified two key areas as being crucial to the development of the Irish seaweed industry: 1) Seaweed aquaculture was assumed to provide the most cost-effective method to meet growing market demand with high-quality seaweed for specific sectors such as human consumption, cosmetics and biotechnology. Additionally, a seaweed aquaculture industry is expected to create attractive and high-skilled jobs, especially in peripheral communities in coastal areas. This is based on the fact that seaweeds of interest to high quality applications are often not bulk species, which are easy to harvest in large amounts. Therefore, with cultivation you strongly increase volume/area, which facilitates harvesting and also standardises quality. Cultivation of a bulk species such as kelp is economically not feasible in Europe. 2) The development and introduction of harvesting machinery suitable for Irish conditions was thought to have a significant impact on the expansion of a viable Irish seaweed industry. As a measure to ensure long-term continuity of raw-material supply of bulk species (e.g. A. nodosum, Laminaria species) the investigation of mechanical harvesting techniques with emphasis on sustainability and environmental impact were prioritised as an R&D area (National Seaweed Forum, 2000). An initial comprehensive study of hand and mechanical harvesting of Ascophyllum nodosum, including an environmental impact assessment, was conducted in the late 1990s (Kelly et al., 2001). In this study, a device similar to the Norwegian Ascophyllum cutter (a flat-bottomed boat fitted with a Vaughan vertical wet-well chopper pump) was used. When hand and mechanical harvesting were compared, there was no significant difference in environmental impact caused by the two methods, but mechanical harvesting was found to be less effective and more expensive than hand harvesting. At present, kelp species in Ireland such as L. digitata, L. saccharina and Alaria esculenta, are harvested by hand but only in small amounts. This means that the natural sustainable resources of kelps of Irish shores are under-utilised. Due to the economic importance of L. digitata and L. hyperborea for alginate extraction and the growing demand for kelp by the phycocolloid and other industries, the introduction of mechanical harvesting is currently being considered for Ireland. Mechanised harvesting enables the harvester to remove large amounts of biomass from an area in a relatively short time. It is therefore essential to develop a suitable management scheme to ensure sustainable exploitation of natural resources and continuous integrity of marine habitats. The objective of the present study is to provide an extensive literature review on kelp research, harvesting and resource management as essential background knowledge for the development of an appropriate management strategy for Ireland. The report addresses the following topics: • Biology of kelps • Biodiversity of kelp forests and ecological significance of kelps • Commercial kelp harvesting in France and Norway (methods, management and environmental impact) • Investigations of kelp in Ireland (Growth rates, biomass, biodiversity of kelp beds, regeneration potential, kelp resources) • Legal framework for seaweed harvesting in Ireland • Conclusions and recommendations
    • Rickettsiosis

      Marine Institute (Marine Institute, 2011)
      This leaflet gives information on rickettsiosis. This disease is caused by a gram-negative, obligate intracellular bacterium, Piscirickettsia salmonis.

      Ryder, L; DeEyto, E; Gormally, M; Sheehy Skeffington, M; Dillane, M; Poole, R (The Royal Irish Academy, 2011)
      Plantation forests were established on western Irish peatlands before it became apparent that riparian buffer zones were essential for the health of important salmonid habitats and aquatic ecosystems. The option to retrofit a riparian buffer zone several years before the clearfelling of the main plantation may lessen the possible effect of the clearfelling on receiving waters and provide some protection against sediment and nutrient runoff. The option to create a riparian buffer zone can only be considered if it can be shown that clearfelling this zone of coniferous forestry along the stream does not pose a significant risk to the water bodies in the short term. To assess this risk, the hydrology, water chemistry and biota at three locations in western peatland catchments within mature, harvestable-age forestry plantations were studied before, during and immediately after riparian buffer zones were created. Results indicate that water discharge and suspended sediment increased significantly at two experimental sites post-felling. Maximum and minimum daily temperature and pH also increased significantly at two of the sites. The biological results from macroinvertebrate analysis indicated some significant changes in richness and abundance of species post-felling. The juvenile trout (Salmo trutta L.) densities remained stable over the sampling period and appeared unaffected by the clearfelling operations.
    • The rise and fall of autumn-spawning herring (Clupea harengus L.) in the Celtic Sea between 1959 and 2009: Temporal trends in spawning component diversity

      Harma, Clémentine; Brophy, Deirdre; Minto, Cóilín; Clarke, Maurice (Elsevier, 2012)
      Sub-stock components of highly exploited migratory fish species exhibit different life-history traits and can thus show variation in productivity and vulnerability to fishing pressure. Celtic Sea herring comprises both autumn and winter-spawners that are targeted by the same fishery. The current study investigated if the relative abundances of the two components in the Celtic Sea have changed over time, and whether this could explain marked long-term trends in size-at-age. The study utilized a remarkably long time-series of biological data from commercial landings (1959–2009). Based on the maturity state of the gonads at the time of sampling, herring were assigned to seasonal spawning components. Significant temporal variations in spawning component dominance were found, even after potential bias due to fishing history patterns were accounted for. Strong directional changes in the relative proportion of spawning components consisted of autumn spawning herring proportions reaching a peak in the 1990s before drastically declining. Winter spawning herring had lower mean lengths- and weights-at-age than autumn spawning herring. The recent decline in the autumn spawning component did not fully explain the observed decline in size-at-age in the catches, with both spawning components showing similar decreases in mean-size parameters over time. Response of spawning components to environmental changes may have consequences for the fishery, especially in light of the observed influence of temperature on spawning components. Life-cycle diversity in herring stocks may confer resilience to potential climate-induced changes. Therefore, it is suggested that the relative proportions of spawning components should be monitored and diversity should be preserved as part of the management of fisheries for this species, which is characterized by stock complexity.
    • Risk factors associated with increased mortality of farmed Pacific oysters in Ireland during 2011

      Clegg, T.A.; Morrissey, T.; Geoghegan, F.; Martin, S.W.; Lyons, K.; Ashe, S.; More, S.J. (Elsevier, 2014)
      The Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, plays a significant role in the aquaculture industry in Ireland. Episodes of increased mortality in C. gigas have been described in many countries, and in Ireland since 2008. The cause of mortality events in C. gigas spat and larvae is suspected to be multifactorial, with ostreid herpesvirus 1 (OsHV-1, in particular OsHV-1 μvar) considered a necessary, but not sufficient, cause. The objectives of the current study were to describe mortality events that occurred in C. gigas in Ireland during the summer of 2011 and to identify any associated environmental, husbandry and oyster endogenous factors. A prospective cohort study was conducted during 2010–2012, involving 80 study batches, located at 24 sites within 17 bays. All 17 bays had previously tested positive for OsHV-1 μvar. All study farmers were initially surveyed to gather relevant data on each study batch, which was then tracked from placement in the bay to first grading. The outcome of interest was cumulative batch-level mortality (%). Environmental data at high and low mortality sites were compared, and a risk factor analysis, using a multiple linear regression mixed effects model, was conducted. Cumulative batch mortality ranged from 2% to 100% (median = 16%, interquartile range: 10–34%). The final multivariable risk factor model indicated that batches imported from French hatcheries had significantly lower mortalities than non-French hatcheries; sites which tested negative for OsHV-1 μvar during the study had significantly lower mortalities than sites which tested positive and mortalities increased with temperature until a peak was reached. There were several differences between the seed stocks from French and non-French hatcheries, including prior OsHV-1 μvar exposure and ploidy. A range of risk factors relating to farm management were also considered, but were not found significant. The relative importance of prior OsHV-1 μvar infection and ploidy will become clearer with ongoing selection towards OsHV-1 μvar resistant oysters. Work is currently underway in Ireland to investigate these factors further, by tracking seed from various hatchery sources which were put to sea in 2012 under similar husbandry and environmental conditions.
    • The rocky shore biology of Bantry Bay: a re-survey

      Baker, J M; Hiscock, S; Hiscock, K; Levell, D; Bishop, G; Precious, M; Collinson, R; Kingsbury, R; O'Sullivan, A J (Department of Fisheries and Forestry, 1981)
      A survey of the distribution and abundance of intertidal rocky shore animals and plants of Bantry Bay was carried out in 1970 and 1971 by G. B. Crapp and published in 1973. A re-survey was carried out during 1975 and early 1976 and a number of changes were noted. In an attempt to explain these the possible effects of changing weather conditions, the occurrence of oil spillages and the use of dispersants were examined. In most cases, the changes were not obviously attributable to visible oil pollution and seem more likely to result from a variety of natural factors. The re-survey highlighted a number of problems associated with this type of biological monitoring. The problems are discussed and some alternative approaches suggested.
    • Roe Yield of Irish Herring

      Barnwall, E (Department of the Marine, 1989-08)
      This Leaflet provides the detailed information on the spawning condition of herring required to develop the trade in the roe fishery. It is based on the laboratory examination of two thousand individual specimens supplied by the Industry.