• The preparation of certified calibration solutions for azaspiracid-1, -2, and -3, potent marine biotoxins found in shellfish

      Perez, R; Rehmann, N; Crain, S; LeBlanc, P; Craft, C; MacKinnon, S; Reeves, K; Burton, I W; Walter, J A; Hess, P; et al. (Springer Verlag, 2010)
      The production and certification of a series of azaspiracid (AZA) calibration solution reference materials is described. Azaspiracids were isolated from contaminated mussels, purified by preparative liquid chromatography and dried under vacuum to the anhydrous form. Purity was assessed by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Final concentration of each AZA in a CD3OH stock solution was determined accurately by quantitative NMR spectroscopy. This solution was then diluted very accurately in degassed, high purity methanol to a concentration of 1.47 ± 0.08 μmol/L for AZA1, 1.52 ± 0.05 μmol/L for AZA2, and 1.37 ± 0.13 μmol/L for AZA3. Aliquots were dispensed into argon-filled glass ampoules, which were immediately flame-sealed. The calibration solutions are suitable for method development, method validation, calibration of liquid chromatography or mass spectrometry instrumentation and quality control of shellfish monitoring programs.
    • Prevalence of Perkinsus marinus in the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica in relation to tidal placement in a Georgia tidal creek

      O'Beirn, F.X.; Dean, C.C.; Walker, R.L. (Marine Environmental Sciences Consortium of Alabama, 1994)
      This experiment was designed to evaluate the effects tidal zonation and bottom placement of the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, have on the prevalence and intensity of the oyster parasite, Perkinsus marinus a suspected causative agent for subtidal oyster mortalities experienced in the coastal waters of Georgia. Twelve growout bags (1 m x 0.5 m; 12.7 mm mesh), each containing 200 oysters, were placed in Jointer Creek, Georgia In March 1992. Bags (3 replicates each) were placed lntertidally and subtidally on the creek bottom and offbottom. Ten oysters per bag were removed monthly for twelve months beginning March 1992, and were inspected for prevalence and intensity of Perkinsus marinus, using the thioglycollate method. Oyster mortality and shell length data were also evaluated. Neither prevalence (p = 0.3505) nor intensity levels (p = 0.2993) of Perkinsus marinus in oysters were significantly different among the treatments. Although there were no significant differences In prevalence or intensity of the pathogen among treatments, the intertidal offbottom treatment had the lowest values most frequently. Perkinsus marinus was present in all replicates every month. Prevalence and intensity of infection followed the typically observed pattern of maximum values in summer and fall and minimum levels in winter. Subtidal bottom oysters experienced higher mortalities (p = 0.0022), but the prevalence and intensity of Perklnsus marinus in oysters were not significantly different between treatments. It appears therefore, that the oyster parasite, Perkinsus marinus is not the discerning factor in the higher mortalities witnessed in oysters placed subtidally on the bottom in the southeastern U.S. coastal waters.
    • Prey preferences of sympatric fin (Balaenoptera physalus) and humpback (Megaptera novaeangliae) whales revealed by stable isotope mixing models

      Ryan, C; Berrow, S; McHugh, B; O'Donnell, C; Trueman, C; O'Connor, I (Wiley, 2014-01)
      Over-exploitation of top predators and fish stocks has altered ecosystems towards less productive systems with fewer trophic levels. In the Celtic Sea (CS), discards and bycatch levels have prompted concern about some fisheries, while fin and humpback whales are recovering from centuries of over-exploitation. A lack of empirical evidence on the preferred diet of some predators such as whales in the CS has hindered the implementation of effective conservation measures using an ecosystem-based approach to fisheries management. Using a Bayesian framework (SIAR), stable carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotope mixing models were used to assign proportionate diet solutions to fin and humpback whales (skin biopsies) and putative prey items: herring (Clupea harengus), sprat (Sprattus sprattus), and krill (Meganyctiphanes norvegica and Nyctiphanes couchii) in the CS. Krill was the single most important prey item in the diet of fin whales, but one of the least important for humpback whales (albeit based on a small sample of humpback whale samples). Age 0 sprat and herring comprised a large proportion of the diet of both species, followed by older sprat (age 1–2) and older herring (age 2–4). An ecosystem based approach to fisheries management will be required in the CS if we seek effective conservation of both fin and humpback whales, and sustainable fisheries.
    • Proceedings of the 11th Shellfish Safety Workshop

      Clarke, D.; Gilmartin, M. (Marine Institute, 2020)
      The interest in the biotoxin and micro shellfish safety monitoring programme and research activities from members of the industry and other agencies is vital to ensure that the scientists and regulators are mutually aware of relevant current and emerging issues .
    • Proceedings of the 2nd Annual Beaufort Marine Biodiscovery Research Workshop

      Nardello, I. (Marine Institute, 2010)
      This publication presents the background and aims of the 2nd Annual Marine Biodiscovery Workshop 2009. Presentations relating to progress achieved in the marine biodiscovery research area through the Irish Beaufort Marine Biodiscovery Research Awards have been captured in extended abstracts.
    • Proceedings of the 2nd IWDG International Whale Conference. Muc Mhara Ireland's Smallest Whale

      Berrow, S D (ed); Deegan, B (ed) (Irish Whale and Dolphin Group, 2010)
      Muc Mhara – Ireland’s smallest whale. Proceedings of the 2nd Irish Whale and Dolphin Group International Whale Conference. Papers presented include, “Introduction: The harbour porpoise or Muc Mhara”, “An Irish name for the humble harbour porpoise”, “Life in the Fast Lane: Ecology and Behaviour of harbour porpoises in the Gulf of Maine”, “The ecology of harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) in Irish waters: what strandings programmes tell us.”, “Passive acoustic monitoring of the harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) in Irish waters”, “Abundance estimates of harbour porpoises in Irish waters”, “Satellite tracking of harbour porpoises in European Waters”, “Satellite tracking of harbour porpoises in European Waters”, “A cost of green energy: Are offshore renewables: a threat to porpoises?”, “Harbour porpoise populations and protection in an EU context”, “Assessment of Acoustic Deterrent Devices ‘Pingers’ and porpoise by catch rates in Irish Gillnet Fisheries in the Celtic Sea” and “Harbour porpoise Conservation in the Republic of Ireland”.
    • Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Molluscan Shellfish Safety

      Marine Institute (Marine Institute, 2006)
      The aim of the global series of ICMSS Conferences has been well defined by our colleagues in Santiago de Compostela (Spain) who hosted the previous Conference in June 2002: “To establish a forum where useful, enriching debate and interchange of knowledge flow easily on a broad spectrum in the area of Shellfish Safety”. The ICMSS 04 Programme followed on the tradition and patterns which were set in Santiago de Compostela (2002); Southampton, New York, USA (2000) and in The Philippines (1998) of thematic sessions on a multi-disciplinary basis. Our session topics included: • Microbiological Status of Shellfish • Shellfish Viruses and Pathogens • Harmful Algal Blooms (HAB) and Biotoxin Contamination • HAB Mitigation and Depuration • Toxicology of Shellfish Toxins • Current and Emerging Analytical Methods • Quality Assurance and Consumer Safety • Regulation and Management of Shellfish Safety • Role of Industry in Risk Management and Innovation
    • Proceedings of the 5th Irish Shellfish Safety Workshop, Rosscarbery, October 28th 2004

      Marine Institute (Marine Institute, 2005)
      This document outlines the proceedings of the 5th Irish Shellfish Safety Scientific Workshop. This event was organised by the Marine Institute, the Food Safety Authority of Ireland and Bord Iascaigh Mhara to discuss the methods and advances of food safety with respect to shellfish health.
    • Proceedings of the 6th Irish Shellfish Safety Scientific Workshop

      Marine Institute (Marine Institute, 2006)
      This document outlines the proceedings of the 6th Irish Shellfish Safety Scientific Workshop. This event was organised by the Marine Institute, the Food Safety Authority of Ireland and Bord Iascaigh Mhara to discuss the methods and advances of food safety with respect to shellfish health.
    • Proceedings of the 7th Irish Shellfish Safety Workshop

      Marine Institute (Marine Institute, 2007)
      This document outlines the proceedings of the 7th Irish Shellfish Safety Scientific Workshop. This event was organised by the Marine Institute, the Food Safety Authority of Ireland and Bord Iascaigh Mhara to discuss the methods and advances of food safety with respect to shellfish health.
    • Proceedings of the 8th Irish Shellfish Safety Workshop

      McMahon, T.; Deegan, B.; Silke, J.; Ó Cinneide, M. (Marine Institute, 2008)
      This document outlines the proceedings of the 8th Irish Shellfish Safety Scientific Workshop. This event was organised by the Marine Institute, the Food Safety Authority of Ireland and Bord Iascaigh Mhara to discuss the methods and advances of food safety with respect to shellfish health.
    • Proceedings of the 9th Irish Shellfish Safety Scientific Workshop

      Gilmartin, M.; Silke, J. (Marine Institute, 2009)
      The 9th Irish Shellfish Safety Workshop was held on the 20th March, 2009, in Kenmare, County Kerry. The Workshop was co-sponsored by the Marine Institute, Bord Iascaigh Mhara, the Food Safety Authority of Ireland, and the Sea Fisheries Protection Authority, with support from IFA Aquaculture. The topics addressed at the workshop included an update on the National Biotoxin monitoring programme, and a number of research projects with Irish participation and international perspectives on toxin detection. Finding mechanisms to improve our product was a common theme with presentations on improving food safety, increasing productivity, providing easily applied test methods, and research in support of the shellfish industry. The focus of the three Workshop sessions was on a review of the year, research and legislation.
    • Proceedings of the Fourth Irish Marine Biotoxin Science Workshop

      Marine Institute; Bord Iascaigh Mhara; Irish Shellfish Association; Food Safety Authority of Ireland (Marine Institute, 2003)
      The workshop is part of the Marine Institute’s role as the National Reference Laboratory for Marine Biotoxins in Ireland. This workshop is an annual event, where scientists, regulators and shellfish farmers meet to review developments in the monitoring and research of Biotoxins in Ireland and internationally. Our specific objectives for the 2003 Workshop are: (1) Review the Irish Biotoxin Monitoring system and to assess the trends in toxicity during 2003; (2) Summarise current Irish research work in Harmful Algal Blooms and Phytoplankton; (3) Focus on research work in Killary Harbour under the BOHAB project; (4) Take stock of developments and provide a forum for debate/feedback.
    • Proceedings of the Second Irish Marine Biotoxin Science Workshop

      Marine Institute; Bord Iascaigh Mhara (Marine Institute, 2001)
      The Marine Institute’s objectives for Irish Biotoxin programme are to support the continued development of the Irish Shellfish Industry and to promote food safety, by building the best Biotoxin Management System in the Northern Hemisphere. The Marine Science Biotoxin Workshops are part of Marine Institute’s role as the National Reference Laboratory. The EU mandate for Reference Labs emphasises the need for dissemination of information. The objectives of the Marine Science Biotoxin Workshop are: (1) Take Stock of developments since last Workshop, April 2000; (2) Review Irish Monitoring System & Trends; (3) Summarise current Irish Research in HAE/Phytoplankton; (4) Compare with International Best Practice in New Zealand and USA; (5) Provide a Forum for Debate/Feedback
    • Proceedings of the Third Annual Conference of the European Association of Fisheries Economists, Dublin, Ireland, 10-12 April 1991

      Hillis, J P (ed) (Department of the Marine, 1994)
      The European Association of Fisheries Economists (EAFE) was founded following a meeting of interested European fisheries economists at Esbjerg in August 1988. Its first Annual Conference was a modest one held at Brussels in January 1990, while the second was held at Lisbon in March 1990. At Lisbon, the Bureau accepted an invitation to meet in Dublin in the spring of 1991, so the Third Annual Conference of EAFE was duly held in Dublin, at the Headquarters of the Geological Survey of Ireland, during the 10th to 12th April, 1991. Three themes were selected for the Conference, (1) The Single European Market, (2) Capacity, and (3) Coastal Management. In the event, the second theme attracted the most interest, reflecting the widespread preoccupation with overfishing and the problems inherent in trying to rectify it; papers accepted included two in Section 1, thirteen in Section 2 and five in Section 3, although one (No. 16), originally submitted in Section 3, was by reason of the nature of its contents finally transferred to Section 2.
    • Proceedings of the Third Irish Marine Biotoxin Science Workshop

      Marine Institute; Bord Iascaigh Mhara; Food Safety Authority of Ireland (Marine Institute, 2002)
      The workshop is part of the Marine Institute’s role as the National Reference Laboratory for Marine Biotoxins in Ireland. This initiative was started in 2000 and was modelled on the Marine Science Biotoxin workshops, which have taken place in New Zealand since 1994. This workshop is an annual event, where scientists, regulators and shellfish farmers meet to review developments in the monitoring and research of Biotoxins in Ireland and internationally. The Institute’s roles are to Monitor/Research/Advise/Communicate. These are inextricably linked. It is essential to carry out targeted research in order to answer the questions which are generated by the monitoring. Objectives of the 2002 workshop: 1. To review the Irish Biotoxin Monitoring programme in 2002; 2. To summarise current and proposed new Irish research in the areas of Biotoxins and Harmful Algal Events (HAE’s); 3. To provide an International view on Biotoxins issues, with invited speakers from France, Norway and the UK; 4. To provide a forum for debate and communications.
    • Production and Isolation of Azaspiracid-1 and -2 from Azadinium spinosum Culture in Pilot Scale Photobioreactors

      Jauffrais, Thierry; Kilcoyne, Jane; Séchet, Véronique; Herrenknecht, Christine; Truquet, Philippe; Hervé, Fabienne; Bérard, Jean Baptiste; Nulty, Cíara; Taylor, Sarah; Tillmann, Urban; et al. (MPDI Publishing, 2012)
      Azaspiracid (AZA) poisoning has been reported following consumption of contaminated shellfish, and is of human health concern. Hence, it is important to have sustainable amounts of the causative toxins available for toxicological studies and for instrument calibration in monitoring programs, without having to rely on natural toxin events. Continuous pilot scale culturing was carried out to evaluate the feasibility of AZA production using Azadinium spinosum cultures. Algae were harvested using tangential flow filtration or continuous centrifugation. AZAs were extracted using solid phase extraction (SPE) procedures, and subsequently purified. When coupling two stirred photobioreactors in series, cell concentrations reached 190,000 and 210,000 cell•mL−1 at steady state in bioreactors 1 and 2, respectively. The AZA cell quota decreased as the dilution rate increased from 0.15 to 0.3 day−1, with optimum toxin production at 0.25 day−1. After optimization, SPE procedures allowed for the recovery of 79 ± 9% of AZAs. The preparative isolation procedure previously developed for shellfish was optimized for algal extracts, such that only four steps were necessary to obtain purified AZA1 and -2. A purification efficiency of more than 70% was achieved, and isolation from 1200 L of culture yielded 9.3 mg of AZA1 and 2.2 mg of AZA2 of >95% purity. This work demonstrated the feasibility of sustainably producing AZA1 and -2 from A. spinosum cultures.
    • A Profile of Boating Activity on the Irish Sea

      McDowell, N; Shields, Y (Marine Institute, 1998)
      This report is based on the results of a survey undertaken to profile the extent and nature of boating tourism on the Irish Sea between the East Coast of Ireland and the West Coast of Wales. From the data collected it is possible to draw conclusions about the type of action that will help to promote the future boating tourism potential of the Irish Sea.
    • Profile of the Caragh, County Kerry: A Salmonid Producing Catchment

      Fahy, E (Department of Tourism, Fisheries and Forestry, 1987)
      From the mid 1960s competition for Atlantic salmon intensified with the expansion of high seas fisheries in the marine sub-Arctic and drift-netting closer to home. Inshore commercial fishermen and freshwater anglers saw progressively more of the salmon stock being landed outside its river of origin which prompted some to seek an alternative game species. Sea trout, which have traditionally been a by-catch of the commercial salmon fishery and which game fishermen valued, were considered and various clubs and individuals (fishery owners and managers) addressed queries to the Department responsible for fisheries on the possibility of developing a sea trout run to supplement a declining salmon population. The majority of queries examined by this writer concerned the introduction of sea trout to parts of river systems outside their normal range. A review of sea trout distribution (Fahy, 1977) described their migratory limit inland and contained adequate information to assess the suitability of the majority of fresh water bodies for the fish. The Caragh (Glencar) catchment was more intriguing. There are now in existence many investigations on the inter-relationships of salmonid species in fresh water and on their interactions with their environment but there are few specific references to the suitability of catchments for particular species. This investigation examines a case in point.
    • Prospects for the development of the Irish eel fishery

      Moriarty, C (Department of Fisheries and Forestry (Trade and Information Section), 1981)
      It is considered that the lakes and rivers of Ireland (Republic) could be managed to achieve a production of 1,500 tonnes of eel a year. The value of this catch would be £3 million for fresh fish. A fishery with this yield could form a basis for a processing industry and enhanced value. Experience indicates that the current catch, of not more than 150 tonnes per year, does not provide a sufficiently regular supply of fresh eels to maintain a processing operation and consequently the eels are sold only to wholesalers. The poor catch results from inadequate stocks rather than from inefficient methods of capture. This leaflet gives a description of the eel fishery and its progress in recent years and explains how the stocks can be increased for the future. The special attraction of the proposal is that it offers a means of making a tenfold increase in the yield of one of the most highly priced species of fish without posing any threat to the ultimate survival of the species. The method to be used is the transfer to good feeding grounds of elvers which would otherwise die within months of arrival on our coasts.