• The palaeolimnology of Lough Murree, a brackish lake in the Burren, Ireland.

      Cassina, Filippo; Dalton, Catherine; De Eyto, Elvira; Sparber, Karin (The Royal Irish Academy, 2013)
      Lough Murree, a rock/karst barrier lagoon, is superficially isolated from the sea and seasonal variations in lake water level reflect precipitation and groundwater variation. Lake salinity is influenced by subsurface saline intrusions, occasional barrier overwash together with precipitation and groundwater inflow, leading to poikilohaline conditions. Palaeolimnological reconstructions in Murree support the supposition that the lagoon was once superficially connected to the sea around the mid-nineteenth century. Physical, chemical and biological proxies suggest an evolution to more freshwater conditions. Uncertainties about the timing of the transition persist because of an unresolved sediment chronology. The isolation of Murree from the Atlantic Ocean has promoted the formation of dense charophyte beds composed of lagoonal specialist species, which are able to tolerate large variations in salinity.
    • Pancreas Disease

      Marine Institute (Marine Institute, 2011)
      This leaflet gives information on pancreas disease. This disease is caused by a single stranded RNA virus of the family Togaviridae, genus Alphavirus known as the salmonid alphavirus.
    • Pancreas Disease in Farmed Salmon - Health Management and Investigations at Irish Farm Sites 2005-2008

      Graham, D; Rodger, H; Ruane, N. M. (Marine Institute, 2008)
      This publication constitutes the final report for the research project ST/05/01 “Site investigations and disease management of the pancreas disease virus in Irish farmed salmon”, funded under the NDP Marine RTDI Programme. Work undertaken within the project included longitudinal studies of rainbow trout and Atlantic salmon at sea following the course of infection, testing for vectors and reservoirs of the virus, molecular studies of the virus and an epidemiological investigation of pancreas disease in Ireland. Results have shown that although pancreas disease is endemic in marine farmed Atlantic salmon, no evidence of infection in rainbow trout farmed at sea was found. Serological and molecular based diagnostic methods were shown to be suitable for the screening of fish stocks for the presence of the virus. For the confirmation of clinical outbreaks, farm data and histopathological results should be included. The results also suggest that horizontal transmission of the virus may be the main route of infection between sites. The project also involved the technology transfer of molecular and serological diagnostic methods for pancreas disease between partners and the final chapter includes practical information on management of, and mitigation against, pancreas disease. Pathologies such as pancreas disease, heart and skeletal muscle inflammation and cardiomyopathy syndrome, pose a serious threat to salmonid farming in Ireland, Scotland and Norway. Most significant among this group of diseases is pancreas disease, a viral disease affecting Atlantic salmon during the marine stage of the production cycle. From the first description of pancreas disease in farmed Atlantic salmon from Scotland in 1976 the disease has now become endemic in Ireland and parts of Norway and continues to be significant in Scotland. The causal agent of pancreas disease, a salmonid alphavirus, has now been characterised and a closely related subtype of the virus is known to cause sleeping disease in farmed rainbow trout on continental Europe and in the United Kingdom. The Irish salmon farming industry has estimated that pancreas disease has resulted in a total loss of turnover of €35 million with €12 million loss of profit in the years 2003-2004. The economic impacts are estimated to be in the range of €100 million per year in Norway. In Scotland, pancreas disease and related pathologies are increasingly responsible for significant losses in marine salmon farms but these have yet to be quantified.
    • Papers Presented to the 7th Session of the EIFAC Working Party on Eel

      Moriarty, C. (ed) (Department of Agriculture and Fisheries [Fisheries Division], 1992)
      The Seventh Session of the Working Party on Eel of the European Inland Fisheries Advisory Commission was held in the Royal Hospital, Killmainham, Dublin. A list of the peer-reviewed papers and abstracts of other presentations to the session are given below. -- I M Domingos: Fluctuation of glass eel migration in the Mondego estuary (Portugal) in 1988 and 1989. -- Daniel Guerault, Raymonde Lecomte-Finiger, Yves Desaunay, Sylvie Biagianti-Risbourg, Pierre Beillois and Patrick Grellier: Glass eel arrivals in the Vilaine estuary (Northern Bay of Biscay) in 1990: Demographic features and early life history. -- Jan G P Klein Breteler: Effect of provenance and density on growth and survival of glass eels Anguilla anguilla (L.) in mesocosm experiments. -- R. Lecomte-Finiger, S. Biagianti-Risbourg, Y. Desaunay, D. Guerault, B. Fourcault, S. Planes and A. Yahyaoui: Age at recruitment of A. anguilla glass-eels on the eastern Atlantic coast as inferred from otolith growth increments. -- P McGovern and T K McCarthy: Elver migration in the River Corrib system, western Ireland. -- Christopher Moriarty: Catches of Anguilla anguilla (L.) elver on the Atlantic coast of Europe 1989-1990. -- Maria Assuncao Santos and Michael Weber: Growth studies on monthly captured glass eels from the Rio Minho in two recirculation systems. -- Raymonde Lecomte-Finiger: Age and birth date of elvers collected in Moorea (French Polynesia) (poster). -- Lotti Ben Abdallah: Influence of some abiotic factors on the abundances of glass eel Anguilla anguilla (L.) in the estuary of the River Loire, France (abstract). -- C. Belpaire, H Van Driessche, F Y Gao and F Ollevier: Food and feeding activity of glass eel Anguilla anguilla (L.) stocked in earthen ponds. -- Maria Bninska and Marian Leopold: The effect of eel on fish stock composition in lakes- preliminary results. -- Rose M Callaghan and T Kieran McCarthy: Variations in population structure and growth rate of eels in the Dunkellin river system, western Ireland. -- J L Costa, P R Almeida, C Assis, F Moreira and M J Costa: A study of methods of estimating the size of eel populations in small streams. -- Christopher Moriarty: Management of the Corrib eel fishery, Ireland. -- I A Naismith and B Kights: The distribution, density and growth of the European eel Anguilla anguilla (L.) in the River Thames catchment. -- W Russell Poole, Julian D Reynolds and Christopher Moriarty: Age and growth of eel Anguilla anguilla (L.) in oligotrophic streams. -- R H Hadderingh, J W van der Stoep and J M P M Habraken: Deflecting eels from water inlets of power stations with light. -- K Holmgren, H Wickstrom and K Fredga: Growth of eel in a meoscale experiment. -- Aline Caillou, Christian Francisco, Raymonde Lecomte-Finiger and Jean-Marie Salmon: Lipofuscin used as an age indicator in the European eel Anguilla anguilla (L.). Comparison between lipopigment, fluorimetric measurements and otolithometric data (poster). -- Peer Doering, Jiirgen Ludwig and Gerhard Gmel: Prelimary results of otolith amalysis with eels of known age (abstract). -- Antoine Legault: A study of some selectivity factors in eel ladders (abstract). -- F - W Tesch: Insignificance of tidal currents for silver eel migration as studied by eel trac.kings and current measurements. -- F - W Tesch and U Niermann: Stock density of eel larvae Anguilla anguilla (L.) on the European continental slope, based on collections made between 1985 and 1989. -- Takakazu Ozawa, Futoshi Kakizoe, Osame Tabeta, Takashi Maeda and Yasutaka Yuwaki: Larval growth and drift of the Japanese eel Anguilla japonica estimated from leptocephali collections (abstract). -- W-N Tzeng and Y-C Tsai: Otolith microstructural growth patterns and daily age of the eel Anguilla japonica elvers from the estuaries of Taiwan (abstract). -- S Appelbaum and V Birkan: The effect of grading on the growth and distribution pattern in young eels Anguilla anguilla (L.) reared in recirculating systems. -- Inge Boiitius, Karl Otto Wahlstrom and Curt Gelin: Experimentally induced sexual maturity in farmed European eel Anguilla anguilla (L.). -- G. Golombo and G. Grandi: Further experiments in the effects of sex steroids on the gonad sex differentiation of European eel. -- Soeren Hendriksen: Production of eel in recirculation systems in Denmark 1985-1991. -- M Saroglia, C lando Ii, lingle and G Angle: Recent developments in eel farming in Italy. -- Reiner Knosche: An effective biofilter system for eel culture in closed recirculating systems. -- Hao-Ren Lin, Mei-Li Zhang, Lianxi Chen, Glen Van Der Kraak and R E Peter: Effects of sex steroids on gonadotropin synthesis and secretion as well as ovarian development in female Japanese silver eel Anguilla japonica (abstract). -- J Hoglund, J Andersson, H. Wickstrom and M Reizenstein: The distribution of Anguillicola in Sweden and its association with thermal discharge areas. -- J Bosnakovski, K Necev, K Apostolski and M Hristovski: Appearance of eel diseases in Ohrid Lake. Inge Boetius: Development of Anguillicola infestations in some Danish lakes and inlets (abstract).
    • Parasitology of Irish Mussels

      Crowley, M (Department of Agriculture and Fisheries (Fisheries Division), 1975)
      Investigations of the distribution of three parasites of mussels, an internal copepod parasite of the gut (Mytiliocola intestinalis), an external decapod parasite in the gill region (Pinnotheres pissum) and an annelid shell parasite (Pylodora ciliata) were carried out from September 1974 to May 1975. Samples from 28 locations around the Irish coast were investigated. One hundred mussels from each sample were weighed, measured in 5 mm groups, boiled and the following parameters were determined as percentages of the whole mussel:- a. Shell: b. Meat; c. "Loss"
    • The Parasitology of Irish Mussels

      Crowley, M (Department of Agriculture and Fisheries (Fisheries Division), 1972)
      Investigations of the distribution of three parasites of mussels, an internal copepod parasite of the gut (Mytilicola intestinalis), an external decapod parasite in the gill region (Pinnotheres pissum) and an analid shell parasite (Polydora ciliata) were carried out from October 1971 to April 1972. Samples from 26 locations around the Irish coast were investigated. One hundred mussels from each sample were weighed, measured in 5 mm groups, boiled and the following were estimated as percentages of the whole mussel:- a. Shell; b. Meat; and c. Loss.
    • Passive Sampling for Quality Monitoring of Irish Marine Waters

      White, Philip (Dublin Institute of Technology, 2014)
      This study details the steps involved in fabrication, deployment and retrieval of mainly polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS) passive sampling devices deployed in a number of locations in and around Ireland in an attempt to derive dissolved water concentrations of contaminants in-situ. PDMS samplers were initially deployed in the Burrishoole catchment, Co. Mayo in conjunction with the collection of biological tissues and sediment to investigate the source of elevated dioxins in the catchment. Passive samplers were used to generate dissolved water concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and also to successfully screen for the presence of dioxins in the water column. The dioxin profile present was also found in sediment and biological tissue and through statistical profiling potential sources were identified as being possibly related to the use of technical pentachlorophenol in the catchment though no direct evidence was found. Passive samplers (PDMS and SPMD) were then deployed at various depths on the M6 weather buoy, 400 miles off the West Coast of Ireland, in conjunction with temperature and salinity monitors to test how the technology would fare over a long period deployment (585 days) in a harsh, dynamic environment. The PDMS samplers were almost completly lost where the SPMDs last better (80 % recovered). Dissolved water concentrations estimated using both sampler types were found to be very low (<ppb) with polyaromatic hydrocarbons found in higher levels than polychlorinated biphenlys, and organochlorine compounds. The use of statistical analysis suggests that passive samplers can also be used to differentiate different water masses by investigating contaminant loadings at each depth sampled. Finally passive samplers were deployed in various inshore and inland waters across Ireland with the results indicating that the remote West of Ireland had the lowest levels of dissolved water concentrations estimated. Many estuaries and inland water bodies had levels of contaminants higher than the west of Ireland with the heavily industrialised Cork and Dublin sites having the highest levels estimated. The separation of sites based on concentrations found indicated that assessment criteria could be generated in an Irish context (IRef) which could be used to classify a site in relation to ‘background’ levels found in the West of Ireland and at M6. The results generated during this study were then assessed based on various legislative requirements and assessment criteria such as the Water Framework Directive (WFD) and the Oslo Paris convention (OSPAR). Results from the WFD assessment indicate that concentrations found at all sites were below the EQS values set down. However this EQS value is based on total water concentration hence the EQS was modified to a dissolved water concentration basis. This reduced the total water EQS values by up to 80 % for some analytes however in most locations the dissolved water concentrations found were at or below this dissolved water EQS value indicating that the levels of contaminants from across Ireland are below the EQS values generated as part of the WFD. Assessments were also made on the concentrations found across Ireland using background assessment criteria (BAC) suggested by OSPAR. The results indicate that the levels across Ireland are above the BAC for most compounds with the M6 weather buoy faring better. Concentrations from “pristine” Irish sites were then chosen to generate reference criteria on an Irish basis (IRef) which were found to be below the concentration levels suggested as part of the BAC assessment criteria in the majority of locations.
    • PE : 5th and 6th Class- Playing Games – Seashore Animal Relay Game. Testing what we know about the animals on the Seashore

      Marine Institute (Marine Institute, 2015)
      Using quiz cards about the seashore, the children will work in teams and take part in a relay game (including running, walking, jogging, sprinting, jumping) to test their knowledge about species on the seashore.
    • PE: 1st and 2nd Class - Marine Food Chain Game (English and Irish version available)

      Marine Institute (Marine Institute., 2014)
      The aim of the lesson plan is for the children to play playground games, learning about the marine food chain.
    • PE: 3rd and 4th Class - Lighthouse and Rocky Shore Game

      Marine Institute (Marine Institute., 2014)
      The aim of the lesson plan is for the children to play playground games, learning about the lighthouses in Ireland.
    • PE: 5th and 6th Class - Crab Football Game (English and Irish version available)

      Marine Institute (Marine Institute., 2014)
      The aim of the lesson plan is for the children to create and develop games with a partner or within a small group using marine animals for inspiration.
    • PE: 5th and 6th Class- Playing Games - Creating a maze for relays on the beach

      Marine Institute (Marine Institute, 2015)
      Using the giant seaweed maze on the seashore, the children will take part in a range of athletic games including running, walking, jogging, sprinting, relays and jumping.
    • PE: Junior and Senior Infants Class - Moving like an Ocean Animal (English and Irish version available)

      Marine Institute (Marine Institute., 2014)
      The aim of the lesson plan is for the children to find an object representing a sea animal in a confined area of the school.
    • Pea Crab, Pinna theres ostreum Say, 1817, in the eastern Oyster, Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin, 1791): prevalence and apparent adverse effects on oyster gonad development

      O'Beirn, F.X.; Walker, R.L. (California Malacozoological Society, 1999)
      Incidence of pea crab, Pinnotheres ostreum Say 1817, infestation in the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin, 1791), was recorded and related to oyster gametogenic activity over 18 months. Sampling occurred at twO tidal heights (high intertidal HI and low intertidal LI) at two sites (House Creek, HC and Skidaway River, SR) in Wassaw Sound, Georgia. Overall, incidence rates were 3% HC LI, 1 % HC HI, 8% SR LI, and 4% SR HI. At both tidal heights at HC, no differences were observed in gonad area between those oysters with and without pea crabs. At SR (where overall incidences were higher), oysters without pea crabs had significantly higher gonad area values than those oysters with pea crabs present. These results suggest that at higher incidences of pea crab infestation, oyster reproductive capabilities could be impacted, and support the claim that the pea crab/oyster relationship is a parasitic one.
    • Pelagic Eggs and Young Stages of Fishes Taken on the South Coast of Ireland in 1967

      Kennedy, M; Fitzmaurice, P (Department of Agriculture and Fisheries (Fisheries Division), 1969)
      Emes W. L. Halt was one of the pioneers of research on the spawning and early development of marine fishes, and collections of pelagic eggs and young stages of fishes made by him on the west coast of Ireland were the basis of some major contributions to the then young science of fisheries biology (HoIt 1891, 1893, 1899). Much more recently Fives (1967a) has worked on pelagic young stages of fishes taken in the plankton on the coasts of Galway and Clare. Collections of eggs and young stages of clupeoids have been made on, the south coast of Ireland in winter during the years 1960-1962 (Bud and Bracken, 1965; Bracken and Kennedy, 1967). Hitherto, however, no collections of eggs or young stages of other fishes appear to have been made on the south coast. As part of a programme of research by the Inland Fisheries Trust into the biology of the bass, Dicerntrarchus labrax (L.) in Irish waters, tow-netting for bass eggs was carried out at four centres on the southeast and south coasts of Ireland during the period April to June 1967. Pelagic eggs of a variety of species of fish, including bass, were obtained, as well as larvae, post-larvae and fry. The tow-netting was done close to shore and in estuaries-areas not as a rule sampled as extensively as the offshore waters where the major commercial fishes The results of the tow-nettings help, therefore, to fill in some of the gaps in existing data on the reproduction of fishes on the Irish coast.
    • Pelagic Eggs of Fishes taken on the Irish Coast

      Kennedy, M; Fitzmaurice, P; Champ, T (Department of Agriculture and Fisheries (Fisheries Division), 1973)
      During the years 1967 to 1971 inclusive, tow-netting for pelagic fish eggs was carried out at 13 stations on the east, south and west coasts of Ireland. Sampling was limited to the period late April to mid-June. Sampling stations included estuaries, bays and the open coast. A total of 16,902 identified eggs was taken, belonging to 27 species or groups. This paper discusses the eggs identified and the conditions under which they were found.
    • Perch Rhabdovirus

      Marine Institute (Marine Institute, 2011)
      This leaflet gives information on perch rhabdovirus. Rhabdoviruses of the genus Vesiculovirus are an emerging group of pathogenic viruses and include perch rhabdovirus, pike-fry rhabdovirus, tench rhabdovirus, lake trout rhabdovirus and spring viraemia of carp virus.
    • Performance of the Crumlin sea-trout Fishery, Co. Galway

      Fahy, E (Department of Agriculture and Fisheries (Fisheries Division), 1979)
      The physical features of the Crumlin catchment, a small sea-trout fishery in Co. Galway, are described. Its sea-trout stock is examined and found to be typical of others in the region: the fish are slow growing in the sea, poorly conditioned, mortality in the stock is high and the fish have a low weight at capture. Fishery statistics date from 1896. The main influence on the numbers taken by anglers appears to have been the two wars. Individual catch weights do not show any inverse relationship with catch numbers of the kind that has been reported already in the vicinity. Catch per effort has not altered in keeping with any identifiable long-term trend but is within the range recently reported elsewhere in the region. Regulations designed for the protection of smolts in past years also protect about 20% of post-smolts (finnock) currently captured. Yield from Crumlin has most in common with output from a small neighbouring fishery. It is tentatively suggested that sea-trout production from the Connemara catchments is dependent primarily on the physical features of the systems concerned.
    • Performance of the EU Harmonised Mouse Bioassay for Lipophilic Toxins for the Detection of Azaspiracids in Naturally Contaminated Mussel (Mytilus edulis) Hepatopancreas Tissue Homogenates Characterised by Liquid Chromatography coupled to Tandem Mass Spectrometry

      Hess, P.; Butter, T.; Petersen, A.; Silke, J.; McMahon, T. (Elsevier, 2009)
      Azaspiracids (AZAs) are a group of lipophilic polyether toxins that were discovered in shellfish from Ireland in 1995, following a food poisoning incident. Both the limited availability of pure AZAs and the co-occurrence in shellfish of other toxins in combination with AZAs have so far prevented an in-depth evaluation of the performance of the EU reference test, the mouse bioassay (MBA), for this toxin group at the regulatory limit. The present study evaluated the performance of the mouse bioassay at the example of a mussel tissue homogenate, naturally contaminated with AZAs, diluted with uncontaminated tissues to appropriate concentration levels. Concentrations were determined using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) (7 levels ranging from levels less than the limit of quantification to a maximum of ca. 2.24 mg/kg in hepatopancreas, which corresponds to a maximum whole flesh AZA1-equivalent of ca. 0.34 mg/kg). Replicate homogenates of each concentration level were analysed by MBA on 7 independent occasions over 6 weeks. Inhomogeneity between replicate aliquot portions was evaluated using LC-MS-MS and ranged from 1.8 to 6.6% RSD for the six levels contaminated above quantification limits. This variation was similar to the variability of the LC-MS-MS method within a batch, and the difference between replicate aliquots could thus be considered negligible. Other uncertainties considered in the study included the short- and long-term variability of the LC-MS-MS method, toxic equivalence factors, relative response factors in mass spectrometric detection, additional analogues and matrix effects. A concentration-response curve was modelled as a 4-parametric logistic fit to a sigmoidal function, with an LC50 of 0.70 mg AZA1-equivalent/kg hepatopancreas tissue. Furthermore, the mathematical model of the lethality data from this study suggests that occasional negative mouse assays at high concentrations, previously observed in the Irish statutory monitoring, are at least partly due to the biological variation of mice and can be understood on a statistical basis. The mathematical model of the concentration-response curve also describes the probability of a positive mouse bioassay at the current regulatory limit of 0.16 mg/kg to be ca. 95%. Therefore, it appears that the mouse bioassay performs very well in the implementation of this limit. Hence, the present study very strongly suggests that the MBA and LC-MS-MS techniques can be considered equivalent in the implementation of the current regulatory limit of 0.16 mg/kg for Azaspiracids in shellfish.
    • Phase II: Strain hybridisation field experiments and genetic fingerprinting of the edible brown seaweed Alaria esculenta

      Kraan, S; Guiry, M D (Marine Institute, 2001)
      Under phase II of the Marine Research Measure several field trials were performed with five biogeographical dispersed North Atlantic strains and their hybrids of the edible brown alga Alaria esculenta at Ard Bay, Carna, Co. Galway. The weight, length, width, biomass per meter rope, growth rate and protein level were measured. The fastest-growing crosses were produced with female Norway gametophytes together with male gametophytes of other strains. The Canadian selfcross produced most biomass of over 45 kg per meter rope. The female Iceland x male Ireland crossing produced the second highest biomass figure of 13.75 kg wet weight per meter rope, while the Irish self cross using a strain from the Aran Islands produced 7.4 kg wet weight per meter. The Canadian selfcross expressed the highest protein level followed by the female Newfoundland x male Norway hybrid. These strains and hybrids are well suited to be included in a protein rich macro-herbivore diet. The Irish native strain showed a lower protein level of 8% of the wet weight. Genetic fingerprinting using RFLPs did not show any genetic differences amongst the strains in respect of the DNA examined. A detailed sequencing study on the Rubisco spacer region showed a negligible 3 bp difference between the Irish and Canadian strains In conclusion, the Canadian strain or hybrids derived from female Canada gametophytes or female Iceland gametophytes produce more biomass per meter rope and grow larger and wider in size compared to the native Irish strain. They Canadian strain also showed the highest protein values in the field trials and hence are most suited to be applied in Irish aquaculture of the brown seaweed Alaria esculenta.