• Balanced harvesting can emerge from fishing decisions by individual fishers in a small-scale fishery

      Plank, Michael J; Kolding, Jeppe; Law, Richard; Gerritsen, Hans D; Reid, David (Wiley, 2016)
      Catching fish in proportion to their productivity, termed balanced harvesting, has been suggested as a basis for the ecosystem approach to fishing. Balanced harvesting has been criticized as uneconomical and unachievable because of the level of micromanagement it would require. Here, we investigate the consequences of allowing a fixed number of fishers in a small‐scale fishery to choose what size fish to attempt to catch. We examine this from a game‐theoretic perspective and test our predictions using an agent‐based model for fishers’ decisions coupled with a size‐spectrum model for the dynamics of a single fish species. We show that small‐scale gillnet fishers, operating without size‐based regulations, would end up catching small and large fish in proportion to their productivity, in other words balanced harvesting. This is significant because it shows that, far from being unachievable, balanced harvesting can emerge without external intervention under some circumstances. Controls are needed to prevent overfishing, but minimum size regulations alone are not sufficient to achieve this, and actually reduce the sustainable yield by confining fishing to a relatively unproductive part of the size‐spectrum. Our findings are particularly relevant for small‐scale fisheries in areas where there is poverty and malnutrition because here provision of biomass for food is more important than the market value of the catch.
    • Balancing selection on MHC class I in wild brown trout Salmo trutta

      O'Farrell, B; Dennis, C; Benzie, JA; McGinnity, P; Carlsson, J; De Eyto, E; Coughlan, J; Igoe, F; Meehan, R; Cross, T (Wiley, 2012-09)
      Evidence is reported for balancing selection acting on variation at major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in wild populations of brown trout Salmo trutta. First, variation at an MHC class I (satr-uba)–linked microsatellite locus (mhc1) is retained in small S. trutta populations isolated above waterfalls although variation is lost at neutral microsatellite markers. Second, populations across several catchments are less differentiated at mhc1 than at neutral markers, as predicted by theory. The population structure of these fish was also elucidated.
    • Bayesian survey-based assessment of North Sea plaice (Pleuronectes platessa): extracting integrated signals from multiple surveys

      Bogaards, J A; Kraak, S B M; Rijnsdorp, A D (Oxford University Press, 2009)
      Dependence on a relatively small sample size is generally viewed as a big disadvantage for survey-based assessments. We propose an integrated catch-at-age model for research vessel data derived from multiple surveys, and illustrate its utility in estimating trends in North Sea plaice abundance and fishing mortality. Parameter estimates were obtained by Bayesian analysis, which allows for estimation of uncertainty in model parameters attributable to measurement error. Model results indicated constant fishing selectivity over the distribution area of the North Sea plaice stock, with decreased selectivity at older age. Whereas separate analyses of survey datasets suggested different biomass trends in the southeast than in the western and central North Sea, a combined analysis demonstrated that the observations in both subareas were compatible and that SSB has been increasing over the period 1996- 2005. The annual proportion of fish that dispersed in a northwesterly direction was estimated to increase from about 10% at age 2 to 33% at age 5 and older. We also found higher fishing mortality rates than reported in ICES assessments, which could be the consequence of inadequate specification of catchability-at-age in this study or underestimated fishing mortality by the conventional ICES assessment, which relies on official landings figures.
    • Beaufort Marine Award: Economic and Social Research related to Development Dynamics of the Marine Sector in Ireland (BEAU/ECON/04)

      Hynes, S.; Corless, R.; Vega, A. (Marine Institute, 2018)
      The vision for this project was the creation of a unit that would underpin the development of the marine sector in Ireland as elaborated in the Sea Change Strategy; a unit that would contribute to the EU marine socio-economic research agenda and that would strengthen marine research in general through providing a complementary socioeconomic element into scientific projects and that would be involved in the transfer of tacit knowledge to marine industry, thereby enhancing innovation and raising its competitiveness. The Beaufort work programme was comprised of three major blocks: • Marine socioeconomic research capacity building • Constructing data bases and monitoring the evolution of the marine sector • A research programme which consisted of a number of key research topics: o The impact of policy and regulations on the development of the marine industry in Ireland o The economic and social impact of the marine sectors in Ireland o Valuing ecosystem service provision from marine resources in Ireland o Economic data collection and reporting on Ireland’s ocean and coastal economies Underpinning Research The “Economic and Social Research related to Development Dynamics of the Marine Sector in Ireland” Beaufort project involved research on a variety of marine related issues associated with the economics of fisheries, marine energy, shipping and other marine sectors as well as research that valued the marine environment and that examined issues surrounding the rural development of coastal communities. In particular it involved examining the economic utility of the marine environment (e.g. transportation, recreation) and the ecological value (e.g. fisheries, aquaculture) derived from the productivity of associated ecosystems. The coastal and contiguous marine environment surrounding Ireland and the EU in general provided the geographical focus for the research. Consideration of the human dimension in the management of marine ecosystems was also a critical component of the research programme. A key element of the project involves the compilation of information in relation to economic and social patterns in Irish coastal communities as well as the economic activity taking place in the seas surrounding Ireland. The project was also very successful in terms of the first element of the Beaufort work program: Marine socioeconomic research capacity building. The project team leveraged over NDP Marine Research Sub-Programme 2007-2013 €2 million in additional funding over the life of the Award, which included funded projects such as: • Horizon 2020. Project Title: ATLAS: A Trans-Atlantic Assessment and deep-water ecosystem-based spatial management plan for Europe - In association with 24 other European research organisations. • Horizon 2020. Project Title: MERCES:Marine Ecosystem Restoration in changing European Seas - In association with 25 other European research organisation. • Norwegian Research Council Funding Programme. Project title: AquaAccept: Developing novel socio-environmental indicators and management tools for a sustainable aquaculture • Environmental Protection Agency Science, Technology, Research & Innovation for the Environment (STRIVE) Programme 2014 Award. Project Title: Marine Ecosystem Service Valuation A full list of additional funding secured in the area of marine socio-economic research by the project team is provided.
    • Beaufort Marine Award: Sensors and Communication System for Marine Environments (BEAU SENS 2007)

      Regan, Fiona (Marine Institute, 2018)
      EU decisions 1600/2002/EC laying down the Sixth Community Environment Action Programme and EU Directive 2008/56/EC of 17 June 2008 establishing a framework for community action in the field of marine environmental policy (Marine Strategy Framework Directive) emphasise that: “The marine environment is a precious heritage that must be protected, preserved and, where practicable, restored with the ultimate aim of maintaining biodiversity and providing diverse and dynamic oceans and seas which are clean, healthy and productive.” The same directive also required that:
“Each Member State should therefore develop a marine strategy for its marine waters which, while being specific to its own waters, reflects the overall perspective of the marine region or sub-region concerned. Marine strategies should culminate in the execution of programmes of measures designed to achieve or maintain good environmental status.” In response to the EU directives to promote sustainable use of the seas and conserving marine ecosystems, the Republic of Ireland via the Department of Communications, Marine & Natural Resources launched ‘The Beaufort Marine Research Awards (BMA)’ in June 2007. This Beaufort Award ‘Sensors and Communication Systems for the Marine Environment’ aimed to develop deployable marine analytical platforms with wireless communication capability to perform autonomous sampling for extended periods of time. This multidisciplinary Beaufort team includes skillsets of chemistry, sensing, separation science, molecular biology, engineering and image analysis contributing to six research sub-programmes or workpackages. The BMA project started in 2007 at DCU. In 2010 the Marine and Environmental Sensing Technology Hub (MESTECH) was established as a result of the growing expertise in marine sensing technology and monitoring in DCU. A MESTECH website was developed (www.mestech.ie), and MESTECH actively engaged with social media technologies such as Twitter to significantly increase the international and national profile of our marine research and the BMA. The project has published >70 peer-reviewed papers. BMA members have presented >70 conferences and workshop papers or posters, >10 invited talks and several visits to other marine research laboratories have taken place. Collaborations with other marine research institutions and with industries operating within marine sector across EU, US and Asia have been formed. These national/ international collaborations facilitate technical and knowledge exchanges that are important in promoting the research capability of Ireland, and would facilitate Irish companies in accessing new technologies to contribute towards building the future economy. These collaborations are also the basis of forming international consortia for 10 future non-exchequer funding applications. In addition to the academic achievements and growing network of collaborators, the outputs of the research include novel chemical and biosensing platforms, a significant long-term dataset from a variety of sites, data analytics platforms for decision support tool development and novel materials for marine and other applications. Despite these successes, there is still much to do to achieve the ultimate goal of promoting Ireland as a leading marine research nation and more resources (both financial and human resources) are required to bring the current work forward to sustain long-term, high-quality research. The Beaufort PIs and management team have been very active in funding applications. Greater than €5 million funding was secured since the start of the BMA programme from agencies including FP7 programme, QUESTOR and national agencies such as IRCSET, SFI, EI, HEA and EPA leveraging the success of the BMA programme.
    • The Beltra Fishery, Co. Mayo and its sea-trout Salmo trutta stocks

      Fahy, E. (Department of Fisheries and Forestry, 1981)
      The sea trout stocks of the Lough Beltra catchment in Co. Mayo are described from a sample of 620 specimens collected in 1973 and 1974. These angler-caught fish displayed a low diversity in age categories and the samples contained few previous spawners. Variation in the success of parr growth in different years, between males and females and between A and B type smolts is compared. The incidence of A type growth is high, resembling that of a neighbouring catchment and the amount of B type growth can be related to length of the estuary. The Beltra angling fishery for sea trout exploits mainly two year smolt post-smolt. Traditionally the angling clientele have originated largely out of state and the decline in catches in recent years is attributed to a smaller volume of tourism in the post-1969 period. Catch per effort does not correlate with the supposed availability of sea trout and angling effort is regarded as the main factor deciding the yield from the fishery.
    • Benthic ecology of Dublin Bay in relation to sludge dumping: Fauna

      Walker, A J M; Rees, E I S (Department of Fisheries and Forestry, 1980)
      The Dublin Bay area in 1971 received sewage from about three quarters of a million people most of which was discharged or dumped off Howth to the north-east of the bay. Much sludge appeared to settle up and down the tide from the dump site, though finer particles entered the bay to the south. Additionally, dredge spoil was dumped south-east of the Baily up to 1971, but not in 1972. In 1971 and 1972 the effects of these organic wastes on the benthos were investigated. The fauna in the main part of the bay resembled the Acrocnida/Clymene community of Glémarec. On the sand banks there were also species of the Ophelia facies of Glémarec's deep Venus community. In the dumping area and in the southeast of the bay downtide of the dump site, where depths are greater, the faunas resembled the Nucula/Sabellaria community of Caspers. As well as having pollution indicator species, this latter community generally had greater faunal densities and diversities than elsewhere in the bay (except low divcrsities at the dump sites in 1971). Apart from a possible effect of depth, this suggests that the dumping was having an enriching rather than a degrading effect, although the probable sediment change since 1874 may imply a change in community type. Microvores (comprising surface-deposit and suspension feeders) were a prominent isotrophic group in the sampling area, and at the sludge-dumping site in 1971 particle feeders were abundant. All feeding types were more numerous in the organic waste settlement areas, though proportionally they appeared to be receiving differential benefits from the sludge and dredge spoil.
    • A Benthic Survey of Inner Bantry Bay

      Neiland, S.; McMahon, T. (Marine Institute, 1999)
      In February 1993 sediment samples were collected from a total of 18 stations in Bantry Harbour, Glengarriff Harbour and along the north shore of Whiddy Island. The samples were analysed for grain size, organic carbon content and the abundance of benthic infauna. The benthic infauna were identified to family level. The sediments in Bantry Harbour and Glengarriff Harbour were comprised of fine particles with typically >80% of the dry weight being in the silt/clay (<63 μm) fraction. In contrast, the sediments close to Whiddy Island contained relatively high amounts of coarser material. In Bantry Harbour a total of 53 families with 742 individuals were identified from the ten stations sampled. Of the 53 families identified, 21 were Polychaeta, 6 Bivalvia, 7 Gastropoda, 3 Echinodermata, and 16 Crustacea. A total of 31 families with 491 individuals were identified from the five stations sampled in the Glengarriff Harbour area. Of these 16 were Polychaeta, 4 were Bivalvia, 3 were Gastropoda, 1 was Echinodermata, and 7 were Crustacea. From the three stations sampled in the vicinity of Whiddy Island 47 families with 461 individuals were identified. Of these 23 were Polychaeta, 8 Bivalvia, 4 Gastropoda, 2 Echinodermata, and 10 Crustacea. In Bantry Harbour and Glengarriff Harbour cirratulid polychaetes were dominant and the benthic infaunal composition was indicative of stressed environmental conditions. In contrast, the sediments close to Whiddy Island exhibited a very healthy faunal composition with no one family predominating and high numbers of amphiuroid echinoderms were recorded from these sampling stations.
    • Biased stock assessment when using multiple, hardly overlapping, tuning series if fishing trends vary spatially

      Kraak, S B M; Daan, N; Pastoors, M A (Oxford University Press, 2009)
      Fishing-effort distributions are subject to change, for autonomous reasons and in response to management regulations. Ignoring such changes in a stock-assessment procedure may lead to a biased perception. We simulated a stock distributed over two regions with inter-regional migration and different trends in exploitation, and tested the performance of Extended Survivors Analysis (XSA) and a statistical catch-at-age model in terms of bias, when spatially restricted tuning series were applied. If we used a single tuning index that covered only the more heavily fished region, estimates of fishing mortality and spawning-stock biomass were seriously biased. If two tuning series each exclusively covering one region were used (without overlap but together covering the whole area), estimates were also biased. Surprisingly, a moderate degree of overlap of spatial coverage of the two tuning indices was sufficient to reduce bias of the XSA assessment substantially. However, performance was best when one tuning series covered the entire stock area.
    • Bibliography of Irish Salmon

      Twomey, E (Department of Agriculture and Fisheries (Fisheries Division), 1976)
      Documents papers and articles, published up to 1975, that focus on Irish Salmon.
    • Bioactive agents from marine mussels and their effects on human health

      Grienke, U.; Silke, J.; Tasdemir, D. (Elsevier, 2014)
      The consumption of marine mussels as popular seafood has increased steadily over the past decades. Awareness of mussel derived molecules, that promote health, has contributed to extensive research efforts in that field. This review highlights the bioactive potential of mussel components from species of the genus Mytilus (e.g. M. edulis) and Perna (e.g. P. canaliculus). In particular, the bioactivity related to three major chemical classes of mussel primary metabolites, i.e. proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates, is evaluated. Within the group of proteins the focus is mainly on mussel peptides e.g. those obtained by bio-transformation processes, such as fermentation. In addition, mussel lipids, comprising polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), are discussed as compounds that are well known for prevention and treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Within the third group of carbohydrates, mussel polysaccharides are investigated. Furthermore, the importance of monitoring the mussel as food material in respect to contaminations with natural toxins produced by microalgae is discussed
    • Biofouling of the hydroid Ectopleura larynx on aquaculture nets in Ireland: implications for finfish health

      Baxter, E.J.; Sturt, M.M.; Ruane, N.M.; Doyle, T.K.; McAllen, R.; Rodger, H.D. (Fish Veterinary Society, 2012)
      The potential direct health problems posed to marine-farmed salmonids by the biofouling hydroid Ectopleura larynx (Phylum Cnidaria, Class Hydrozoa) and in situ net washing processes to remove the fouling organisms have not yet been addressed. In an attempt to address the possible impacts, the rate of E. larynx growth on aquaculture nets over a net-cleaning cycle was assessed and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolts were exposed to hydroid-biofouled nets under experimental challenge. After only 1 week of immersion, there was a high settlement of E. larynx on net panels, with the maximum growth observed after 3 week of immersion. For the challenges trials, experimental treatment groups of S. salar were exposed to hydroid net panels or loose hydroid material for 11 hours under controlled conditions. Gills were examined for signs of gross damage and assigned a histopathological gill score. Prior to the experiment, the gills were healthy and did not show signs of damage from any insult. After exposure to E. larynx, focal areas of epithelial sloughing, necrosis and haemorrhage were visible on the gills under histopathology and a maximum gill score of 4 was observed. These results are the first in an investigation of this kind and suggest that E. larynx can damage the gills of S. salar. Further work on this area is vital to develop a better understanding of the pathogenesis of the damage caused by hydroids and their long-term effects on fish health, growth and survival.
    • Biological changes in Celtic Sea and southwest of Ireland herring, based on a long-term data archival project

      Lynch, Deirdre (Trinity College Dublin, 2011)
      The herring fishery in the Celtic Sea and Division VIIj has been commercially important for many years. The Marine Institute has been collecting biological data for this herring stock since 1959. This stock is assessed by ICES annually. However, this is the first study of long term biological trends. The biological data consists of total length, weight, sex, maturity and age of the commercial catches. This study looks at mean length and mean weight at age, growth rate, condition factor and maturity ogives from 1959 to 2007. Environmental factors that may explain the biological trends are also investigated. These data consist of sea surface temperature (SST) for the Celtic Sea and the Irish Sea from 1970 to 2004, North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) indices from 1958 to 2001 and Calanus spp. abundance for the Celtic Sea and Division VIIj from 1958 to 2007. In addition, data from the ICES stock assessment is consulted and this consists of spawning stock biomass (SSB), fishing mortality (F) and recruitment (R) from 1958 to 2008. The results show that mean length and mean weight at age peaked in the 1970s and declined thereafter. It was found that the condition factor over time declined. The results also illustrate that the growth rates were faster in the 1960s and 1970s than in the 1980s and 1990s. It can be seen that maturation for 1 winter ring increased in the early 1970s and has remained at a high level since then. This study looks at possible explanations for the biological trends and found that it was unlikely to be due to fishing mortality or density dependence. There have been changes in the proportions of autumn and winter spawners in this area over time but it is unlikely that this influenced the trends. Evidence suggests that the changes in the biological data over time may be influenced by environmental factors. NAO shows a significant negative correlation with growth rate in length. There is evidence to suggest that increased SST in the Irish Sea and Celtic Sea is associated with reduced size/weight at age and condition. Calanus abundance shows some positive correlations with mean length and mean weight and is a favourable influence on herring growth. These changes in the biology of the stock have implications for its future management. Declining growth results in more individual fish per tonne of landings which exerts a greater fishing mortality than in the past. This study has allowed for a better understanding of the biology of the stock. Biological data has been routinely collected for other herring stocks around Ireland and similar studies should be performed on these herring stocks in the future.
    • Biological Effects and Chemical Measurements in Irish Marine Waters

      Giltrap, Michelle; McHugh, Brendan; Ronan, Jenny; Wilson, James; McGovern, Evin (Marine Institute, 2014-08)
      The overall aim of this project was to increase Ireland’s capacity for the generation of integrated monitoring of biological effects and chemical measurement data and for the completion of a pilot scale assessment of the quality of the Irish marine environment at a number of selected locations.
    • Biological Sampling Survey: Celtic Voyager March 2004

      Marine Institute (Marine Institute, 2005)
      The survey is intended to address the requirements of the Data Collection Regulation 1639/2001. Information on growth, maturity and sex ratio (biological data) were collected for a range of commercially important species. Ovary samples were collected to validate visual maturity staging. Additionally, ovary samples were taken for CEFAS in Lowestoft, tissue samples were taken for genetics projects within the Marine Institute as well as other labs. Samples of whole flatfish were taken for meristics analysis in GMIT.
    • Biologically Sensitive Area

      Marine Institute (Marine Institute, 2006)
      The Marine Institute, working closely with DCMNR and Industry, compiled information on the distribution and abundance of eggs and larvae, juvenile and adult fish in the waters around Ireland and presented these data to the EU Commission. This presentation was powerful evidence of the biological importance of this area. In 2003 the EU Commission established a “Biologically Sensitive Area (BSA)” off the south west of Ireland. In 2003, the EU also established a specific fishing effort regime inside the BSA and outside the BSA for demersal fishing vessels as well as scallop and crab fisheries.
    • Biomarkers: are realism and control mutually exclusive in integrated pollution assessment?

      Wilson, J.G.; McHugh, B.; Giltrap, M. (Elsevier, 2014)
      The conventional view of pollution monitoring is that any choice is a trade-off between realism and precision, as the control over confounding variables decreases with the increasing degree of organization of the test system. Dublin Bay is subject to considerable anthropogenic pressures and there have been many attempts to quantify the status of the system at organizational levels from DNA strand breaks (Comet) to the system itself (Ecological Network analysis, ENA). Using Dublin Bay as an example, the data show there was considerable variability at all levels of organization. At intracellular level, Lysosome Membrane Stability (LMS, assessed by Neutral Red Retention, NRR) varied almost 4-fold with season and individual condition, while the community level AZTI Marine biotic Index (AMBI) had a similar range within a single, supposedly homogeneous, site. Overall, there was no evidence that biomarkers of the lower levels of organisation reduced the variability of the measure, despite the extra control over influencing variables, nor was there any evidence that variability was additive at higher levels of organisation. This poses problems for management, especially given the fixed limits of Ecological Quality Standards (EQSs). Clearly while the integrated approach to pollution monitoring does offer the potential to link effects across the organizational range, it should also be possible to improve their capability by widening the database for reference values, particularly at the higher level of organization, and by process models, including the confounding variables found in the field, for those at lower level.
    • Bionomics of brown crab Cancer pagurus in the south east Ireland inshore fishery

      Fahy, E.; Hickey, J.; Perella, N.; Hervas, A.; Carroll, J.; Andray, C. (Marine Institute, 2004)
      The south east inshore brown crab fishery is delimited by the boundary of longitude - 6.3, within a coastal band of approximately 18 km (10 nm) in width and it extends along the south coast of Co Wexford for a distance of approximately 55 km; evidence for the stock extending into the inshore fishery west of the Waterford Harbour estuary is sparse. The fishery, whose maximum extent is calculated at 427 km2, yielded up to 700 t per year during the 1990s. In 2002 annual landings of 959 t accounted for 8.2 % of the national catch. The average overall LPUE was 0.87 kg per pot lifted in that year. Brown crab were landed whole or as claws, for human consumption, and clawed or, of poorer quality, with claws, to provide bait for the whelk fishery. This fishery is not considered to have any discard of legally sized crab and, in consequence, a large percentage of the landings is poorly conditioned. The stock is intensively fished; the amount of gear in use increased almost 5 fold since the mid 1970s. Landings per boat declined since the late 1980s although this may be as a result of sharing among a greater number of vessels. In 2002 an estimated 60 - 69 vessels fished brown crab in the peak autumn months. In 2002 and early 2003, 3,674 crabs were tagged in the inshore fishery; of these 14.4% were recaptured (12.8% of tagged females and 20.7% of tagged males). Observations made during tagging operations in 2002 only were used to clarify sex ratio and the incidence of recently moulted animals. The crab stock consists of a migratory female component which moves into shallow waters during the summer months probably to moult and mate. The male component is more sedentary. Both sexes move at speeds which slow during the summer months and increase again as the year advances; maximum speeds of 2 km/day were recorded for both sexes in the autumn. Movements by male crab were random while females adopted a south west trajectory. The greatest distance recorded for a tagged female crab was 136 km after 287 days at liberty. Other tagged females, reported by French vessels, were recaptured in ICES division VIIg which may be the over-wintering area for the stock. These animals had moved between 69 and 75 km from their release point. Tag reporting by the industry is considered to have been low. Based on the 'rate of tag recovery, the estimated rate of exploitation was lower than expected in an intensely fished stock. Population estimates were attempted using the Petersen formula and on the basis of assumptions about mortalities which recognized the phenomena of moulting and migration. The south east crab stock moves with the current which is westerly along the southern Irish coast. Recorded migrations were also short when compared with those of brown crab in the northern stock and in several other documented fisheries. The Nymphe Bank which adjoins the south east fishery has a water current pattern which retains larvae and it is known to have a high density of brown crab in the plankton. The existence of retaining currents may make the kind of long migrations which characterise others unnecessary for this stock. The status of the south east fishery is not known. LPUE indices provided by the Roscoff super-crabber fleet for ICES statistical division VIIg remained fairly stable between 1987 and 2002 but the quantity of crab captured by those vessels has declined considerably in most years since 1995.
    • Biosensors for the monitoring of harmful algal blooms

      McPartlin, D. A.; Loftus, J. H.; Crawley, A. S.; Silke, J.; Murphy, C. S.; O’Kennedy, R. J. (Elsevier, 2017)
      Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are a major global concern due to their propensity to cause environmental damage, healthcare issues and economic losses. In particular, the presence of toxic phytoplankton is a cause for concern. Current HAB monitoring programs often involve laborious laboratory-based analysis at a high cost and with long turnaround times. The latter also hampers the potential to develop accurate and reliable models that can predict HAB occurrence. However, a promising solution for this issue may be in the form of remotely deployed biosensors, which can rapidly and continuously measure algal and toxin levels at the point-of-need (PON), at a low cost. This review summarises the issues HABs present, how they are difficult to monitor and recently developed biosensors that may improve HAB-monitoring challenges.
    • Biotic response to forest harvesting in acidic blanket peat fed streams: a case study from Ireland

      O'Driscoll, Connie; de Eyto, Elvira; Rodgers, Michael; O'Connor, Mark; Asam, Zaki-ul-Zaman; Xiao, Liwen (Elsevier, 2013)
      Blanket peat catchments are important biodiversity refugia and are increasingly recognised for their role in regional carbon and water balances. A key pressure on these catchments is forest clearfelling which increases stream phosphorus potentially leading to eutrophication. However, these unique systems are underrepresented in the development of bioassessment monitoring programmes and so are at risk to impacts. In this study, a multiple before-after-control-impact (MBACI) study was designed in three neighbouring peatland catchments and provided a unique opportunity to assess the impact of forest clearfelling events on macroinvertebrate and phytobenthic assemblages. Statistical analysis revealed substantial differences in the macroinvertebrate assemblages after clearfelling with higher abundances of chironomids. Macroinvertebrate derived indices EPT, diversity and species richness were significantly reduced. This was accompanied by a shift in functional feeding group representation away from shredders and collector–filterers to a dominance of collector–gatherers after clearfelling. In contrast, forest clearfelling did not significantly impact the diatom assemblages and diatom derived indices remained static for the duration of the study period.