The Marine Institute is the national agency responsible for Marine Research, Technology Development and Innovation (RTDI). We seek to assess and realise the economic potential of Ireland's 220 million acre marine resource; promote the sustainable development of marine industry through strategic funding programmes and essential scientific services; and safeguard our marine environment through research and environmental monitoring.

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Recent Submissions

  • Explorers Cephalopod Science Investigations: Squid For Beginners

    Dromgool-Regan, Cushla; Manning, Eimear; Quinn, Anna (Marine Institute, 2021)
    Explorers Cephalopod Science Investigations: SQUID FOR BEGINNERS provides an introduction to squid for children and teachers to use in the classroom and aims to inspire a new generation of explorers. The book introduces children to science classification and the names given to squid; cephalopod evolution; and where squid are distributed and their different habitats. The book also has a section about a squids anatomy and supports the Explorers Learning about Squid Film Cephalopod Science Investigations: Squid Dissection & Fun Facts, where the special features of squid are discussed. A chapter is also dedicated to the Kraken and highlights how the giant squid has been introduced into many cultures, over hundreds of years as a giant sea monster. The book also shows our connections with squid from yummy ‘squidulicious’ food, fishing, climate change to squid in museums and sculptures. Finally, the book also highlights how squid features are influencing science, technology and engineering.
  • Explorers Cephalopod Science Investigations: Our Favourite Squid Species

    Dromgool-Regan, Cushla; Manning, Eimear; Quinn, Anna (Marine Institute, 2021)
    Explorers Cephalopod Science Investigations OUR FAVOURITE SQUID SPECIES provides an introduction to squid species. Learning about animals such as squid, help us discover some of the amazing things about marine biodiversity and adaptation; as well as exploring the ocean around the world. This book looks at ten squid species found around the world including the largest squid in the world called the giant squid to the smallest pygmy squid, which is the size of your finger nail. Each squid information sheet identifies the English, Irish and scientific name of the squid species; its size, colour and life span. The squid sheets also highlights the ocean that the squid lives in, its habitat; what it looks like; how the squid protects itself; what it eats; and its predators.
  • National Survey of Sea Lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis Krøyer and Caligus elongatus Nordmann) on Fish Farms in Ireland – 2020

    O’Donohoe, P.; Kane, F.; Kelly, Suzanne; McDermott, Tom; D'Arcy, J.; Casserly, Joanne; Downes, Jamie K.; Thomas, K.; McLoughlin, S.; Ruane, N. M. (Marine Institute, 2021)
    Farmed stocks of Atlantic salmon in Ireland are inspected on 14 occasions throughout the year to monitor sea lice levels as part of a national programme. Sea lice are a naturally occurring parasite found on marine fish, including salmonids. They are small ecto-parasitic copepod crustaceans and there are approximately 559 species. The objectives of the National Sea Lice Monitoring Programme are: *To provide an objective measurement of infestation levels on farms. * To investigate the nature of infestations. * To provide management information to drive the implementation of control and management strategies. * To facilitate further development and refinement of this strategy. The sea lice control and management strategy has five principal components: * Separation of generations. * Annual fallowing of sites. * Early harvest of two-sea-winter fish. * Targeted treatment regimes, including synchronous treatments. * Agreed husbandry practices.
  • The Irish Maritime Transport Economist Volume 17

    Irish Maritime Development Office (Marine Institute, 2020)
  • Environmental Survey of Coastal Waters (Galway - Dublin – Galway): – Winter nutrients, benthic macro-invertebrate and contaminants monitoring 2021 (CV21-001).

    O'Beirn, Francis; O'Donnell, Garvan (Marine Institute, 2021)
    The 2021 survey continues the Marine Institute’s Winter Nutrients monitoring that commenced in 1990/91. The survey has evolved and expanded during this time period with respect to target areas, parameters and sampling strategy. In 2011 this survey was reestablished as a winter environmental survey with a broader remit to provide supporting information for OSPAR and Water Framework Directive (WFD- Directive 2000/60/EC) assessments and also to maintain the winter time series on key biogeochemical parameters in Irish waters in response to pressures such as land based inputs of nutrients and climate change. Since 2011 the survey circumnavigates the Island of Ireland every two years, alternating southabout and northabout, starting in the Irish Sea and ending in Galway. This provides a complete coverage of Irelands coastal waters over 2 year periods. However, given the timing of the surveys, winter by necessity to ensure minimal biological activity and therefore highest concentrations of dissolved nutrients, the weather is a significant factor in determining the actual as opposed to planned coverage of the target stations. This work is complementary to inshore water quality monitoring activities of the Irish Environmental Protection Agency and Marine Institute and the annual offshore oceanographic survey/climate section (53N/Rockall Trough) on the RV Celtic Explorer led by the Oceans Climate and Information Services group at the Marine Institute. The 2021 survey was designed to collect multidisciplinary information on physical conditions, water chemistry (dissolved nutrients, total alkalinity (TA), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and salinity), sediment chemistry (persistent organic pollutants POPs and trace metals), sediment particle size distribution and benthic macroinvertebrates (at targeted waterbodies around the coast). This contributes to data collection needs of various statutory drivers (WFD and the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) Directive 2008/56/EC) as well as providing a research dataset on status and changing conditions (trends and variations) for key environmental variables. As a result of the COVID pandemic, operational adjustments were implemented such that scientific complement on-board was limited to 2-3 persons at any one time. In light of this, the survey plan was adjusted to allow the survey to be completed in two legs. 1. Leg 1 – Galway – Dublin: benthic macro-invertebrate sampling 2. Leg 2 – Dublin – Galway: winter nutrient, carbon and contaminants sampling. In order to achieve this plan, the number of survey days was increased to 16.
  • CV20_01 INFOMAR Survey Report

    Sheehan, Kevin; INFOMAR Survey Team (Marine Institute, 2021)
    Geological Survey Ireland (GSI) and Marine Institute (MI) conducted seabed mapping between 2003 and 2005 under the auspices of the Irish National Seabed Survey (INSS) and this continued from 2006 to present day under the INtegrated mapping FOr the sustainable development of Irelands MArine Resource (INFOMAR) programme. INSS was one of the largest marine mapping programmes ever undertaken globally, with a focus on deep water mapping. INFOMAR is a joint venture between the GSI and the MI and is funded by the Irish Government through the Department of the Environment, Climate and Communications (DECC). INFOMAR Phase 1, 2006 to 2015 focused on mapping 26 priority bays and 3 priority areas around Ireland and creating a range of integrated mapping products of the physical, chemical and biological features of the seabed in those areas. INFOMAR Phase 2, 2016 to 2026 intends to map the remainder of Ireland’s entire seabed.
  • Environmental Survey of Coastal and Shelf Waters – Southabout: Benthos monitoring 2020 (CV20-001)

    Healy, Louise; O'Beirn, Francis (Marine Institute, 2020)
    Since 2011 the Winter Environmental Survey (WES) has operated with an allocated ship-time of up to 13 days on the Celtic Voyager and funded through NDP. These surveys alternate between south-about and a north-about each year with a southerly survey proposed for 20202. The survey covers coastal waters and bays but also shelf waters through offshore transects and as such are complementary to EPAs estuarine water quality monitoring activities. While all previous surveys have had a strong multi-disciplinary component to them incorporating both Chemical and Biological elements, the survey during 2020 was reduced relative to previous years. During 2020, the Chemistry portion of the survey was omitted as a consequence of resource (personel) limitations. However, during 2020 the survey focused on benthos ecological quality element and some chemistry validation elements. It is expected that the survey will revert to a full multidisciplinary programme in 2021.
  • Environmental Survey of Coastal and Shelf Waters – Northabout: Winter nutrients, benthos and contaminants monitoring 2019 (Cv19-001)

    O'Beirn, Francis; O'Donnell, Garvan; Healy, Louise (Marine Institute, 2019)
    The 2019 survey continues the Marine Institute’s Winter Nutrients monitoring that commenced in 1990/91. The survey has evolved and expanded during this time period with respect to target areas, parameters and sampling strategy. In 2011 this survey was reestablished as a winter environmental survey with a broader remit to provide supporting information for OSPAR and Water Framework Directive (WFD Directive 2000/60/EC) assessments and also to maintain the winter time series on key biogeochemical parameters in Irish waters in response to pressures such as land based inputs of nutrients and climate change. Since 2011 the survey circumnavigates the Island of Ireland every two years, alternating southabout and northabout, starting in the Irish Sea and ending in Galway. This provides a complete coverage of Irelands coastal waters over two-year periods. However, given the timing of the surveys, winter by necessity to ensure minimal biological activity and therefore highest concentrations of dissolved nutrients, the weather is a significant factor in determining the actual, as opposed to planned, coverage of the target stations. This work is complementary to inshore water quality monitoring activities of the Irish Environmental Protection Agency and Marine Institute and the annual offshore oceanographic survey/climate section (53N/Rockall Trough) on the RV Celtic Explorer led by the Oceanographic Science Services group at the Marine Institute. The 2019 survey was designed to collect multidisciplinary information on physical conditions, water chemistry (dissolved nutrients, total alkalinity (TA), dissolved organic carbon (DIC) and salinity), sediment chemistry (persistent organic pollutants POPs and trace metals), sediment particle size distribution and benthic macroinvertebrates (at targeted waterbodies around the coast). This contributes to data collection needs of various statutory drivers (WFD and the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) Directive 2008/56/EC) as well as providing a research dataset on status and changing conditions (trends and variations) for key environmental variables.
  • Environmental Survey of Coastal and Shelf Waters Killybegs–Cork: Benthos monitoring 2017 (CV17-001)

    Healy, Louise; O'Beirn, Francis X (Marine Institute, 2017)
    Since 2011 the Winter Environmental Survey (WES) has operated with an allocated ship-time of up to 13 days on the Celtic Voyager and funded through NDP. These surveys alternate between south-about and a north-about each year with a southerly survey proposed for 2017. The survey cover coastal waters and bays but also shelf waters through offshore transects and as such are complementary to EPAs estuarine water quality monitoring activities. While all previous surveys have had a strong multi-disciplinary component to them incorporating both Chemical and Biological elements, the survey during 2017 was reduced relative to previous years. During 2017, the Chemistry portion of the survey was omitted as a consequence of resource (personel) limitations. The Chemistry Section will focus efforts on surveys (GO-SHIP AO2 line, and Rockall Hydrographic Survey) to be carried out on the Celtic Explorer during Q1/Q2 of 2017. However, during 2017 the survey focused on benthos ecological quality element and some hydromorphological elements. It is expected that the survey will revert to a full multidisciplinary programme in 2018.
  • Environmental Survey of Coastal and Shelf Waters – Southabout: Winter nutrients, benthos and contaminants monitoring 2018 (CV18-001)

    O'Beirn, Francis X; O'Donnell, Garvan; Healy, Louise (Marine Institute, 2018)
    The 2018 survey continues the Marine Institute’s Winter Nutrients monitoring that commenced in 1990/91. The survey has evolved and expanded during this time period with respect to target areas, parameters and sampling strategy. In 2011 this survey was re-established as a winter environmental survey with a broader remit to provide supporting information for OSPAR and Water Framework Directive (WFD - Directive 2000/60/EC) assessments and also to maintain the winter time series on key biogeochemical parameters in Irish waters in response to pressures such as land based inputs of nutrients and climate change. Since 2011 the survey circumnavigates the Island of Ireland every 2 years, alternating southabout (odd years) and northabout (even years), starting in the Irish Sea and ending in Galway. This provides a complete coverage of Ireland’s coastal waters over 2-year periods. However, given the timing of the surveys, winter by necessity to ensure minimal biological activity and therefore highest concentrations of dissolved nutrients, the weather is a significant factor in determining the actual as opposed to planned coverage of the target stations. This work is complementary to inshore water quality monitoring activities of the Irish Environmental Protection Agency and Marine Institute and the annual offshore oceanographic survey/climate section (53N/Rockall Trough) on the Celtic Explorer led by the Oceanographic Science Services group at the Marine Institute. As in previous years, the 2018 survey was designed to collect multidisciplinary information on physical conditions, water chemistry (dissolved nutrients, total alkalinity (TA), dissolved organic carbon (DIC), salinity), sediment chemistry (persistent organic pollutants POPs and trace metals), sediment particle size distribution and benthic macroinvertebrates (at targeted waterbodies around the coast). This contributes to data collection needs of various statutory drivers (WFD and the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) - Directive 2008/56/EC) as well as providing a research dataset on status and changing conditions (trends and variations) for key environmental variables.
  • Sensitive Ecosystem Assessment and ROV Exploration of Reef (SeaRover), Synthesis Report

    Picton, B.; Morrow, C.; Scally, L.; Pfeiffer, N. (Marine Institute, 2021)
    an extensive offshore reef survey of Ireland’s continental slope was commissioned by the Marine Institute in partnership with the National Parks and Wildlife Service (NPWS), funded by the European Maritime and Fisheries Fund (EMFF), and coordinated and led by INFOMAR (Integrated Mapping for the Sustainable Development of Ireland’s Marine Resources). The objectives of the survey were to implement the EMFF’s Marine Biodiversity Scheme - Natura Fisheries, by mapping offshore reef habitats with a view to protecting them from deterioration due to fishing pressures. The reef project aligns with sub-article 6.2 of the Habitats Directive (EC 92/43/EEC) which requires member states to take measures to avoid deterioration of protected habitats. The Sensitive Ecosystem Assessment and ROV Exploration of Reef (SeaRover) survey took place between 2017 to 2019. The 2017 and 2018 surveys took place onboard the ILV Granuaile whilst the third survey leg in 2019 employed the Marine Institute’s RV Celtic Explorer. The Marine Institute’s remotely operated vehicle (ROV) Holland I was used for each of these cruises. The Holland I was equipped with a high-definition (HD) camera, various composite video feeds and a robotic arm for sample collection. The primary aim of the survey was to map the distribution and abundance of biogenic and geogenic reef habitat along Ireland’s continental margin using HD video.
  • Interim Review of the National Marine Research & Innovation Strategy 2017-2021

    Indecon International Economic Consultants (Marine Institute, 2021)
    This independent review examines the National Marine Research and Innovation Strategy (‘MRIS’) 2017-2021 and progress towards achieving the goals and implementing actions as set out in the Strategy. Indecon International Research Economics were appointed by the Marine Institute to undertake the assignment. The review represents an assessment of the progress of the strategy, including a review of implementing structures and any emerging outputs and associated impacts.
  • Cruise report: Irish Anglerfish & Megrim Survey 2021

    Kelly, Eoghan; Gerritsen, Hans D; Stokes, David; Moore, S.J. (Marine Institute, 2021)
    The 2021 Irish Anglerfish and Megrim Survey (IAMS) took place from 8th February to 4th March (area 7bcjk) and 10-21st April 2021 (area 6a) on RV Celtic Explorer. The main objective of the survey is to obtain biomass and abundance indices for anglerfish (Lophius piscatorius and L. budegassa) and megrim (Lepidorhombus whiffiagonis and L. boscii) in areas 6a (south of 58°N) and 7 (west of 8°W). Secondary objectives are to collect data on the distribution, relative abundance and biology of other commercially exploited species. For the third year, additional sampling took place in deep water (up to 1,500m) in order to monitor the recovery of exploited deep-water species following the decline of the deep-water fisheries in Irish waters. In addition, two extra days of fishing were allocated to target Marine Scotland stations north of 58°. The IAMS survey is coordinated with the Scottish Anglerfish and Megrim Survey (SIAMISS) and uses the same gear and fishing practices.
  • International Blue Whiting Spawning Stock Survey (IBWSS) Spring 2021

    Marine Institute; Wageningen Marine Research; PINRO; Faroe Marine Research Institute; Danish Institute for Fisheries Research; Spanish Institute of Oceanography; Institute of Marine Research (Marine Institute, 2021)
    Coordination of the survey was initiated at the meeting of the Working Group on International Pelagic Surveys (WGIPS) in January 2021 and continued by correspondence until the start of the survey. During the survey effort was refined and adjusted by the survey coordinator (Norway) using real time observations. The survey design was based on methods described in ICES Manual for International Pelagic Surveys (ICES, 2015). Weather conditions were regarded as exceptionally poor and all vessels experienced multiple days of downtime, with the exception of the Spanish vessel working in the Porcupine Seabight. This considered, the stock was covered comprehensively and contained within the survey area. The entire survey was completed in 19 days, below 21-day target threshold.
  • Shellfish Stocks and Fisheries Review 2020: an assessment of selected stocks

    Marine Institute; Bord Iascaigh Mhara (Marine Institute, 2021)
    addition, data on the fleet and landings of shellfish species (excluding Nephrops and mussels) are presented. The intention of this annual review is to present stock assessment and management advice for shellfisheries that may be subject to new management proposals or where scientific advice is required in relation to assessing the environmental impact of shellfish fisheries especially in areas designated under European Directives. The review reflects the recent work of the Marine Institute (MI) in the biological assessment of shellfish fisheries and their interaction with the environment. The information and advice presented here for shellfish is complementary to that presented in the MI Stock Book on demersal and pelagic fisheries. Separate treatment of shellfish is warranted as their biology and distribution, the assessment methods that can be applied to them and the system under which they are managed, all differ substantially to demersal and pelagic stocks. Shellfish stocks are not generally assessed by The International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) and although they come under the competency of the Common Fisheries Policy they are generally not regulated by EU TAC and in the main, other than crab and scallop, are distributed inside the national 12 nm fisheries limit. Management of these fisheries is within the competency of the Department of Agriculture, Food and Marine (DAFM). A co-operative management framework introduced by the Governing Department and BIM in 2005 (Anon 2005), and under which a number of fishery management plans were developed, was, in 2014, replaced by the National and Regional Inshore Fisheries Forums (NIFF, RIFFs). These bodies are consultative forums, the members of which are representative of the inshore fisheries sector and other stakeholder groups. The National forum (NIFF) provides a structure with which each of the regional forums can interact with each other and with the Marine Agencies, DAFM and the Minister. Management of oyster fisheries is the responsibility of The Department of Communications, Climate Action and Environment (DCCAE) implemented through Inland Fisheries Ireland (IFI). In many cases, however, management responsibility for oysters is devolved through Fishery Orders or Aquaculture licences to local co-operatives. The main customers for this review are DAFM, RIFFs, NIFF and other Departments and Authorities listed above
  • Lance -the Miniboat

    Dow, Kaitlyn (Kaitlyn Dow, 2017)
    The illustrated story of Lance was presented to the Marine Institute during the author’s visit to Ireland. Kaitlyn Dow tells the story of the adventures of the Lancer the miniboat, that was launched from the USA National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) research vessel Neil Armstrong. The miniboat project was completed as part of her secondary school project, Waterford CT Highschool from Connecticut, USA and supported by AORA-CSA who had formed a partnership in 2016 with Educational Passages mini-sailboats in the USA. The Lancer boat was fitted with a GPS tracker to monitor how it might get caught in the Atlantic's ocean currents and ended up sailing into Droim, Leitir Móir, Galway where it was found by primary school student Méabh Ní Ghionnáin. The boat was repaired by Méabh and her family and relaunched from the Marine Institute's research vessel RV Celtic Explorer on the 22nd April 2017, in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean.
  • An Ocean of Stories! An Anthology of Children’s Ocean Stories, by children for children

    Madigan, Carmel T. (The Loophead Summer Hedge School, 2021)
    An Ocean of Stories - An Anthology of Children’s Ocean Stories, by children for children include over fifty stories selected, from fourteen participating classes, with a selection of at least three contributions from each class. Over 300 children from County Clare and County Limerick produced stories, artwork and poems that were inspired by the ocean, as part of the Explorers Education Programme’s project in 2020-2021. The stories chosen for the final anthology were selected on the basis of good writing, diversity of personal ocean based experiences and imagination. The stories are truly beautiful, expressive, engaging, intriguing, thoughtful, succinct, and make for wonderful insightful reading, whatever your age. These stories are the children’s own, their lived experiences intertwined with creative thinking, even fantasy at times, while some are pure fact or pure fiction. All these stories are lovely to read and the reader will feel enriched having read them.
  • Blue Carbon and Marine Carbon Sequestration in Irish Waters and Coastal Habitats

    Cott, Grace; Beca-Carretero, Pedro; Stengel, Dagmar (Marine Institute, 2021)
    Atmospheric CO2 is rising globally. Opportunities for reducing this trend include energy sector adjustments and management of both land and ocean resources. Improved management of coastal and oceanic ecosystems is therefore poised to contribute to, and enhance, climate mitigation and adaptation. This report outlines the emergence of blue carbon as a concept for the integration of coastal carbon dynamics into policy and management frameworks and defines blue carbon ecosystems. It also emphasises the importance of marine carbon sequestration and highlights its potential role in climate adaptation. Ireland is estimated to store at least 9.2 Mt of carbon in its saltmarsh and seagrass habitats, which cover an estimated minimum area of 162 km2. Estimates of carbon stocks in potential blue carbon ecosystems such as macroalgae beds are hampered by lack of data on extent, productivity and actual contribution. Irish coastal blue carbon ecosystems and their carbon sequestration capacity are currently threatened by anthropogenic factors such as land reclamation and poor water quality. The possibility of including saltmarsh and seagrass habitats in Ireland’s National Inventory Report on GHG emissions to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and including Ireland’s potential blue carbon ecosystems in Ireland’s Nationally Determined Contributions is highlighted. The critical knowledge gaps and future research priorities are outlined, so that Ireland can advance the pace of scientific discovery whilst harnessing the climate change potential of its coastal and marine environment.
  • Ocean Citizen Survey: Perceptions of the Irish public on priorities for the protection and sustainable use of the ocean

    French, Veronica; McDonough, N (Marine Institute, 2020)
    The European Union (EU) has a bold and ambitious aspiration to restore European marine and freshwater ecosystems by 2030, by reducing human pressures on marine and freshwater environments, restoring degraded ecosystems and sustainably harnessing the essential goods and services they provide. A group of top EU experts have put forward an ambitious proposal for a “Mission Starfish”. This major flagship ‘mission’ for healthy ocean, seas, coastal and inland waters is to be funded by the EU under the forthcoming Horizon Europe Framework Programme (2021-2027) and will also need to be supported by other EU, national and regional funding programmes. To achieve its goal, the mission aims to raise awareness of the importance of healthy oceans, seas, coastal and inland waters among citizens and help develop solutions on a range of issues. Citizens are crucial to the design and accomplishment of the mission in helping to set objectives and targets and ensuring that missions like this one make a real difference in everybody’s lives. As part of the European Commission’s engagement with citizens across multiple EU countries on the mission, the Marine Institute developed a survey to consult Irish citizens and seek their views on what they believe are the top priorities for the health of the ocean and inland waters and how we can sustainably use and benefit from marine and aquatic resources. The survey was based around two areas of the proposed mission, namely: filling the knowledge and emotional gap, and; decarbonising our ocean, seas and waters. The survey was launched online on 13 August 2020 and was open for four weeks. This report presents the results of the survey summarising the opinions expressed by the 1013 respondents. The results provide an insight into people’s opinions and levels of awareness of our ocean, seas, coastal and inland waters and will inform the mission planning.
  • Explorers Wild About Wildlife on the Seashore: Living Things - Simple Presentation

    Dromgool-Regan, Cushla; Burke, Noirin (Marine Institute, 2021)
    The Explorers Wild About Wildlife on the Seashore PowerPoint LIVING THINGS SIMPLE PRESENTATION can be used for junior science classes learning about living things on the seashore. The presentation looks at seaweeds and a selection of the different types of animals that are found on the seashore including jellyfish, crabs and fish. The Presentations can be used as PowerPoint or interactive presentations on a Whiteboard.

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