• Assuring Seafood Safety: Contaminants and Residues in Irish Seafood 2004-2008

      McGovern, Evin; McHugh, Brendan; O’Hea, Linda; Joyce, Eileen; Tlustos, Christina; Glynn, Denise (Marine Institute (in collaboration with Food Safety Authority of Ireland), 2011)
      This report provides an overview on the occurrence of environmental contaminants, such as metals and persistent organic pollutants (POPs), and veterinary residues in Irish seafood. Compliance of seafood (shellfish, crustaceans, wild and farmed finfish) with relevant EC Regulatory Limits for contaminants is examined and an overview of conformance of the aquaculture sector with the requirements of the EC Residues Directive (Dir 96/23/EC) is presented for 2004 - 2008. The contribution of seafood to the dietary intake of certain contaminants for the Irish adult seafood consumer is estimated and the risks of contaminant exposure from seafood consumption are considered in the context of the well established health benefits of seafood consumption.
    • Chemical Residues in Irish Farmed Finfish, 2012-2014

      Glynn, D.; Kelly, C.; Moffat, R.; Reid, A.; Toomey, M.; O'Hea, L.; Elliott, M.; Hickey, C.; Geary, M.; Ruane, N. M.; McGovern, E. (Marine Institute, 2015)
      The Marine Institute carries out monitoring of chemical residues in aquaculture in accordance with Council Directive 96/23/EC of 29 April 1996, on measures to monitor certain substances and residues thereof in animals and animal products, also known as the Residues Directive. This is carried out on behalf of the Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine (DAFM). For the aquaculture sector, the Sea Fisheries Protection Authority (SFPA) with technical support from the Institute is responsible for residue controls on farmed finfish on behalf of the national residue monitoring plan. Annually, the National Residues Control Plan (NRCP) for Aquaculture is prepared by the Institute and this sets out the monitoring requirements for residues in animal products in required by the directive. The main objectives of the National Residue Control Plan for Aquaculture is to ensure farmed fish are fit for human consumption; to provide a body of data showing that Irish farmed fish is of high quality; to promote good practices in aquaculture; and to comply with EU Directive 96/23/EC. Based on production tonnage, the following species for the period of 2012 to 2014 were sampled and tested: Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), freshwater and sea reared trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss & Salmo trutta). In excess of 2,141 tests and a total of 4,972 residue measurements were carried out over this three year period. Tests were carried out for banned substances such as growth promoters and other unauthorised substances such as malachite green, which should not be present. Harvest fish were also tested for authorised veterinary treatments such as antibiotics and sea lice treatments, environmental contaminants such as trace metals, polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides, to check for compliance with Maximum Residue Levels (MRL) where available. As in previous years, no non-compliant results were reported in the surveillance monitoring programme for farmed finfish during the period 2012 to 2014. Overall, in recent years the outcome for aquaculture remains one of consistently low occurrence of residues in farmed finfish, with 0.23% non-compliant results from routine targeted monitoring in 2004, 0.09% in 2005 and one of full compliance with 0% non-compliant target residue results for the period 2006-2014.
    • Environmental factors associated with invasion: modeling occurrence data from a coordinated sampling programme for Pacific oysters

      Kochmann, J.; O’Beirn, F.X.; Yearsley, J.; Crowe, T.P. (Springer Netherlands, 2013)
      Documenting establishment and spread of invasive species requires extensive co-ordinated sampling programmes. Identifying the factors promoting or inhibiting local establishment of an invasive species can improve capacity to predict further spread and underpin strategies to limit spread. Here, a structured sampling programme was used to assess the current distribution of feral populations of Pacific oysters, Crassostrea gigas, in Ireland. Sixty-nine sites were sampled using a standardised protocol combining semi-quantitative and quantitative approaches. Sites were chosen to represent variation in proximity to aquaculture and a range of environmental variables. Oyster populations were found at 18 locations, with densities ranging from single individuals to nine individuals per m2. The broad size range of oysters found is indicative of more than one recruitment event. Logistic regression indicated that feral oysters were positively associated with the presence of hard substrata or biogenic reef, long residence times of embayments and large intertidal areas. There was also a tendency for oysters to occur disproportionately in bays with aquaculture, but >500 m from it. Small-scale analysis within sites showed that oysters were almost exclusively attached to hard substrata and mussel shell. The approach taken here provides a rigorous repeatable methodology for future monitoring and a detailed basis for the prediction of further spread.
    • Evaluation of the impacts of aquaculture and freshwater habitat on the status of Atlantic salmon stocks in Ireland

      Jackson, D.; McDermott, T.; Kane, F.; O’Donohoe, P.; Kelly, S. (Scientific Research Publishing, 2013)
      Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) returns to rivers in Ireland have fallen in the last decade resulting in the dramatic closure or curtailment of tradi- tional fisheries. Concerns that stocks were slow to recover prompted further investigation of all factors believed to impact on salmon. In exam- ining geographic and temporal trends in Atlantic salmon stock abundance at a River Basin Dis- trict level, the effect of salmon aquaculture sites and freshwater habitat quality as potential driv- ers of stock abundance are evaluated. This study found no correlation between the pres- ence of aquaculture and the performance of ad- jacent wild salmon stocks. Freshwater habitat quality was found to have a highly significant correlation with stock status, suggesting that it may be a key driver, implicated in the survival of individual stocks.
    • Genetic variability in marine bivalvia: implications and applications in molluscan mariculture

      Wilkins, N P (Universa Press, 1976)
      The extent of genetic variability at enzyme gene loci is assessed in twelve species of marine bivalve molluscs of actual or potential commercial importance. Approximately one third of these loci are polymorphic, average heterozygosity is 0.14, and an average of 3.9 alleles are segregating per polymorphic locus. Hatchery-produced samples exhibit a lower proportion of polymorphic loci and a loss of some alleles at polymorphic loci. In two hatchery-produced families of Crassostrea gigas, phenotype frequencies at two loci depart from Mendelian expectations in young individuals. The implications of these hatchery induced alterations are discussed, together with some possible applications of biochemical genetics in molluscan mariculture.
    • Growth and survival of Spisula solidissima similis larvae fed different rations of Tahitian strain Isochrysis species

      Hurley, D.H.; Walker, R.L.; O'Beirn, F.X. (National Shellfisheries Association, 1997)
      Laboratory-spawned veliger-stage larvae of the southern Atlantic surfclam, Spisula solidissima similis (Say 1822), were reared to late pediveliger stage on five different cell concentrations of Tahitian strain Isochrysis species (T-Iso) to determine an optimal food ration for this subspecies. Larvae were fed daily 0, 50,000, 100,000, 200,000, or 300,000 cells/mL of T-Iso. Day-old veliger larvae were stocked in 150 (1-L) replicate flasks at mean densities of 0.7 or 0.8 larvae/mL for trials A and B, respectively. Larval growth and survival were assessed every 2 days over the 14-day trial penods. Significantly greater growth and survival of larvae occurred in both trials in the lower food rations of 50,000 and 100,000 cells/mL. A reduction in larval growth rate and survival was observed at the higher ration treatments. A decline in overall larval health may be associated with the deliterious effects of surplus ration degradation.
    • Ireland's Ocean Economy and Resources

      O'Connor, J.; O'Leary, J.; Shields, Y. (Marine Institute, 2005)
      Although virtually all of Ireland's trade is by sea, and around 80% of the population live in coastal counties, Ireland's marine resource can more truthfully be described as an under-developed resource, or an under-utilised national asset. It contributes approx. 1% of Ireland's GNP - a much lower proportion than in most other maritime countries. Looking at it another way, Ireland's ocean economy - a well-kept national secret - is a wealth of opportunity, waiting to be discovered. This briefing document sets out to provide a profile of Ireland's ocean economy, and explain why, and how, the country should be seeking to develop its maritime resource in the coming years.
    • Modelling origin and spread of Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis Virus in the Irish salmon farming industry: the role of inputs

      Ruane, N.M.; Murray, A.G.; Geoghegan, F.; Raynard, R.S. (Elsevier, 2009)
      Observed emergence of IPNV in farmed Irish salmon is simulated using a model originally developed to analyse the spread of the virus in Scotland [Murray, A.G., 2006a. A model of the spread of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus in Scottish salmon farms 1996–2003. Ecol. Model. 199, 64–72]. IPNV appears to have become established relatively recently in Ireland and the model is altered to explicitly simulate the origin of the spread of the virus. Input to freshwater farms was key to initiation of infection, but modelling suggests that endogenous spread was responsible for much of the subsequent increase in prevalence of IPNV. From the modelling, it is unlikely that direct imports accounted for most IPNV cases. If this is the case, cessation of imports, without a substantial improvement in biosecurity, would be likely to be of only limited effect in controlling IPNV. Marine IPNV prevalence appears to be insensitive to direct interventions in the marine environment (as in the Scottish model). A multi-element control strategy, targeting both endogenous spread and external input of infection and prioritising freshwater sites, but extending to marine sites, would probably now be required to eradicate IPNV from Ireland.
    • The National Surveillance Monitoring Programme for Residues in Farmed Fish

      Marine Institute (Marine Institute, 2015)
      All European Member States have a responsibility to monitor the use of veterinary medicines in food producing animals, to ensure that produce from these animals do not contain residues that could be harmful to consumers. It is a requirement to implement surveillance monitoring in accordance with the Residues Directive (Directive 96/23/EC) and to have in place national plans (National Residues Control Plan-NRCP) for the monitoring of certain chemical substances and residues in a range of food producing species and products e.g. cattle, pigs, sheep, farmed finfish. The National Residues Control Plan for Aquaculture in Ireland is specifically for farmed finfish and forms part of the overall National Residue Control Plan.
    • The occurrence of DSP toxicity in Ireland

      Jackson, D.; Silke, J.; Doyle, J.; Nixon, E.; Taaffe, B. (ICES, 1993)
      The geographical and temporal variations in the occurrence of DSP in Ireland are presented and the implications of the resulting closures on aquaculture operations and fisheries are discussed. Prior to 1992 DSP toxicity had been confined to the southwest and south coasts but in 1992 a protracted occurrence of DSP was recorded in Killary Harbour on the west coast.
    • Organisms associated with oysters cultured in floating systems in Virginia, USA

      O'Beirn, F.X.; Ross, P.G.; Luckenbach, M.W. (National Shellfisheries Association, 2004)
      The number and abundance of macro-fauna! taxa was estimated from six floating structures (floats) used to culture the Eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) near Chincoteague Island, Virginia, USA. After a 10-mo grow-out period, all organisms found among and attached to the cultured oysters were counted. The final mean size of oysters was 80.5 (14.7 SD) mm. Overall, 45 species of macrofauna were recorded with the number of species in the floats ranging from 24 to 36. There was no relationship between the number of taxa and the density of oysters in the floats. Total abundances of associated organisms were estimated at 12,746/float to 92,602/float. These findings highlight the diverse (taxonomic and trophic) and abundant nature of communities associated with cultured oysters. They also provide a baseline set of information that may help more clearly define the interactions between oyster culture and the environment.
    • Phylogenetic analysis of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus in Ireland reveals the spread of a virulent genogroup 5 subtype previously associated with imports

      Ruane, N.M.; McCleary, S.J.; McCarthy, L.J.; Henshilwood, K. (Springer Verlag, 2015)
      Infectious pancreatic necrosis is a significant disease of farmed salmonids resulting in direct economic losses due to high mortality and disease-management costs. Significant outbreaks of the disease occurred in farmed Atlantic salmon in Ireland between 2003 and 2007, associated with imported ova and smolts. As the virus was known to occur in the country since the development of aquaculture in the 1980s, this study examined archived samples to determine whether these older isolates were associated with virulent forms. The study showed that two genotypes of IPNV were present in the 1990s, genotype 3 and genotype 5. A more virulent subtype of the virus first appeared in 2003 associated with clinical outbreaks of IPN, and this subtype is now the most prevalent form of IPNV found in the country. The data also indicated that IPNV in Ireland is more closely related to Scottish and continental European isolates than to Norwegian, Chilean and Australasian genogroup 5 isolates.
    • Status of Irish Aquaculture 2003

      Marine Institute; Bord Iascaigh Mhara; Taighde Mara Teo (Marine Institute, 2004)
      This is the first joint report on the status of Irish aquaculture, which has been produced in collaboration by the three main State agencies that provide support services in the areas of research and development to the industry – Bord Iascaigh Mhara, the Marine Institute and Taighde Mara. The value of industry output was over €1 billion in the period from 1990 to 2003 and this represents a significant socio economic impact in the coastal areas of the south and west coast. The aims of the report are to: (1) provide an objective and comprehensive source of information on the status of Irish aquaculture in 2003; (2) show the main trends in the production, employment and market statistics for the Irish industry in 2003; (3) summarize the current licensing activity which is the responsibility of the Department of Communications, Marine and Natural Resources; (4) show the wide range of monitoring programmes for farmed shellfish and finfish which are carried out primarily by the Marine Institute, in accordance with Irish and EU food safety and environmental requirements; and (5) highlight the various research and development initiates in the area of aquaculture, which are underway in the agencies and third-level institutions.
    • Status of Irish Aquaculture 2004

      Marine Institute; Bord Iascaigh Mhara; Taighde Mara Teo (Marine Institute, 2005)
      This report is the second annual report on the status of Irish aquaculture (see Parsons et al., 2004). It has been produced in collaboration with the three main State agencies that provide support services in the areas of research and development to the industry – Bord Iascaigh Mhara (BIM), the Marine Institute and Taighde Mara. The aims of the report are to: (1) provide an objective and comprehensive source of information on the status of Irish aquaculture in 2004; (2) show the main trends in the production, employment export and market statistics for the Irish industry in 2004; (3) summarize the current licensing activity, which is the responsibility of the Department of Communications, Marine and Natural Resources; (4) present the results of the wide range of monitoring programmes for farmed shellfish and finfish, which are carried out primarily by the Marine Institute, in accordance with Irish and EU food safety and environmental requirements; (5) highlight the various research and development initiatives in the area of aquaculture that are underway in the various State agencies and third-level institutions; and (6) report other issues/events/initiatives that occurred during 2004. The overall aim of the report is to provide useful reference material for the industry, trade customers, investors, researchers and interested parties.
    • Status of Irish Aquaculture 2005

      Marine Institute; Bord Iascaigh Mhara; Taighde Mara Teo (Marine Institute, 2006)
      This is the third annual report on the status of Irish aquaculture (see Parsons et al., 2003, Parsons et al., 2004). As with the previous reports it has been produced in collaboration with the three main State agencies that provide support services in the areas of research and development to the industry – Bord Iascaigh Mhara (BIM), the Marine Institute (MI) and Taighde Mara Teo (TMT). The objectives of this report are: (1) To provide a useful, objective and comprehensive source of information on the status of Irish aquaculture in the year 2005; (2) To show trends in the production, employment, export and market statistics for the Irish industry in 2005; (3) To summarise the current licensing activity, which is the responsibility of the Department of Communications, Marine and Natural Resources; (4) To present the results of the wide range of monitoring programmes for farmed shellfish and finfish, which are carried out primarily by the Marine Institute, in accordance with Irish and EU food safety and environmental requirements; (5) To highlight the various research and development initiatives in the area of aquaculture that are underway in the various State agencies and third-level institutions; and (6) To report on issues/events/initiatives that occurred during the year 2005. The overall aim of the report is to provide useful reference material for the industry, trade customers, investors, researchers and interested parties.
    • Status of Irish Aquaculture 2006

      Marine Institute; Bord Iascaigh Mhara; Taighde Mara Teo (Marine Institute, 2007)
      This is the fourth annual report reviewing the status of Irish aquaculture (see Parsons et al. 2004, Parsons et al. 2005, and Browne et al. 2006). As with the previous reports it has been produced in collaboration with the three main State agencies that provide support services in the areas of research and development to the industry – Bord Iascaigh Mhara (BIM), the Marine Institute (MI) and Údarás na Gaeltachta/ Taighde Mara Teoranta (TMT). The objectives of this report are: (1) To provide an objective and comprehensive source of information on the status of Irish aquaculture in 2006. (2) To show trends in the production, employment, export and market statistics for the Irish industry in 2006. (3) To summarise the current licensing activity, which is the responsibility of the Department of Communications, Marine and Natural Resources. (4) To present the results of the wide range of monitoring programmes for farmed shellfish and finfish, which are carried out primarily by the Marine Institute, in accordance with Irish and EU food safety and environmental requirements. (5) To highlight the various research and development initiatives in the area of aquaculture that are underway in the various State agencies and third-level institutions. (6) To collate information about Irish aquaculture training. (7) To report on issues/events/initiatives that occurred during the year 2006. (8) To review the impact of the National Development Plan (2000 to 2006) on Irish Aquaculture. (9) To present summaries of pertinent aquaculture reports published during 2006. (10) To provide an introduction to Aquaculture in Northern Ireland. The overall aim of the report is to provide useful reference material for the industry, trade customers, investors, researchers and interested parties.
    • Status of Irish Aquaculture 2007

      Marine Institute; Bord Iascaigh Mhara; Údarás na Gaeltachta (Marine Institute, 2008)
      This is the fifth annual report to review the status of Irish aquaculture (see Parsons et al., 2004, Parsons et al., 2005, Browne et al., 2006, and Browne et al., 2007). As with previous editions it has been produced in collaboration with the three main State agencies that provide support services in the areas of research and development to the industry – Bord Iascaigh Mhara (BIM), the Marine Institute (MI) and Údarás na Gaeltachta. The objectives of this and previous reports are: (1) To provide an objective and comprehensive source of information on the status of Irish aquaculture in 2007. (2) To show trends in the production, employment, export and market statistics for the Irish industry in 2007. (3) To summarise the current licensing activity, this was the responsibility of the Department of Communications, Marine and Natural Resources, now the Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (DAFF). (4) To present the results of the wide range of monitoring programmes for farmed shellfish and finfish, which are carried out primarily by the Marine Institute, in accordance with Irish and EU food safety and environmental requirements. (5) To highlight the various aquaculture research and development initiatives which were underway in 2007. (6) To collate information about Irish aquaculture training. (7) To report on issues/events/initiatives that occurred during the year 2007. (8) To present summaries of pertinent aquaculture reports published during 2007. The overall aim of the report is to provide useful reference material for the industry, trade customers, investors, researchers and interested parties.
    • Tools for Appropriate Assessment of Fishing and Aquaculture Activities in Marine and Coastal Natura 2000 Sites. Report IV: Intertidal and Subtidal Mixed Sediments

      ABPmer (ABP Marine Environmental Research Ltd, 2013)
      Ireland has many coastal and marine habitats and species that are of national and international conservation importance. The value of these has been recognised by the designation of a number of Special Areas of Conservation and Special Protected Areas through the EU Habitats Directive (92/43/EEC) and EU Birds Directive (2009/147/EC). Together these sites form part of the European network of Natura 2000 sites. This report and accompanying annexes is part of a series of documents that present a risk assessment tool developed by ABPmer to assess the effects of fishing and aquaculture activities on the Annex I habitats and Annex II species present in Natura 2000 sites. The tool is designed to support the preparation of screening statements and Appropriate Assessments. Specifically this report presents the project deliverables for the assessment of intertidal and subtidal mixed sediments habitats and describes the potential use of the risk assessment tool.
    • Tools for Appropriate Assessment of Fishing and Aquaculture Activities in Marine and Coastal Natura 2000 Sites. Report V: Intertidal and Subtidal Coarse Sediments

      ABPmer (ABP Marine Environmental Research Ltd, 2013)
      Ireland has many coastal and marine habitats and species that are of national and international conservation importance. The value of these has been recognised by the designation of a number of Special Areas of Conservation and Special Protected Areas through the EU Habitats Directive (92/43/EEC) and EU Birds Directive (2009/147/EC). Together these sites form part of the European network of Natura 2000 sites. This report and accompanying annexes is part of a series of documents that present a risk assessment tool developed by ABPmer to assess the effects of fishing and aquaculture activities on the Annex I habitats and Annex II species present in Natura 2000 sites. The tool is designed to support the preparation of screening statements and Appropriate Assessments. Specifically this report presents the project deliverables for the assessment of coarse sediments and describes the potential use of the risk assessment tool.
    • Tools for Appropriate Assessment of Fishing and Aquaculture Activities in Marine and Coastal Natura 2000 Sites. Report VI: Biogenic Reefs (Sabellaria, Native Oyster, Maerl).

      ABPmer (ABP Marine Environmental Research Ltd, 2013)
      Ireland has many coastal and marine habitats and species that are of national and international conservation importance. The value of these has been recognised by the designation of a number of Special Areas of Conservation and Special Protected Areas through the EU Habitats Directive (92/43/EEC) and EU Birds Directive (2009/147/EC). Together these sites form part of the European network of Natura 2000 sites. This report and accompanying annexes is part of a series of documents that present a risk assessment tool developed by ABPmer to assess the effects of fishing and aquaculture activities on the Annex I habitats and Annex II species present in Natura 2000 sites. The tool is designed to support the preparation of screening statements and Appropriate Assessments. Specifically this report presents the project deliverables for the assessment of Biogenic Reefs (Sabellaria, Native Oyster, Maerl)and describes the potential use of the risk assessment tool.