• Water Framework Directive: marine ecological tools for reference, intercalibration and classification (METRIC): final report for the ERTDI-funded project: 2005-W-MS-36

      Cusack, C.; O’Beirn, F.X.; King, J.J.; Silke, J.; Keirse, G.; Whyte, B.I.; Leahy, Y.; Noklegaard, T.; McCormack, E.; McDermott, G. (EPA, 2008)
      Water quality monitoring programmes exist in many of the Member States throughout the European Union (EU). With the implementation of the Water Framework Directive (WFD, Council Directive 2000/60/EC) all Member States must harmonise their national monitoring methods for each common metric (parameter indicative of a biological water quality element) used to determine the state of the aquatic environment to ensure consistent and comparable classification results for all biological community quality elements used (WFD Annex V, 1.4.1). The Marine Ecological Tools for Reference, Intercalibrationand Classification (METRIC) project, therefore, was designed specifically to support the Irish role in the EU Intercalibration Exercise of biological quality elements (BQEs) in order to set harmonised ecological quality criteria for the assessment of water quality in the transitional and coastal (TraC) waters of Europe. The BQEs investigated by METRIC included: Plants (phytoplankton, macroalgae andangiosperms), Benthic macroinvertebrates (soft-bottom habitat), Fish (estuarine).
    • Water pollution

      Marine Institute (Marine Institute, 2013)
      Students will learn about what causes water pollution and how to be environmentally aware. *Note: Students should understand the concept of the water cycle before moving onto water pollution (see Lesson Plan “Oceans all Around Us”).
    • Water Quality Investigations in the River Blackwater and River Martin, Co. Cork--1966-1969

      Toner, P. F.; O'Connell, C. (Department of Agriculture and Fisheries [Fisheries Division], 1971)
      Investigations in the period 1966 to 1969 showed that the bulk of the waste discharged to the Blackwater and Martin is of an organic nature and arises mainly from industries processing milk, sugar-beet and other foods and to a smaller extent from domestic sewage. Pollution, indicated by increases in the biochemical oxygen demand and suspended solids and depletion in dissolved oxygen, was detected below the towns of Rathmore and Mallow on the main Blackwater, Mitchelstown, on a tributary of the Blackwater, the R. Funcheon, and Rathduff on the R. Martin. Depletion of dissolved oxygen sufficiently large to constitute lethal conditions for fish and other aquatic life was recorded only at Mitchelstown and it appears that the high rates of reaeration operating in most cases prevented more widespread deoxygenation and also reduced the extent of diurnal variation. The concentrations of suspended solids recorded in polluted reaches were well below those which are directly injurious to fish but the accumulation of this material as sludge in slow flowing stretches below outfalls constitutes an extra demand on dissolved oxygen which in combination with the B.O.D. of the water may lead to lethal conditions. In the Funcheon, the presence of this material and of sewage fungus on the substratum invalidates the application of the standard theoretical method for predicting the variation of dissolved oxygen. The partial or complete elimination of the normal flora and invertebrate fauna from riffles below the main waste outfalls, and replacement of these by biocoenoses typical of slow flowing silted reaches were recorded in each area. The extent of such changes seemed to be related more to the intensity of sewage fungus growth on the substratum than directly to the chemical quality of the water. Complete elimination of fish was only recorded at Mitchelstown, the stretch affected being half a mile in length. Trout and coarse fish were present in all af the other polluted stretches investigated though in some of these young salmon were absent and trout very few in number. Trout appeared to make better growth in polluted than in unpolluted water, especially at Rathmore, and this is due in part to a greater food supply in the former reaches. Short surveys of the Blackwater estuary indicated that this reach may be slightly polluted. While the investigations indicated that severe pollution occurred in several reaches of the Blackwater and Martin, it was considered that the overall productivity of fish in the rivers was unlikely, at that stage, to have been adversely affected by such pollution.
    • Water-based Tourism - A Strategic Vision for Galway

      Marine Institute (Marine Institute, 2002)
      Water-based Tourism – A Strategic Vision for Galway is a report commissioned by a consortium of Agencies in collaboration with Ireland West Tourism. The terms of reference were to undertake a study which would: - evaluate the potential to develop the water-based tourism and leisure resource in Galway City and County; - identify the potential and provide a development strategy for at least six pilot water-based tourism and leisure initiatives in selected geographic locations throughout Galway; - recommend further phased development options which would enhance and sustain economic progress of the water-based tourism and leisure sector in Galway. Tourism Development International were contracted to undertake the study, the results of which are presented in this report.
    • Water-based Tourism and Leisure Product Audit 2006

      Huskyes, E; O'Connor, K (Marine Institute, 2006)
      In consultation with key agencies and stakeholders, the Marine Institute is drafting a Development Strategy for the marine/water-based tourism and leisure sector for the period 2007-2013. Preparation and research for this has involved the completion of a Water-based Tourism and Leisure Product Audit. The Institute worked in collaboration with Royal Haskoning, spatial planning consultants, and Kevin O’Connor, Donegal County Council, to complete the audit. The objective of the audit is to systematically assess the quantity and quality of Ireland’s waterbased tourism and leisure products and to identify product gaps and opportunities at local, regional and national level with a view to informing policy and investment decisions.
    • Western European Shelf Pelagic Acoustic Survey (WESPAS) 06 June - 21 July, 2017

      O’Donnell, C.; O’Malley, M.; Mullins, E.; Lynch, D.; Keogh, N.; O’Sullivan, C. (Marine Institute, 2017)
      The WESPAS survey program is the consolidation of two existing survey programs carried out by FEAS. The Malin Shelf herring acoustic survey has been carried out annually since 2008 and reports on the annual abundance of summer feeding aggregations of herring to the west of Scotland and to the north and west of Ireland from 54°N to 58°30’N. The boarfish survey was carried out from 2011 using a chartered fishing vessel and reports on the abundance of spawning aggregations of boarfish from 47°N to 57°N. In 2016 both surveys were combined and carried out onboard the RV Celtic Explorer over a 42 day period providing synoptic coverage of shelf waters from 47°N northwards to 58°30’N.
    • Western European Shelf Pelagic Acoustic Survey (WESPAS) 16 June - 30 July, 2016

      O'Donnell, C.; Nolan, C.; Johnson, G.; O'Malley, M.; Mullins, E.; Keogh, N.; O'Callaghan, S.; Keogh, H.; Grassie, A.; Nicholas, S. (Marine Instiute, 2016)
      The WESPAS survey program is the consolidation of two existing survey programs carried out by FEAS. The Main Shelf herring acoustic survey has been carried out annually since 2008 and reports on the annual abundance of summer feeding aggregations of herring to the west of Scotland and north of Ireland from 54N to 59N. The boarfish survey has been carried out since 2011using a chartered fishing vessel and reports on the abundance of spawning aggregations of boarfish 47N to 57N. In 2016 both surveys were combined and carried out onboard the RV Celtic Explorer over a 42 day period providing synoptic coverage of shelf waters from 59N southwards to 47N.
    • Western Irish Sea Nephrops (FU15) 2007 UWTV Survey Report

      Lordan, Colm; Doyle, Jennifer; Briggs, Richard (Marine Institute & Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute, 2008)
      The UWTV survey has been conducted on the western Irish Sea for a time series of 5 years. This report details the results of the surveys to date. The paper identifies a number of issues critical to the calculation of absolute abundance indices from the surveys and concludes that it is premature to have catch advice based directly on the survey although currently there is no serious concern regarding stock status on the western Irish Sea since burrow counts are still high.
    • Western Irish Sea Nephrops (FU15) 2008 UWTV Survey Report

      Lordan, Colm; Doyle, Jennifer; Briggs, Richard (Marine Institute & Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute, 2009-05)
      This survey is carried out in co-operation with Marine Institute (Ireland) and AFBI (Northern Ireland) and is in its sixth year. A revision of the count data for the early years 2003 and 2004 is also presented where the initial high burrow estimates were checked and a drift in burrow identification was detected as detailed in SGNEPS 2009.
    • Western Irish Sea Nephrops (FU15) 2010 UWTV Survey Report

      Lordan, Colm; Doyle, Jennifer; Briggs, Richard (Marine Institute & Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute, 2011-05)
      Since 2003 a joint UWTV survey has been carried out by the Marine Institute(Ireland) and AFBI (Northern Ireland). For the first time in 2009 this survey was used to develop catch options for the stock using a bias corrected survey estimate as an absolute measure of stock size and recent discard rates and mean weight to forecast catch (ICES, 2009a). This report details the results of the 2010 survey for the western Irish Sea Nephrops stock. We also update the catch option table using the most recent survey estimate.
    • Western Irish Sea Nephrops Grounds (FU 15) 2009 UWTV Survey Report

      Lordan, C; Doyle, J; Briggs, R (Marine Institute, 2009-09)
      Since 2003 a joint UWTV survey has been carried out by the Marine Institute (Ireland) and AFBI (Northern Ireland). In 2009 this survey was used to develop catch options for the stock using a bias corrected survey estimate as an absolute measure of stock size and recent discard rates and mean weight to forecast catch (ICES, 2009a). This report details the results of the 2009 survey for the western Irish Sea Nephrops stock. We also update the catch option table using the most recent survey estimate.
    • Western Irish Sea Nephrops Grounds (FU15) 2011 UWTV Survey Report

      Lordan, Colm; Service, Matthew; Doyle, Jennifer; Fitzgerald, Ross (Marine Institute & Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute, 2011)
      This is the ninth in a time series of UWTV surveys in the western Irish Sea carried out jointly by the Marine Institute, Ireland and the Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute (AFBI), Northern Ireland. The 2011 survey was multi disciplinary in nature and this report details the final UWTV results of the 2011 survey and also documents other data collected during the survey.
    • Western Irish Sea Nephrops Grounds (FU15) 2012 UWTV Survey Report

      Doyle, J.; Lordan, C.; Fitzgerald, R.; Strong, J.; Service, M. (Marine Institute & Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute, 2013)
      This report provides the main results and findings of the tenth annual underwater television on the ‘Irish sea west Nephrops grounds’ ICES assessment area; Functional Unit 15. The survey was multi-disciplinary in nature collecting UWTV, CTD and other ecosystem data. An analysis of the precision, accuracy and sampling intensity trade-offs showed that sampling intensity could be reduced without significantly reducing the precision and accuracy of the survey. Consequently, sampling intensity was reduced this year from ~150 stations in a 3.5 nautical mile grid to 99 stations (4.5nmi grid). Full coverage of the grid was achieved. The krigged burrow abundance estimate for the Irish Sea ground increased slightly (+3% relative to 2011). Abundance estimates have been fairly very stable over the time series. The 2012 randomised isometric grid design resulted in a CV (or relative standard error) of 3% which is in line with CVs observed previously and well below the upper limit of 20% recommended by SGNEPS 2012.
    • Western Irish Sea Nephrops Grounds (FU15) 2013 UWTV Survey Report and catch options for 2014

      Doyle, J.; Lordan, C.; Ligas, A.; Brown, V.; Leocadio, A.; McCausland, I.; McCorriston, P.; Service, M.; Stewart, P.; Schön, P.J. (Marine Institute & Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute, 2013)
      This report provides the main results and findings of the eleventh annual underwater television survey on the ‘Irish sea west Nephrops grounds’ ICES assessment area, Functional Unit 15. The survey was multi-disciplinary in nature collecting UWTV and other ecosystem data. The 2013 design consisted of a randomised isometric grid of 80 stations at 5 nautical mile intervals out over the full known extent the stock. The resulting krigged burrow abundance estimate was 4.3 billion burrows. This was a 16% decrease relative to 2012. The spatial distribution shows higher abundance in the south of the area and a larger decline in abundance is apparent in the North. Overall densities remain high and abundance remains relatively stable, well above MSY Btrigger. Reducing the number of stations in 2013 is not expected to have significantly affected the accuracy of the survey estimate. The CV (or relative standard error) of 3% is in line with previous estimates and well below the upper limit of 20% recommended by SGNEPS 2012. Total catches and landings options at various different fishing mortalities were calculated and fishing at Fmsy in 2014 implies a total catch option at Fmsy (=Fmax) of 9,914 tonnes which results in landings of no more than 8,244 tonnes. The only sea-pen species observed in 2013 was Virgularia mirabilis and the frequency of occurrence was lower than in 2012. Trawl marks were noted at 43% of the UWTV stations.
    • Western Irish Sea Nephrops Grounds (FU15) 2014 UWTV Survey Report and catch options for 2015

      Ligas, A.; Doyle, J.; Lordan, C.; Brown, V.; Doran, S.; McArdle, J.; McCausland, I.; McCorriston, P.; Simpson, S.; Schon, J. (Marine Institute and Agri-Food and Bioscience Institute, 2014-10)
      This report provides the main results and findings of the 12th annual underwater television survey on the ‘Irish sea west Nephrops grounds’ ICES assessment area, Functional Unit 15. The survey was multi-disciplinary in nature collecting UWTV and other ecosystem data. The 2014 design consisted of a randomised isometric grid of 101 stations at 4.5 nautical mile intervals out over the full known extent the stock. The resulting krigged burrow abundance estimate was 4.6 billion burrows. This was a similar result of that obtained in 2009, and slightly higher than the abundance in 2013. The spatial distribution shows a decline in abundance in the south-eastern area compared to 2013 figure, while a slight increase is apparent in the North and in the middle of the area. Overall densities remain high and abundance remains relatively stable, well above MSY Btrigger. Reducing the number of stations compared to 2011 is not expected to have significantly affected the accuracy of the survey estimate. The CV (or relative standard error) of 3% is in line with previous estimates and well below the upper limit of 20% recommended by SGNEPS 2012. Total catches and landings options at various different fishing mortalities were calculated and fishing at Fmsy in 2015 implies a total catch option at Fmsy (=Fmax) of 9,922 tonnes which results in landings of no more than 8,223 tonnes. The only sea-pen species observed in 2014 was Virgularia mirabilis and the frequency of occurrence was lower than the average during the investigated period, but higher than in 2013. Trawl marks were noted at 24% of the UWTV stations.
    • Western Irish Sea Nephrops Grounds (FU15) 2015 UWTV Survey Report and catch options for 2016

      Clements, A.; Doyle, J.; Lordan, C.; Brown, V.; Doran, S.; McArdle, J.; McCausland, I.; McCorriston, P.; Simpson, S.; Schon, J. (Marine Institute and Agri-Food and Bioscience Institute, 2015)
      This report provides the main results and findings of the 13th annual underwater television survey on the ‘Irish sea west Nephrops grounds’ ICES assessment area, Functional Unit 15.
    • Western Irish Sea Nephrops Grounds (FU15) 2017 UWTV Survey Report and catch options for 2018

      Clements, A.; Doyle, J.; Lordan, C.; Lundy, M.; McCorriston, P.; McArdle, J.; McCausland, I.; Burns, G.; Schön, P.J. (Marine Institute, 2017)
      This report provides the main results and findings of the 15th annual underwater television survey on the ‘Irish sea west Nephrops grounds’ ICES assessment area, Functional Unit 15. The survey was multi-disciplinary in nature collecting UWTV and other ecosystem data. The 2017 design consisted of a randomised isometric grid of 100 stations at 4.5 nautical mile intervals out over the full known extent the stock. The resulting krigged burrow abundance estimate was 5.3 billion burrows. This was a similar result of that obtained in 2006, and 4% higher than the abundance in 2016. In contrast to 2016 the spatial distribution of burrows appears more homogenous across the survey area. Overall densities are high and abundance remains stable, well above MSY Btrigger. Reducing the number of stations compared to 2011 has not affected the accuracy of the survey estimate to date. The CV (or relative standard error) of 3% is in line with previous estimates and well below the upper limit of 20% recommended by SGNEPS 2012. Total catches and landings options at various different fishing mortalities were calculated and fishing at Fmsy in 2017 implies a total catch option at Fmsy (=Fmax) of 11,807 tonnes which results in landings of no more than 9,630 tonnes. The only sea-pen species observed in 2017 was Virgularia mirabilis and this was found at 16% of stations ranging from occasional to common, with high densities observed in the south-west of the ground. Trawl marks were noted at 36% of the UWTV stations.
    • The western spurdog Squalus acanthias L. fishery in 1989 and 1990, with observations on the further development of the gillnet fishery directed on the species

      Fahy, E. (Department of the Marine, 1992)
      Between 1987 and 1990 the western fisheries of spurdog briefly harvested heavy then progressively reduced landings. These were sampled in each year. The peak and post-peak fisheries have been described and this account is of the fishery in 1989 and 1990. Although the catch per effort has declined substantially from the peak fishery, spurdog remains an important target species. The fishery is assessed from 856 individuals captured in 1989 and 688 the following year. The following criteria of sampled fish classified according to method of capture were examined: sex ratio, weight, age and a growth index. Gillnet-caught females are regarded as indicators of the broodstock which shows signs of having made some recovery from its immediate post peak condition. The Carrigaholt gill net fishery, the index fishery which has been monitored for four years, exploits a range of species by gill net, spurdog and gadoids being the principal ones to date, and it has increased its fishing capacity over the period. In 1989 and 1990 effort was directed on hake; some characteristics of these landings are given and compared with gill net caught hake from other parts of the country.
    • The Wexford commercial sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax (L.) fishery

      Fahy, E. (Department of Fisheries and Forestry, 1981)
      The Wexford sea bass fishery is operated during most months of the year with a high season from May to October. The fishery commenced in the 1950s but has shown a decline from the first years in which statistics became available. A proportion of the commercial catch comes from stake and ring nets with a mesh size of 18.4 cm in the round. Both take fish of similar fork length. Bass of 30-43 cm were the majority of those retained and they were mainly immatures. The smallest mature female examined in 1978 was a 6+ of 36.5 cm fork length. The greater part of the commercial catch is taken by line. Some details of the biology of bass in south east Ireland in 1978 are given: the fish fed mainly on shore crabs, sand shrimps and bait fishes. Sex ratios were approximately two females to each male. Growth in the mid 1970s differed little from other decades and it is concluded that bass in Irish waters conform to a single growth curve which is temporarily altered by good or bad growing years.
    • What floats, what sinks and why?

      Marine Institute (Marine Institute, 2013)
      Students will investigate floating and sinking with a range of materials and objects. Students should make and test predictions about objects that will sink or float and group objects based on these criteria. Students will also develop an understanding of how fish swim in the ocean.