• Validation of Standard Weights and Raising Coefficients for Discard Estimation: Report of a Survey Aboard MFV Roisin Bairbre

      Smith, T.; Comerford, S.; Officer, R. (Marine Institute, 2007)
      This survey was carried out to verify the Marine Institute's discard sampling protocol and the standard weights and conversion factors used when calculating discard rates. The MFV Roisin Bairbre was chartered to fish as normal on the Aran Prawn Grounds using twin rig prawn gear. The entire bulk catch was weighed, as well as the entire retained catch, thereby getting an accurate rate of discarding for this trip, as well as accurate individual basket weights. Retained catch was also weighed by species prior to and after gutting, to check the raising factors used when changing gutted landings back to round. This survey showed that the rate of discarding for this trip was 62% of the total bulk catch. There was no significant difference between the measured bulk catch weighed and the estimated bulk catch derived from using the standard weights. This validates the standard weights used. There was no significant differences between the observed conversion factors (from gutted to whole weight) and those currently used routinely in weight conversions. A standard weight for big baskets of bulk catch on a fish directed trip of 34.5 kg, and 28kg for a Nephrops directed trip were achieved.
    • Value of fish and shellfish landings into leading Irish ports 1962-1971

      Gibson, F A (Department of Agriculture and Fisheries (Fisheries Division), 1972)
      Landings of seafish are recorded under three broad headings, namely, demersal fish, pelagic fish and shellfish. The term demersal is applied to fish which live the greater part of their lives at or relatively near the sea bed. Demersal fish include roundfish such as whiting, cod, haddock, pollock and hake; flatfish such as plaice, sole, dabs, flounder, and also commercially valuable shark type fish such as skate and ray. The term pelagic is applied to fish which live the greater part of their lives in the upper layers of water and includes herrings, sprats, pilchards and mackerel. Shellfish include crawfish, lobsters, Nephrops (Dublin Bay prawns), crabs, shrimps and prawns all of which are known collectively as cruatacea; and escallops, mussels, oysters, periwinkles and various clams, which are known collectively as molluscs. The annual statistics published by the Fisheries Division of the Department of Agriculture and Fisheries give landings (by value) of approximately the leading 36 ports around the Irish coast.
    • Variability in the assignment of maturity stages of plaice (Pleuronectes platessa L.) and whiting (Merlangius merlangus L.) using macroscopic maturity criteria

      McGrath, D; Gerritsen, H.D. (Elsevier, 2006)
      This study investigates if a macroscopic scale can be applied consistently, by examining the variablity between and within ten people who repeatedly assessed the sex and maturity stages of 80 plaice (Pleuronectes platessa L.) and 79 whiting (Merlangius merlangus L.) gonads. In most cases, agreement within assessors was not significantly higher than agreement between assessors, suggesting that variability was random and not due to differences in interpretation. This finding was supported by the fact that a significant bias was only found for one assessor. Some maturity stages were assigned quite consistently, while other stages were not defined objectively enough to be assigned reliably, even when fish were assessed repeatedly by the same person. For both species, well-defined maturity scales with fewer stages would be prefereable over scales that distinguish a larger number of maturity stages. As maturity staging will always contain a form of subjective judgement, it should be subject to continuous quality control measures.
    • Varying disease-mediated selection at different life-history stages of Atlantic salmon in fresh water

      DeEyto, Elvira; McGinnity, Philip; Huisman, Jisca; Coughlan, Jamie; Consuegra, Sofia; Farrell, Killian; O'Toole, Ciar; Tufto, Jarle; Megens, Hendrik-Jan; Jordan, William; Cross, Tom; Stet, Rene J. M. (Blackwell Publisher, 2011)
      Laboratory studies on associations between disease resistance and susceptibility and major histocompatibility (MH) genes in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar have shown the importance of immunogenetics in understanding the capacity of populations to fight specific diseases. However, the occurrence and virulence of pathogens may vary spatially and temporally in the wild, making it more complicated to predict the overall effect that MH genes exert on fitness of natural populations and over several life-history stages. Here we show that MH variability is a significant determinant of salmon survival in fresh water, by comparing observed and expected genotype frequencies at MH and control microsatellite loci at parr and migrant stages in the wild. We found that additive allelic effects at immunogenetic loci were more likely to determine survival than dominance deviation, and that selection on certain MH alleles varied with life stage, possibly owing to varying pathogen prevalence and/or virulence over time. Our results highlight the importance of preserving genetic diversity (particularly at MH loci) in wild populations, so that they have the best chance of adapting to new and increased disease challenges as a result of projected climate warming and increasing aquaculture.
    • Veterinary treatments and other substances used in finfish aquaculture in Ireland

      Marine Institute (Marine Institute, 2007)
      Over recent years the finfish aquaculture sector has contracted in Ireland. The bulk of this sector is accounted for by marine salmon production. A number of substances are used in finfish farming that may give rise to discharges to the aquatic environment.
    • Vibriosis

      Marine Institute (Marine Institute, 2011)
      This leaflet gives information on vibriosis. This disease is a systemic bacterial infection caused by a gram negative, motile, rod shaped bacteria of the family Vibrionaceae.
    • Viral gametocytic hypertrophy of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas in Ireland

      Cheslett, D.; McKiernan, F; Hickey, C; Collins, E (Inter Research, 2009)
      Viral gametocytic hypertrophy (VGH) was detected during an investigation of mortalities in Pacific oysters Crassostrea gigas from 2 separate Irish production sites. The basophilic inclusions were observed in the gonad tissue of oysters sampled in August and October 2007. The oysters involved did not show any macroscopic disease signs. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated the presence of viral particles in these intranuclear inclusions. The particles were small, non-enveloped, icosahedral and approximately 50 nm in diameter and thus had characteristics similar to the Papillomaviridae and Polyomaviridae families. No host defence reaction was observed. The viral particles described here appear to be similar to those described in C. virginica from the USA and Canada and to those described in C. gigas from Korea and France.
    • Viral Haemorrhagic Septicaemia

      Marine Institute (Marine Institute, 2011)
      This leaflet gives information on viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS). VHS is caused by a single stranded RNA virus of the family Rhabdoviridae, genus Novirhabdoviridae. VHS is listed as a non-exotic disease under EU Directive 2006/88/EC, and is notifiable in Ireland, according to S.I. No. 261 of 2008.
    • Visual Arts 5th and 6th Class. Ocean Literacy Principles and Concepts Art Project: Our Ocean – Our Future

      Marine Institute (Marine Institute, 2016)
      The objective of the Ocean literacy principles and concepts art project is for students to produce drawings based on their understanding of our ocean, using marine themes based on the seven ocean literacy principles and fundamental concepts for inspiration. The drawings may be further developed into paintings and other visual art mediums. The project should incorporate an art exhibition, and may include printing of postcards and bags.
    • Visual Arts: 1st and 2nd Class - Constructing a marine themed structure – Lighthouse (Irish and English Version)

      Marine Institute (Marine Institute, 2014)
      The aim of the lesson plan is for children to explore and experiment with the properties and characteristics of materials in making structures based on a marine theme such as Lighthouses. They will respond to the lighthouses created in the class by talking about his/her work, as well as the work of other children.
    • Visual Arts: 1st and 2nd Class - Observing and Creating Paintings of Rough and Calm Seas (Irish and English Version)

      Marine Institute (Marine Institute, 2014)
      : The aim of the lesson plan is for children to be enabled to mix primary colours and use newly created colours expressively to interpret contrast in the natural world of the sea and ocean.
    • Visual Arts: 3rd and 4th Class - Creating an Underwater World of the Ocean in Fabric and Fibre Collage (Irish and English Version)

      Marine Institute (Marine Institute., 2014)
      The aim of the lesson plan is for children to be enabled to explore and discover the possibilities of fabric and fibre as medium for imaginative expression, designing and make a collage based on the “Underwater World of the Ocean”. They will respond to the lighthouses created in the class by talking about his/her work, as well as the work of other children.
    • Visual Arts: 3rd and 4th Class - Drawing Still Life Scenes of items from the Seashore (Irish and English Version)

      Marine Institute (Marine Institute, 2014)
      The aim of the lesson plan is for children to create still life drawings of items from the seashore. The children will be enabled to respond to other artist’s works as well as completing their own drawings by experimenting with the marks, lines, shapes, textures, patterns and tones that can be made with different drawing instruments on a range of surfaces. The children will respond to the pictures created in the class by talking about his/her work, as well as the work of other children.
    • Visual Arts: 3rd to 6th class - Creating and Making a textured Shell Collage Picture

      Marine Institute (Marine Institute, 2015)
      The students will explore and experiment with the properties and characteristics of materials (shells, sand, stones etc) in making seashore textured collages. They will learn to use their imagination to make a textured seashore picture using shells and sand.
    • Visual Arts: 3rd to 6th class - Seashore flotsam and jetsam treasure hunt and making a Tallest castle or a Mutant Sea monster

      Marine Institute (Marine Institute, 2015)
      The lesson plans includes a number of activities that can be conducted on the seashore. Variations of lesson can be adapted to suit the children’s abilities and time allocated on the seashore. The children will complete a treasure hunt collecting flotsam and jetsam samples from the seashore to construct a ‘tallest castle’ or a ‘mutant sea monster’ on the seashore. The children will also learn about the benefits of becoming environmentally aware and active in their local community.
    • Visual Arts: 5th and 6th Class - Constructing a Clay Ocean Diorama showing the effects of Marine Pollution (Irish and English Version)

      Marine Institute (Marine Institute, 2014)
      The aim of the lesson plan is for children to be enabled to explore and discover the possibilities of clay as a medium for imaginative expression. They will construct a clay ocean diorama showing the effects of marine pollution. The children will respond to the clay dioramas created in the class by talking about his/her work, as well as the work of other children.
    • Visual Arts: 5th and 6th Class - Reviewing Irish Artists and Creating paintings influenced by Our Ocean (Irish and English version)

      Marine Institute (Marine Institute, 2014)
      The aim of the lesson plan is for children to study Irish artists who have been influenced by our ocean and produce paintings based on recalled feelings and experiences using the marine theme for inspiration. In their paintings the students will explore colour with a variety of drawing instruments, media and techniques by discover ways of achieving spatial effects e.g. form, shape, position, size and distance. The children will respond to the paintings created in the class by talking about his/her work, as well as the work of other children.
    • Visual Arts: 5th and 6th class- Pressing Seaweed and creating collage artwork

      Marine Institute (Marine Institute, 2015)
      Using themes from the children’s seashore experience they will create collage artwork using card, dried seaweeds and other ‘scraps’ of fabric and fibre. The children will explore designing their artwork concentrating on line, shape, form, colour and tone, texture, pattern and rhythm, as well as space associated with seaweeds.
    • Visual Arts: Junior and Senior Infants Class - Creating Underwater Handprints of Marine Animals under the Sea (English and Irish Version)

      Marine Institute (Marine Institute, 2014)
      The aim of the lesson plan is for children to compose simple shapes and textures of marine animals in the sea using hand prints. They will be enabled to experiment, repeating and combining hand and thumb prints to create an underwater scene and marine animals. They will respond to the prints created in the class by talking about his/her work, as well as the work of other children
    • Visual Arts: Junior and Senior Infants Class - Designing Explorer Mermaids and Mermen Costumes (Irish and English Version)

      Marine Institute (Marine Institute, 2014)
      The aim of the lesson plan is for children to explore the possibilities of fabric and fibre as a medium for imaginative expression by designing a marine costume for a mermaid or a merman. They will respond to the prints created in the class by talking about his/her work, as well as the work of other children.