• OATP (Evaluation of the promotion of Offshore Aquaculture Through a Technology Platform)

      Jackson, D.; Drumm, A.; Fredheim, A.; Lader, P.; Fernáandez Otero, R.; Marine Institute; SINTEF Fisheries and Aquaculture Ltd.; Centro Technologico del Mar, Fundacion CETMAR (Marine Institute, 2011)
      This is the final report of the project OATP which investigated the opportunity and usefulness for the aquaculture industry to promote offshore aquaculture through a technological platform. The report is divided into five sections and begins with an executive summary of the project. In section two it discusses the European aquaculture sector including vision, strengths and gaps. The third section involves stakeholder consultation feedback, touching on potential species, regulation, planning frameworks, safety, environmental considerations and technology involved. Section four offers recommendations for stakeholders, covering ethical issues, potential species, regulation, planning, safety and environment as well. The fifth and last section features a sector overview by country and report appendices.
    • Observation on a bloom of Gyrodinium aureolum Hulbert on the south coast of Ireland, summer 1976, associated with mortalities of littoral and sub-littoral organisms

      Ottaway, B; Parker, M; McGrath, D; Crowley, M (Department of Fisheries and Forestry, 1979)
      In late July and early August 1976, kills of lugworm (Arenicola marina (L.)) and other marine life were reported from several areas of the south coast of Ireland. These reports were investigated and further field observations were made. The mortalities were associated with a bloom of the naked dinoflagellate Gyrodinium aureolum Hulbert. The possible origins of the bloom and its movement along the coast are discussed.
    • Observations on a bloom of Flagellate "X" in the West of Ireland

      Dunne, T. (ICES, 1984)
      In July 1983 major mortalities of farmed trout and salmon were associated with a bloom of an unidentified organism hitherto unrecorded in Ireland. Three further blooms occurred in 1984, two of which were associated with mortalities. The morphology of this organism (Flagellate "X") as observed in 1983 is described.
    • Observations on the status of bass Dicentrarchus Labrax stocks in Ireland in the late 1990s

      Fahy, E.; Forrest, N.; Shaw, U.; Green, P. (Marine Institute, 2000)
      Investigative work was undertaken in 1996 to ascertain the strength of sea bass stocks following the introduction of a range of conservation measures which effectively extinguished the legitimate commercial fishery for the species. Information was sought from two sources: estimation of the age composition of the samples and the growth of bass by examining scales from exploited fish. An estimate of the density of juvenile pre-recruit bass was made from a seine net survey undertaken in various estuaries along the south coast. Scales sent in by anglers and obtained through the regional boards from illegally netted fish indicate that a high proportion of bass landed between 1996 and 1998 belonged to the 1989-year class, which had been reported to be exceptionally large in Britain. Back-calculations of length-at-age from the scales of these and seine-netted bass suggested that growth improved in the later 1980s in response to higher sea temperatures but has since declined. Work on an index of juvenile abundance began with 59 seine net hauls made in August 1996 and 1997. On these the areas most likely to support bass were characterised; O-group bass were encountered more frequently than any other age group. Sites most likely to support bass were mud flats overlaid with shallow and still water which had a salinity range of 17 to 22% and bass were associated with certain species of estuarine fish and crustaceans; bass were negatively associated with other species occupying the deeper and more sandy parts of estuaries. Sampling stations for O-group bass have been selected in Youghal Harbour and Wexford Harbour. Further exploratory work is required to extend the list of stations. It was concluded that there has been a temporary increase in the numbers of sea bass, as has been reported by fishermen in Ireland, as a result of more favourable temperatures in the late 1980s. Growing conditions appeared to have deteriorated in the later 1990s and the summer growth ofO-group bass was the weakest in 1999 over the 4 years investigated. A time series of O-group abundance is too brief to permit any conclusions to be reached. However, it can be stated that the recorded densities of juvenile bass between 1996 and 1999 were sparser than would be expected in south east Ireland in view of the supposed heavy winter concentrations of the species in the Celtic Sea.
    • Observations on the Trichoptera of the Killarney Lakes, Co. Kerry, Ireland

      O'Connor, J .P.; Wise, E. J. (Department of Agriculture and Fisheries [Fisheries Division], 1984)
      Trichoptera were obtained in two separate surveys of the Killarney Lakes. During eutrophication investigations, larvae were collected at twelve littoral stations once a month for a year. As part of a special study of the Irish Trichoptera, larvae, pupae and imagines were collected extensively using both semiquantitative and qualitative techniques. The combined results of these two surveys demonstrated that the lakes possesed a rich and interesting trichopterous fauna. Altogether 71 species were recorded, representing half the known Irish Trichoptera. The Upper Lake had the poorest fauna with 29 species. By contrast, 54 and 58 species were recorded from Muckross Lake and Lough Leane respectively. A total of six species new to Ireland was discovered. Species of particular interest on the grounds of rarity or occurrence in lentic rather than lotic habitats included Apatania auricula (Forsslund), Athripsodes albifrons (Curtis) and Setades argentipunctellus McLachlan.
    • Observed sequential occurrence of phytoplankton and zooplankton in the Dunkellin Estuary, Galway Bay, Ireland

      Byrne, P.; O'Mahony, J.H.T. (ICES, 1993)
      The Dunkellin is a small tidally-dominated estuary to the south-east of Galway Bay in western Ireland. The plankton of the estuary was studied for 18 months between December 1984 and July 1986. This paper presents results on the variation in the sequential occurrenCe of phytoplankton and zooplankton between the inner and outer estuary. Phytoplankton and microzooplankton occurred in high numbers in the spring to autumn months. Highest abundances of phytoplankton and microzooplankton (non-tintinnid ciliates and tintinnid ciliates) were recorded 10 the Inner estuary, whereas mesozooplankton were predominant in the outer reaches.
    • Occurance of Eggs of Echiodon drummondi Thompson on the Coast of County Kerry

      Kennedy, M; Champ, T (Department of Agriculture and Fisheries (Fisheries Division), 1971)
      As part of a programme of research on the spawning of bass Dicentrarchus labrax (L), tow-netting for pelagic fish eggs has ben carried out on various parts of the Irish coast during the years 1967 to 1971 inclusive. In May, 1970, in the course of tow-netting in Blasket Sound, Co. Kerry, eggs of the pearlfish Echiodon drummondi Thompson were taken in three hauls. Most of the eggs were hatched out and the larvae reared for some days. This appears to be the first record of the eggs of this species on the Irish coast. The following discusses the natural history of pearlfishes and the hauls in which pearlfish eggs were obtained.
    • The Occurrence and Risk Assessment of the Pesticide Toxaphene in Fish from Irish Waters

      McHugh, B; Glynn, D; Nixon, E; McGovern, E (Marine Institute, 2003)
      The European Union project “Investigation into the monitoring, analysis and toxicity of toxaphene” (MATT), involving participants from The Netherlands, Ireland, Norway and Germany, began in 1997. Analytical methodology, concentration information and statistical interpretation of results for three indicator congeners, CHB’s 26, 50 and 62, are presented. Data from 55 samples, covering 18 different fish species, from Irish waters are documented. Concentrations were lowest in shellfish and in fish species having low lipid content and were highest in medium/high lipid species. Males from a number of fish species were shown to contain significantly higher concentrations than observed in female fish. Overall no samples were shown to exceed existing German MRL or Canadian TDI recommendations.
    • The occurrence of DSP toxicity in Ireland

      Jackson, D.; Silke, J.; Doyle, J.; Nixon, E.; Taaffe, B. (ICES, 1993)
      The geographical and temporal variations in the occurrence of DSP in Ireland are presented and the implications of the resulting closures on aquaculture operations and fisheries are discussed. Prior to 1992 DSP toxicity had been confined to the southwest and south coasts but in 1992 a protracted occurrence of DSP was recorded in Killary Harbour on the west coast.
    • The occurrence of persistent chlorinated and brominated organic contaminants in the European eel (Anguilla anguilla) in Irish waters

      McHugh, B; Poole, R; Corcoran, J; Pinelopi, A; Boyle, B (Elsevier, 2010)
      The European eel (Anguilla anguilla) is a relatively high lipid, long lived species capable of living in a variety of brackish, fresh and marine habitats. As such, eels can accumulate organic pollutants and have been incorporated into environmental monitoring programs as a suitable “bioindicator” species for the determination of the levels of organic contaminants within different water bodies. The global eel stock is now in decline and while the cause of the collapse remains unidentified, it is likely to include a combination of anthropogenic mortality in addition to environmental degradation. This study provides valuable data on a range of contaminants (PCDD/Fs, PCBs, OCPs, PBDEs, HBCD, TBBPA and PBBs) and extractable lipid levels in eel muscle tissue collected from five Irish catchments. Extractable lipid levels were lower in the yellow eels compared to those in the silver eels. These levels were similar to those reported elsewhere and it has been posited that a decline in the lipid content in yellow eels may have consequences for the future viability of the stock. With the exception of higher substituted dioxins (especially OCDD), in three samples collected from one catchment (Burrishoole) in the West of Ireland, POP levels in general were determined to be low in eels from Irish waters compared to those in other countries.
    • The occurrence of persistent chlorinated and brominated organic contaminants in the European eel (Anguilla anguilla) in Irish waters

      McHugh, B; Poole, R; Corcoran, J; Anninou, P; Boyle, B; Joyce, E; Foley, M B; McGovern, E (Elsevier, 2010)
      The European eel (Anguilla anguilla) is a relatively high lipid, long lived species capable of living in a variety of brackish, fresh and marine habitats. As such, eels can accumulate organic pollutants and have been incorporated into environmental monitoring programs as a suitable “bioindicator” species for the determination of the levels of organic contaminants within different water bodies. The global eel stock is now in decline and while the cause of the collapse remains unidentified, it is likely to include a combination of anthropogenic mortality in addition to environmental degradation. This study provides valuable data on a range of contaminants (PCDD/Fs, PCBs, OCPs, PBDEs, HBCD, TBBPA and PBBs) and extractable lipid levels in eel muscle tissue collected from five Irish catchments. Extractable lipid levels were lower in the yellow eels compared to those in the silver eels. These levels were similar to those reported elsewhere and it has been posited that a decline in the lipid content in yellow eels may have consequences for the future viability of the stock. With the exception of higher substituted dioxins (especially OCDD), in 3 samples collected from one catchment (Burrishoole) in the West of Ireland, POP levels in general were determined to be low in eels from Irish waters compared to those in other countries.
    • The occurrence of Sea Lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis Krøyer) on Farmed Salmon in Ireland (1995 to 2000)

      Copley, L; McCarney, P; Jackson, D; Hassett, D; Kennedy, S; Nulty, C (Marine Institute, 2001)
      Lepeophtheirus salmonis is the most frequently recorded ecto-parasite on farmed salmon in Europe, and parasitises only salmonid fish species. It is regarded as being commercially damaging to farmed salmon, with major economic losses to the fish farming community resulting per annum. Lepeophtheirus salmonis is a member of the Family Caligidae and has a direct life cycle. Annual data from around Ireland are analysed, as well as per region and per bay. Data is compiled up to the year 2000 and results are based on lice inspections undertaken bimonthly for the months March to May inclusive, and monthly for the remainder of the year, with one exception, December/January, when only one sample was taken. Mean ovigerous and mean mobile lice levels are presented. These estimate, respectively, successful breeding females and successful infection. Results obtained indicate, to some extent, that control methods on different farms differ in the efficacy they have on sea lice infestation, and that depending on which treatment type is used rates of reduction can be different for various life cycle stages. Overall mean ovigerous and mean mobile lice levels were lower in the year 2000 than in 1999. It was apparent that lateral transfer of sea lice during harvesting did occur at a number of sites in the country. It was also apparent that some individual bays appeared to have a greater control over lice infestation levels than others, especially during the critical spring period March to May. The decrease in the control of infestation levels can possibly be attributed to changes in treatments that occurred during the study period, and also to difficulties in achieving effective treatments due to inclement weather and low water temperatures. Since the initiation of monitoring in 1991, improved control of sea lice infestation has always been one of the goals of the programme. Single Bay Management (SBM), introduced in 1993 by the Marine Institute, implemented new measures to minimise re-infection by these parasites, with protocols agreed by all salmon producers within each bay. These plans were later extended and incorporated in 1998 into the Co-ordinated Local Aquaculture Management System (CLAMS), aiming to optimise environmental conditions within each bay for all users of the bay.
    • Ocean Acidification: An Emerging Threat to our Marine Environment

      Ni Longphuirt, S.; Stengal, D.; O'Dowd, C.; McGovern, E. (Marine Institute, 2010)
      This report aims to provide a concise overview of the present state of scientific knowledge of ocean acidification and its likely impacts on organisms and ocean ecosystems. This is particularly relevant in the context of the possible implications and ramifications of ocean acidification for Irish marine areas. Discussion on how mankind’s CO2 emissions are changing ocean chemistry; consequences of ocean acidification; ocean acidification as an emerging cause for concern; international policy drivers, strategies and necessary actions; and research and information needs are presented. Ireland’s marine location and extensive marine resources in our shelf seas, Atlantic waters and habitats of the west coast mean we are uniquely positioned to contribute to international scientific efforts to monitor and understand the impacts of ocean acidification. Monitoring and research of key biological, chemical and physical factors in these regions will allow us to determine the current status of Irish Marine waters, the rate of change in the carbonate cycle and the influence of this change on natural communities and ecosystems. The Marine Institute’s SSTI funded Sea Change programme includes a Rapid Climate Change programme. Under this, a two year collaborative project between NUI Galway and Marine Institute ‘Impacts of increased atmospheric CO2 on ocean chemistry and ecosystems’ is developing capabilities for measuring pCO2 fluxes, inorganic carbon chemistry and pH and is initiating baseline measurements of these parameters in coastal and offshore waters. This report summarises the issues and state of knowledge and communicates ongoing monitoring and research needs into acidification.
    • Ocean currents and water density

      Marine Institute (Marine Institute, 2013)
      Through discussion and experiments involving energy and forces, students can learn about water density and what causes ocean currents. Students will become familiar with the features and movement of currents due to heat and forces as well as understand the effects of currents on the planet (e.g. how the ocean affects our climate and weather). These experiments can be conducted over a course of study.
    • Ocean Energy - Analysis of the Potential Economic Benefits of Developing Ocean Energy in Ireland

      Marine Institute; Sustainable Energy Ireland (Marine Institute, 2005)
      This report examines the potential for harnessing Ireland's ocean energy resources (wave and marine tidal currents) to produce electricity and the associated opportunity to develop an ocean energy industry in Ireland. Existing work, both in Ireland and internationally, suggests that there are opportunities to develop a competitive industrial sector around ocean energy in Ireland. Internationally, the technology is at an advanced experimental stage and there are prospects of commercial production being possible in the near future. However, the key question is whether the potential is sufficient to warrant Ireland engaging in a long-term programme of development. A consultation process undertaken by Sustainable Energy Ireland (SEI)and the Marine Institute indicated the potential. It also indicated that there are considerable risks. The aims of this study are to identify the potential economic contribution of ocean energy for Ireland and to devise a rational, viable, and economically feasible strategy to promote the development of the sector. This analysis leads to the conclusion that Ireland has an important opportunity to develop an industry, based on ocean energy.
    • Ocean Energy in Ireland

      Marine Institute; Sustainable Energy Ireland (Department of Communications, Marine and Natural Resources, 2005)
      Ireland has a target of supplying 13.2% of its electricity consumption from renewable sources by 2010. The majority of this target is likely to be supplied from wind energy. It is likely that targets will increase in the longer term. This will require large deployments of other forms of renewable energy. Ocean energy, both wave and marine current tidal energy, may have a role to play in meeting longer term targets in Ireland. The resource, particularly the wave energy resource, is vast. Before these technologies become commercially viable researchers and developers must overcome the challenge of developing low cost, highly reliable, integrated systems. Given current efforts to develop technology, ocean energy may be deployed in small scale demonstrations by 2010; however it is not expected to contribute significantly to Ireland’s electricity supply before 2020. It is proposed to implement an ocean energy strategy to advance the speed at which ocean energy technologies are deployed in Ireland by increasing the capacity for research and development, both within academic institutions and commercial entities developing devices in Ireland. A structured and phased strategy of development supports may enable Ireland to utilize its ocean energy resource within a decade. The result could also see Ireland positioned with the potential to become a world leader in the manufacture and use of ocean energy systems.
    • The oceanography of southwest Ireland: current research activities

      Raine, R.; Whelan, D.; Conway, N.; Joyce, B.; Moloney, M.; Hoey, M.J.; Patching, J.W. (Fisheries Research Centre, 1993)
      The coastal waters of Ireland are rich in physical features affecting both chemistry and biology. Amongst these are the tidal fronts of the Irish Sea (Le Fevre, 1986) and the Irish Shelf Front on the Atlantic coast lying along the 200m iso bath (Huang et al., 1991). Recently, an upwelling system has been described in the vicinity of the Fastnet Rock (Roden, 1986; Raine et al., 1990). Coastal upwelling systems are ecologically very important and are generally extremely productive, as nutrients brought up to the sea surface can stimulate extensive phytoplankton growth. This paper describes further satellite and ship-based investigations which are currently being carried out to examine the mechanisms driving the upwelling system and its effect on local ecology.
    • Oceans all around us: demonstrating a miniture water cycle

      Marine Institute (Marine Institute, 2013)
      Looking at the world through science, students can learn about the marine elements of our natural environment and the importance of the water cycle. Students can look at and compare the marine environment to other places locally, nationally and internationally.
    • Oceans of Opportunity - Exploring Ireland’s Marine Resources: Review of Projects 2000–2005

      Marine Institute (Marine Institute, 2006)
      This publication gives an overview of projects and some of the achievements of the research and development activity funded under the Marine RTDI in the current National Development Plan (2000–2006). Approximately €52 million was originally committed to the programme and although the funding period is not fully complete, it is timely to look at the range of projects that have been supported and developed under the National Development Plan.
    • Oceans of Opportunity II: Exploring Ireland's International Marine Research Partnerships

      Cronin, Y; McDonough, N; O'Sullivan, G (Marine Institute, 2007)
      This report is a review of Ireland's participitation in EU Framework Programme 6 (EU FP6) Marine Research Projects 2002-2006