• National activities in the field of Aquaculture: Ireland

      Griffith, David de G (ed) (Marine Institute, 1996-05)
      This document was prepared in May 1995 by a group of invited aquaculture experts drawn from the Irish aquaculture industry, the Fisheries Research Centre, An Bord Iascaigh Mhara, Salmon Research Agency, Veterinary Research Laboratory, the Marine Institute and from University RTD laboratories. It was drafted as a contribution to the 1995 meeting of Directors of Fisheries Research Organisations of the European Union, and as a response to a review by DG XIV entitled "European Aquaculture Research: current position and prospects” (COM(94) 258 final).
    • The National Surveillance Monitoring Programme for Residues in Farmed Fish

      Marine Institute (Marine Institute, 2015)
      All European Member States have a responsibility to monitor the use of veterinary medicines in food producing animals, to ensure that produce from these animals do not contain residues that could be harmful to consumers. It is a requirement to implement surveillance monitoring in accordance with the Residues Directive (Directive 96/23/EC) and to have in place national plans (National Residues Control Plan-NRCP) for the monitoring of certain chemical substances and residues in a range of food producing species and products e.g. cattle, pigs, sheep, farmed finfish. The National Residues Control Plan for Aquaculture in Ireland is specifically for farmed finfish and forms part of the overall National Residue Control Plan.
    • National Survey of Sea lice (L. salmonis Krøyer and C. elongatus Nordmann) on Fish Farms in Ireland – 2006

      O'Donohoe, P.; Kane, F.; Kennedy, S.; Nixon, P.; Power, A.; Naughton, O.; Jackson, D. (Marine Institute, 2007)
      This bulletin reports on the National Sea Lice Monitoring Programme carried out by the Marine Institute in 2006. Results presented in this report are mean ovigerous sea lice levels and mean mobile sea lice levels for Lepeophtheirus salmonis and Caligus elongatus
    • National Survey of Sea lice (L. salmonis Krøyer and C. elongatus Nordmann) on Fish Farms in Ireland – 2007

      O'Donohoe, P.; Kane, F.; Kelly, S.; Nixon, P.; Power, A.; Naughton, O.; Jackson, D. (Marine Institute, 2008)
      This bulletin reports on the National Sea Lice Monitoring Programme carried out by the Marine Institute in 2007. Results presented in this report are mean ovigerous sea lice levels and mean mobile sea lice levels for Lepeophtheirus salmonis and Caligus elongatus
    • National Survey of Sea lice (L. salmonis Krøyer and C. elongatus Nordmann) on Fish Farms in Ireland – 2008

      O'Donohoe, P.; Kane, F.; Kelly, S.; Nixon, P.; Power, A.; Naughton, O.; Tully, D.; Jackson, D. (Marine Institute, 2009)
      This bulletin reports on the National Sea Lice Monitoring Programme carried out by the Marine Institute in 2008. Results presented in this report are mean ovigerous sea lice levels and mean mobile sea lice levels for Lepeophtheirus salmonis and Caligus elongatus
    • National Survey of Sea Lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis Kroyer and Caligus elongatus Nordmann) on Fish Farms in Ireland - 2009

      O'Donohoe, P.; Kane, F.; Kelly, S.; Nixon, P.; Power, A.; McDermott, T.; Drumm, A.; Jackson, D. (Marine Institute, 2010)
      This bulletin reports on the National Sea Lice Monitoring Programme carried out by the Marine Institute in 2009. Results presented in this report are mean ovigerous sea lice levels and mean mobile sea lice levels for Lepeophtheirus salmonis and Caligus elongatus
    • National Survey of Sea Lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis Kroyer and Caligus elongatus Nordmann) on Fish Farms in Ireland - 2010

      O'Donohoe, P.; Kane, F.; Kelly, S.; McDermott, T.; Drumm, A.; Jackson, D. (Marine Institute, 2011)
      This bulletin reports on the National Sea Lice Monitoring Programme carried out by the Marine Institute in 2010. Results presented in this report are mean ovigerous sea lice levels and mean mobile sea lice levels for Lepeophtheirus salmonis and Caligus elongatus.
    • National Survey of Sea Lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis Kroyer and Caligus elongatus Nordmann) on Fish Farms in Ireland - 2011

      O'Donohoe, P.; Kane, F.; Kelly, S.; McDermott, T.; Drumm, A.; Jackson, D. (Marine Institute, 2012)
      This bulletin reports on the National Sea Lice Monitoring Programme carried out by the Marine Institute in 2011. Results presented in this report are mean ovigerous sea lice levels and mean mobile sea lice levels for Lepeophtheirus salmonis and Caligus elongatus.
    • National Survey of Sea Lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis Kroyer and Caligus elongatus Nordmann) on Fish Farms in Ireland - 2012

      O'Donohoe, P.; Kane, F.; Kelly, S.; McDermott, T.; Drumm, A.; Jackson, D. (Marine Institute, 2013)
      This bulletin reports on the National Sea Lice Monitoring Programme carried out by the Marine Institute in 2012. Results presented in this report are mean ovigerous sea lice levels and mean mobile sea lice levels for Lepeophtheirus salmonis and Caligus elongatus.
    • National Survey of Sea Lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis Kroyer and Caligus elongatus Nordmann) on Fish Farms in Ireland - 2013

      O'Donohoe, P; Kane, F; Kelly, S; McDermott, T; Drumm, A; Jackson, D (Marine Institute, 2014)
      This bulletin reports on the National Sea Lice Monitoring Programme carried out by the Marine Institute in 2013. Results presented in this report are mean ovigerous sea lice levels and mean mobile sea lice levels for Lepeophtheirus salmonis and Caligus elongatus.
    • National Survey of Sea Lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis Kroyer and Caligus elongatus Nordmann) on Fish Farms in Ireland - 2014

      O'Donohoe, P.; Kane, F.; Kelly, S.; McDermott, T.; Drumm, A.; Jackson, D. (Marine Institute, 2015)
      This bulletin reports on the National Sea Lice Monitoring Programme carried out by the Marine Institute in 2014. Results presented in this report are mean ovigerous sea lice levels and mean mobile sea lice levels for Lepeophtheirus salmonis and Caligus elongatus.
    • National Survey of Sea Lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis Kroyer and Caligus elongatus Nordmann) on Fish Farms in Ireland - 2015

      O'Donohoe, P.; Kane, F.; Kelly, S.; McDermott, T.; Drumm, A.; Nixon, P.; Jackson, D. (Marine Institute, 2016)
      This bulletin reports on the National Sea Lice Monitoring Programme carried out by the Marine Institute in 2015. Results presented in this report are mean ovigerous sea lice levels and mean mobile sea lice levels for Lepeophtheirus salmonis and Caligus elongatus.
    • National survey of sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis Kroyer and Caligus elongatus Nordmann) on fish farms in Ireland - 2016

      O'Donohoe, P.; Kane, F.; Kelly, S.; McDermott, T.; D'Arcy, J.; Casserly, J.; Nixon, P.; Jackson, D. (Marine Institute, 2017)
      Farmed stocks of Atlantic salmon in Ireland are inspected on 14 occasions throughout the year to monitor sea lice levels as part of a national programme.
    • National Survey of Sea Lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis Krøyer and Caligus elongatus Nordmann) on Fish Farms in Ireland – 2004

      O'Donohoe, P.; Kennedy, S.; Kane, F.; Naughton, O.; Tierney, D.; Jackson, D. (Marine Institute, 2005)
      This bulletin reports on the National Sea Lice Monitoring Programme carried out by the Marine Institute in 2004. Results presented in this report are mean ovigerous sea lice levels and mean mobile sea lice levels for Lepeophtheirus salmonis and Caligus elongatus
    • National Survey of Sea Lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis Krøyer and Caligus elongatus Nordmann) on Fish Farms in Ireland – 2005

      O'Donohoe, P.; Kane, F.; Kennedy, S.; Naughton, O.; Nixon, P.; Power, A.; Jackson, D. (Marine Institute, 2006)
      This bulletin reports on the National Sea Lice Monitoring Programme carried out by the Marine Institute in 2005. Results presented in this report are mean ovigerous sea lice levels and mean mobile sea lice levels for Lepeophtheirus salmonis and Caligus elongatus
    • National Survey of the Sea Lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis Krøyer and Caligus elongates Nordmann) on Fish Farms in Ireland - 2000

      McCarney, P; Copley, L; Jackson, D; Nulty, C; Kennedy, S (Marine Institute, 2001-09)
      Fanned fish can be divided into three distinct groups, rainbow trout and two year classes (or generations) of salmon. In terms of husbandry and lice management, salmon which are at sea for a year or longer in April (growers/one-sea winter) are treated separately from younger salmon (smolts) and rainbow trout. Those salmon that were put to sea in winter 1999/spring 2000 are referred to as smolts, or 2000 year class fish. The farms were inspected twice a month in March, April and May and once a month thereafter, with one exception, December/January where sites were visited only once. Two species of lice are commonly found on cultured salmonids, Caligus elongates Nordmann, a species of parasite that infests over fifty different species of marine fish, and Lepeophtheirus salmonis Krøyer, which infests only salmon and closely related species such as rainbow trout. Lepeophtheirus salmonis, the Salmon Louse, is regarded as the more serious of the two species and occurs most frequently on Irish cultivated salmon (Jackson and Minchin, 1992). Results for both species are given for each sampling period. These sea-lice inflict damage to their hosts through their feeding activity on the host's body (Jones et al., 1990; Jonsdottir et al., 1992; Kabata, 1974) and significant economic losses were attributed to these copepod ectoparasites by Roth et al. (1993). Lepeophtheirus salmonis is a member of the Family Caligidae and has a direct lifecycle (i.e. a single host). This life-cycle comprises ten stages. Following hatching from paired egg strings, two free-living nauplius stages are dispersed into the plankton. These stages are followed by a copepodid stage where contact with the host takes place. The copepodid then moults through four chalimus stages before becoming a pre-adult male or female. This pre-adult phase comprises two stages and is followed by the fully mature adult phase. The adult female can produce a number of batches of paired egg-strings which in turn hatch into the water column to give rise to the next generation (Kabata, 1979; Schram, 1993).
    • National Survey of the Sea Lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis Krøyer and Caligus elongates Nordmann) on Fish Farms in Ireland - 2001

      McCarney, P; Copley, L; Kennedy, S; Nulty, C; Jackson, D (Marine Institute, 2002-02)
      Two species of lice are found on cultured salmonids, Caligus elongatus Nordmann, a species of parasite that infests over fifty different types of marine fishes, and Lepeophtheirus salmonis Krøyer, which infests only salmon and other salmonids. The Salmon Louse (L. salmonis) is regarded as the more serious parasite of the two species and has been found to occur most frequently on Irish farmed salmon (Jackson and Minchin, 1992). Most of the damage caused by these parasites is thought to be mechanical, carried out during the course of attachment and feeding (Kabata, 1974; Brandal et al., 1976; Jones et al., 1990). Inflammation and hyperplasia (enlargement caused by an abnormal increase in the number of cells in an organ or tissue) have been recorded in Atlantic salmon in response to infections with L. salmonis (Jones et al., 1990; Jonsdottir et al., 1992; Nolan et al., 2000). Increases in stress hormones caused by sea lice infestations have been suggested to increase the susceptibility of fish to infectious diseases (MacKinnon, 1998). Severe erosion around the head caused by heavy infestations of L. salmonis has been recorded previously (Pike, 1989; Berland, 1993). This is thought to occur because of the rich supply of mucus secreted by mucous cell-lined ducts in that region (Nolan et al., 1999). In experimental and field investigations carried out in Norway heavy infestation was found to cause fish mortalities (Finstad et al., 2000). Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Caligidae) has a direct life cycle, meaning it uses a single host. After hatching from the egg (which is extruded from the adult female louse in paired egg strings) two free-living nauplii stages are dispersed into the water column. A copepodid stage then follows during which a host must be located before the parasite can develop further. After finding a host the copepodid moults through four chalimus stages, which all occur while the parasite is attached to the host, before developing into a mobile pre-adult male or female. A moult then separates two pre-adult stages after which the fully mature adult develops. The adult female is capable of producing a number of batches of paired egg-strings during her life-span, which in turn hatch into the water column giving rise to the next generation. This gives a total of ten stages through which the parasite must develop to reach adulthood (Kabata, 1979; Schram, 1993). Caligus elongatus is a non-host specific parasite and can be found on many different fish species (Kabata, 1979). It has a similar life cycle to that of L. salmonis (Hogans and Trudeau, 1989). Four groups of farmed fish were examined during sea-lice inspections in 2001. These include rainbow trout, salmon smolts (200 I generation), one sea-winter salmon (2000 generation) and two sea-winter salmon (1999 generation). S1/2's or half year smolts are fish which are transferred to sea in Autumn/Winter of the same year that they are hatched, they smoltify early due to a photoperiod manipulation (Willoughby, 1999). Their S1 siblings smoltify and are put to sea in early spring. S1/2's are included in each year class of fish for the purpose of analyses.
    • National Survey of the Sea Lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis Krøyer and Caligus elongates Nordmann) on Fish Farms in Ireland - 2002

      O'Donohoe, P; Kennedy, S; Copley, L; Kane, F; Naughton, O; Jackson, D (Marine Institute, 2003)
      Salmonids farmed in Ireland in 2002 can be divided into the following groups: one year class of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and three year classes of Atlantic salmon Salmo safar. The year classes of salmon include, smolts (2002 generation), one sea-winter salmon (2001 generation) and two sea-winter salmon (2000 generation). S1/2' s are fish which are transferred to sea in Autumn/Winter of the same year that they are hatched. Their S1 siblings smoltify and are put to sea in early spring, some three to four months later. Salmon which are at sea for a year or longer in April are known as growers/one sea-winter and are treated separately from younger salmon (smolts) and rainbow trout. Those salmon that were put to sea in winter 200 I /spring 2002 are referred to as smolts, or 2002 year class fish. During the 2002 sampling period all four groups of farmed fish were examined. Two species of sea lice are found on cultured salmonids in Ireland, Caligus elongates Nordmann, a species of parasite that infests over eighty different types of marine fish, and Lepeophtheirus salmonis Krøyer, which infests only salmon and other salmonids. Sea lice are regarded as having the most commercially damaging effect on cultured salmon in the world with major economic losses to the fish farming community resulting per annum (Bristow and Berland, 1991; Jackson and Costello, 1991). They affect salmon in a variety of ways: mainIy by reducing fish growth, loss of scales which leaves the fish open to secondary infections (Wootten et aI., 1982) and damaging of fish which reduces marketability.
    • National Survey of the Sea Lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis Krøyer and Caligus elongates Nordmann) on Fish Farms in Ireland - 2003

      O'Donohoe, P; Kennedy, S; Kane, F; Naughton, O; Tierney, D; Copley, L; Jackson, D (Marine Institute, 2004)
      Sea lice are regarded as having the most commercially damaging effect on cultured salmon in the world with major economic losses to the fish farming community resulting per annum (Bristow and Berland, 1991; Jackson and Costello, 1991). They affect salmon in a variety of ways; by reducing fish growth; by causing loss of scales, which leaves the fish open to secondary infections (Wootten et al., 1982); and by damaging the fish, which reduces its marketability. The two species of sea lice found on cultured salmonids in Ireland are Caligus elongatus Nordmann, a species of parasite that infests over 80 different types of marine fish, and Lepeophtheirus salmanis Kroyer, which infests only salmon and other salmonids. L. salmonis is regarded as the more serious parasite of the two species and has been found to occur most frequently on farmed salmon (Jackson and Minchin, 1992). Most of the damage caused by these parasites is thought to be mechanical, carried out during the course of attachment and feeding (Kabata, 1974; Brandal et al., 1976; Jones et al., 1990). Inflammation and hyperplasia (enlargement caused by an abnormal increase in the number of cells in an organ or tissue) have been recorded in Atlantic salmon in response to infections with L. salmonis (Jones et al., 1990; Jonsdottir et al., 1992; Nolan et al., 2000). Increases in stress hormones caused by sea lice infestations have been suggested to increase the susceptibility of fish to infectious diseases (MacKinnon, 1998). Severe erosion around the head caused by heavy infestations of L. salmonis has been recorded previously (Pike, 1989; Berland, 1993). This is thought to occur because of the rich supply of mucus secreted by mucous cell-lined ducts in that region (Nolan et al., 1999). In experimental and field investigations carried out in Norway heavy infestation was found to cause fish mortalities (Finstad et al., 2000).
    • A National Survey of Water-Based Leisure Activities in Ireland 2003

      Williams, J [ESRI]; Ryan, B [ESRI] (Marine Institute, 2004)
      This survey profiles the domestic market for water-based tourism, sport and leisure in Ireland. The data provides up-to-date statistical information on 18 water-based leisure activities broadly grouped under the following categories: Seaside/Resort trips; Angling; Coastal and Inland Boating; and Watersports. The objective of the survey is to demonstrate the significant contribution of marine leisure activity to the national economy, and to highlight emerging trends and the potential for development of our water-based leisure resources. A key finding of the survey, conducted by the ESRI in 2003, is that marine leisure activity based on Ireland’s marine and freshwater resources generates €434 million in expenditure by Irish residents, and approximately 5,100 jobs are supported by this level of expenditure. A comparison of the domestic tourism market and the water-based tourism domestic market further highlights the value of the sector. In 2003, water-based tourism accounted for 22 per cent of the domestic tourism market and generated 45 per cent of domestic tourism revenue. Our seaside resorts, beaches, inland waterways and rivers provide the resource for a wide range of water-based tourism recreation, sport and leisure activities. The survey results show that 1.48 million persons, representing 49 per cent of the adult population participated in some form of water-based activity during the survey period. Although overall satisfaction with facilities was high, a further 10 per cent of the adult population (294,100) said they would take up some marine leisure activity if facilities were better. This demonstrates the potential and scope for development in the sector.