• Mackerel Egg Survey, July 8th - 28th 2010

      O'Hea, B (Marine Institute, 2010)
      Every three years the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) coordinates a series of mackerel and horse mackerel egg surveys covering the eastern Atlantic from Gibraltar to the north coast of Scotland between January and July. The aim of this survey programme is to assess the northeastern Atlantic mackerel and horse mackerel stock. The Marine Institute participates in this programme and covers stations in the Celtic Sea and West of Ireland. Plankton samples were collected at 102 stations, and the eggs they contained were preserved in 4% buffered formaldehyde. Preliminary analysis shows that egg numbers were concentrated close to the shelf edge, around the 200m contour line. Ten fishing hauls were made to collect mackerel and horse mackerel samples for fecundity analysis. Samples were collected to ensure maximum temporal and geographical spread.
    • Mackerel Egg survey, June 26th – July 16th, 2007

      O'Hea, B (Marine Institute, 2007)
      Every three years the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) coordinates a series of mackerel and horse mackerel egg surveys covering the eastern Atlantic from Gibraltar to the north coast of Scotland between January and July. The aim of this survey programme is to assess the northeastern Atlantic mackerel and horse mackerel stock. The Marine Institute participates in this programme and covers stations in the Celtic Sea and West of Ireland. Plankton samples were collected at 88 stations, and the eggs they contained were preserved in 4% buffered formaldehyde. Preliminary analysis shows that egg numbers were concentrated close to the shelf edge, around the 200m contour line. Seven fishing hauls were made to collect mackerel and horse mackerel samples for fecundity analysis. Samples were collected to ensure maximum temporal and geographical spread.
    • Mackerel Egg Survey, March 5th – 29th, 2010

      O'Hea, B (Marine Institute, 2010)
      Every three years the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) coordinates a series of mackerel and horse mackerel egg surveys covering the eastern Atlantic from Gibraltar to the north coast of Scotland between January and July. The aim of this survey programme is to assess the northeastern Atlantic mackerel and horse mackerel stock. The Marine Institute participates in this programme and covers stations in the Celtic Sea. Plankton samples were collected at 105 stations, and the eggs they contained were preserved in 4% buffered formaldehyde. Preliminary analysis shows that egg numbers were concentrated close to the shelf edge, around the 200m contour line. Four fishing hauls were made to collect mackerel and horse mackerel samples for fecundity analysis. Samples were collected to ensure maximum temporal and geographical spread.
    • Mackerel Egg survey, March 6th – 26th, 2007

      O'Hea, B (Marine Institute, 2007)
      Every three years the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) coordinates a series of mackerel and horse mackerel egg surveys covering the eastern Atlantic from Gibraltar to the north coast of Scotland between January and July. The aim of this survey programme is to assess the northeastern Atlantic mackerel and horse mackerel stock. The Marine Institute participates in this programme and covers stations in the Celtic Sea. Plankton samples were collected at 112 stations, and the eggs they contained were preserved in 4% buffered formaldehyde. Preliminary analysis shows that egg numbers were concentrated close to the shelf edge, around the 200m contour line. Eleven fishing hauls were made to collect mackerel and horse mackerel samples for fecundity analysis. Samples were collected to ensure maximum temporal and geographical spread. CTD’s were also carried out for the Oceanography section of the Marine Institute.
    • The Maharees spider crab Maja squinado fishery in 2000

      Fahy, E. (Marine Institute, 2001)
      A pot fishery directed on spider crab (Maja squinado) grew out of a mixed tangle net and pot fishery for large crustaceans in the early 1980s. Approximately twenty half decked vessels of 10m in length have been involved for the duration of the fishery but the numbers of pots per vessel has increased; currently 10,000 pots are set for spider crab in Tralee and Brandon Bays during the summer months. Cpue rose initially during the early years of the fishery, then it stabilised and declined although in the late 1990s it again recovered somewhat. Sampling in 2000 suggests that the size composition of the catch has altered since the early years of the fishery, its main consequence being the removal of the older age groups so that the landings now consist almost entirely of a single year class. Aspects of the biology of the Maja squinado are compared with what is already known of the species and a number of recommendations are made for the future management of the fishery. These include a further increase in the size limit, a ban on tangle nets and a cap on fishing effort.
    • Making more money from Periwinkles

      Crowley, M (Department of Agriculture and Fisheries (Fisheries Division), 1975)
      Each year about £250,000 worth of periwinkles are picked on our shores. This makes them far and away the most valuable molluscs in our fishing industry. What is more, the value might be doubled if the catch were to be handled carefully. The fact is that, although they appear very tough, the periwinkle are in some ways delicate animals and rough treatment kills many of them. An important fact in the periwinkle industry is that the resource is a natural one which costs little to exploit. No equipment is required to harvest them because they are simply picked by hand when the tide is out.
    • Making the European Fisheries Ecosystem Plan Operational (MEFEPO) North Western Waters Atlas

      Connolly, P L; Kelly, E; Dransfeld, L; Slattery, N; Paramor, O A L; Frid, C L J (Marine Institute, 2009)
      MEFEPO (Making the European Fisheries Ecosystem Plan Operational) is a group of ecologists, economists, management experts and fisheries scientists who are trying to make ecosystem based fisheries management a reality in Europe. This Atlas is intended for policy makers, managers and interested stakeholders. Its purpose is to provide an ecosystem overview of the North Western Waters area (NWW) Regional Advisory Council (RAC) area. The Atlas includes general summary information on the physical and chemical features, habitat types, biological features, birds, mammals, fishing activity and other human activities of the NWW region. Background material on four NWW case study fisheries is presented (North East Atlantic Mackerel, Northern Hake, Dublin Bay Prawn and Scallops). This NWW Atlas was produced by the Marine Institute, Ireland as part of the EU funded MEFEPO project.
    • Management and control of proliferative kidney disease (PKD) in a freshwater Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) farm in Ireland: a case history

      Quigley, D.T.G.; McArdle, J.F. (Fish Veterinary Society, 1998)
      During July 1992, an acute clinical outbreak of proliferative kidney disease (PKD) was experienced in two strains (‘Irish’ and ‘Norwegian’) of juvenile (age 0+) Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) held at two adjacent freshwater sites on the River Lee in southern Ireland. Various management strategies (including reduced stocking densities, handling, feeding rates and increased oxygenation), and treatment regimes (involving malachite green and fumagillin DCH) were used to control the disease. A total of 1·3 million juveniles died during the PKD outbreak, representing 61·6% and 54·6% of the Norwegian stock at the two farms respectively. The Irish stock appeared to be more resistant to the disease and only 15·6% died. The weekly prevalence of PKD fluctuated throughout the summer but seemed to disappear by mid-August. Although PKD was detected again during 1993, no clinical outbreak occurred. In conjunction with the management strategies adopted in 1992, seven consecutive weekly prophylactic bath treatments with malachite green (1·6 ppm for 40 minutes) administered prior to mid-July appeared to control the disease. During August 1993, a ten day course of fumagillin (6 mg/kg bodyweight per day) reduced the prevalence of the PKD parasite in a trial batch of juveniles from 24% to zero. The results of this study demonstrated the effectiveness of various management strategies and treatment regimes in controlling PKD.
    • Management of health risks associated with oysters harvested from a norovirus contaminated area, Ireland, February–March 2010

      Doré, B.; Keaveney, S.; Flannery, J.; Rajko-Nenow, P. (European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, 2010)
      Oysters from a harvesting area responsible for outbreaks of gastroenteritis were relaid at a clean seawater site and subsequently depurated in tanks of purified seawater at elevated temperatures. This combined treatment reduced norovirus levels to those detected prior to the outbreak. On the basis of norovirus monitoring the sale of treated oysters was permitted although the harvest area remained closed for direct sale of oysters. No reports of illness have been associated with the consumption of treated oysters.
    • Management of the European Eel

      Moriarty, C. (ed); Dekker, W. (ed) (Marine Institute, 1997)
      Concern expressed by fishermen, fish culturists and scientists alike on the decline in recruitment and fishery yields of the eel led to the establishment of a working group, EC Concerted Action AIR A94-1939, to pursue a project entitled Enhancement of the European eel fishery and conservation of the species. Scientists from ten countries have contributed to the current report and its predecessor, published in 1996. The reports present an account of the eel fishery together with scientific data of significance in control of the stocks and make recommendations for future management.
    • Management recommendations for the sustainable exploitation of mussel seed in the Irish Sea

      Maguire, J A; Knights, T; Burnell, G; Crowe, T; O'Beirn, F.X.; McGrath, D; Ferns, M; McDonough, N; McQuaid, N; O'Connor, B; Doyle, R; Newell, C; Seed, R; Smaal, A; O'Carroll, T; Watson, L; Dennis, J; Ó Cinneide, M (Marine Institute, 2007)
      As it currently stands, the management of the bottom mussel aquaculture in Ireland is a complex process that is governed by three overriding factors; these are; 1) Government policy and regulation, 2) industry and economics and 3) Science and biology. These three factors are influenced by a range of different issues that influence the implementation of resource management either individually or in combination and include, inter alia, aquaculture licensing, carrying capacity, company structure and operating practices, animal health legislation, vessel registration and licensing and North/South agreements, prevailing weather conditions and uncertainty of seed supply. The mussel seed fishery in the Irish Sea, as the primary source of seed, is integral to the continued viability of the bottom mussel sector in Ireland. This report is the outcome of a project initiated over concerns raised regarding the sustainability of the fishery. A goal of this project is to develop and implement a science based management system for the sustainable exploitation of seed mussels in the Irish Sea. A specific goal of the project was to identify environmental drivers governing the distribution and abundance of the seed mussel resources in the Irish Sea. A number of outputs were expected from this project: 1. A literature search and review of existing biological, fisheries, survey and hydrographic data. 2. Studies to estimate adult reproductive cycles and spatfall patterns. 3. Hydrographic models of targeted areas of high mussel population. These models allow for behavioural characteristics of the larval swimming phases. 4. Draft a management strategy to detail the optimum manner in which to effect the sustainable exploitation of the resource, including the hatchery option. This report addresses the final workpackage above, wherein a series of recommendations encompassing both management and research aspects, based upon the scientific outputs of the project, are presented.
    • Managing a complex population structure: exploring the importance of information from fisheries-independent sources

      Hintzen, N.T.; Roel, B.; Benden, D.; Clarke, M.; Egan, A.; Nash, R.D.M.; Rohlf, N.; Hatfield, E.M.C. (Oxford University Press, 2014)
      Natural resource managers aim to manage fish stocks at sustainable levels. Often, management of these stocks is based on the results of analytical stock assessments. Accurate catch data, which can be attributed to a specific population unit and reflects the population structure, are needed for these approaches. Often though, the quality of the catch data is compromised when dealing with a complex population structure where fish of different population units mix in a fishery. The herring population units west of the British Isles are prone to mixing. Here, the inability to perfectly allocate the fish caught to the population unit they originate from, due to classification problems, poses problems for management. These mixing proportions are often unknown; therefore, we use simulation modelling combined with management strategy evaluation to evaluate the role fisheries-independent surveys can play in an assessment to provide unbiased results, irrespective of population unit mixing and classification success. We show that failure to account for mixing is one of the major drivers of biased estimates of population abundance, affecting biomass reference points and MSY targets. When mixing of population units occurs, the role a survey can play to provide unbiased assessment results is limited. Either different assessment models should be employed or stock status should be considered from the survey data alone. In addition, correctly classifying the origin of fish is especially important for those population units that are markedly smaller in size than other units in the population complex. Without high classification success rates, smaller population units are extremely vulnerable to overexploitation.
    • Mapping and Assessment of the Seaweed Resources (Ascophyllum nodosum, Laminaria spp.) off the West Coast of Ireland

      Hession, C; Guiry, M D; McGarvey, S; Joyce, D (Marine Institute, 1998)
      The seaweed biomass survey was designed to gather important information on those seaweed resources that are extensively harvested at present (mainly Ascophyllum nodosum) and those that offer a significant potential for future development (Laminariaceae). The first major objective of the project was to measure the intertidal biomass of Ascophyllum nodosum at selected sites along the Irish west coast. A total of 258 survey sites of varying size were selected by the survey team. They were considered to encapsulate all of the important regions where Ascophyllum nodosum harvesting was currently practiced and/or could take place in the future. Sites were selected using existing harvesting records, detailed map and chart studies and on-site visits. The total coastal area surveyed has the potential to yield 74,845 tonnes (t) of Ascophyllum nodosum sustainably per annum. The total amount harvested in 1996 was 35,850 t or some 48% of the total annual potential. The location and classification of the major Laminarian (kelp) beds off the Irish west coast was the second major objective of the project. Laminarians form the most extensive community inhabiting sublittoral rocky coasts of the North Atlantic. There are five species of the Laminariaceae and Alarinaceae families common to Irish waters, namely; Laminaria digitata, Laminaria hyperborea, Laminaria saccharina, Alaria esculenta and Sacchoriza polyschides. A process of public and private consultation, in conjunction with a number of field studies, was used to determine the distribution and relative abundance of these species on the west coast of Ireland. An estimate of the area of coastline (from Malin Head, Donegal, to Galley Head, Cork), covered by laminarians indicated that they were abundant at 22% of sites, common at 23%, scarce at 11% and absent from the remaining 44% of sites surveyed. All of the information gathered from the seaweed survey was been entered into a custom designed Geographical Information System (GIS). The system is made up of two information 'layers'. The first layer comprises a digitised outline of the Irish west coast from Donegal to Cork at a scale of 1:10,000 (6 inch to one mile). The second information 'layer' derived from data collected during the survey, comprising such details as amounts of seaweed present, harvesting details, accessibility and harvesting potential.
    • Mariculture in Ireland. Policies and Problems.

      Went, A E J (Department of Agriculture and Fisheries (Fisheries Division), 1975)
      Mariculture in Ireland up to 1974 was restricted to the flat oyster (Ostrea edulis) and mussel (Mytilus edulis) but since that year rearing of the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in the sea and of some other species has been undertaken on an experimental basis. Because the fisheries in tidal waters and in the sea are, with some exceptions, vested in the public, legal difficulties can arise in many areas. Some of these legal difficulties in the case of the flat oyster, mussel, cockle (Cardium edule) and periwinkle (Littorina littorea) can be resolved by actions under the Irish Fisheries Acts but with other species new legislation is required for certain forms of activity. Problems can also arise in connection with the supply of stock for rearing purposes. Stringent regulations are in force regarding the importation of aquatic animals generally with a view to barring those animals which may have an adverse effect on existing stocks of fish or may lead to the introduction of diseases and parasites not already in the country.
    • The Marine Algal Flora of Bantry Bay, Co. Cork

      Guiry, M D (Department of Agriculture and Fisheries (Fisheries Division), 1973)
      A documentation of the marine algal flora of Bantry Bay, incorporating distributional, ecological and systematic data, is presented with a view to establishing distribution patterns, and so that an indication of the species diversity of selected shores might be available in the event of major environmental change in the future. Qualitative investigations, chiefly in the littoral zone, were carried out at eleven sites in the inner part of Bantry Bay during 1969-1972. The resulting list contains a total of 166 species, of which 88 are new records for the Bay and 7 are new records for County Cork. The sites at which each species was found are enumerated, together with grid references, brief descriptions of the topography, and notes on the algal communities.
    • Marine Ecotourism: A Marketing Initiative in West Clare

      Hoctor, Z (Marine Institute, 2001)
      Many definitions of ecotourism exist, but there is an emerging consensus that it is a subset of nature-based tourism and of sustainable tourism. Ecotourism is reputed to be the fastest-growing sector of the world tourism industry, with estimates of its rate of growth ranging anywhere between 10% and 30% per annum. It is reputed to attract high spending tourists, and estimates suggest it to be ‘worth’ between $10 and $17.5 billion worldwide (Fennell, 1999). Recognising its global importance, the United Nations General Assembly has declared the year 2002 as the International Year of Ecotourism and Responsible Tourism. The focus of this document is on a particular form of ecotourism known as marine ecotourism, i.e. ecotourism activities that take place in the coastal zone, in the marine environment, or in both. While ecotourism is based on enabling people to experience the natural environment in a manner that is consistent with the principles of sustainable development, marine ecotourism is about attempting to establish and maintain a symbiotic relationship between tourism and the natural marine environment. Marine ecotourism activities may be water-based, land-based, or both. They may be formally organised or undertaken independently. They may form the basis of a specialist holiday or simply be an element of a conventional holiday. Examples of activities that could be marine ecotourism include: watching whales, dolphins, sharks, seals and other marine animals, seabird ornithology, diving and snorkelling, nature-based sightseeing trips by surface boat or submarine, rock-pooling, coastal footpath and beach walking and visiting seashore and sea life centres.
    • Marine fauna of county Wexford, Ireland: The fauna of rocky shores and sandy beaches

      Healy, B.; McGrath, D. (Marine Institute, 1998)
      Information accumulated during 20 years of investigations on the coast of County Wexford is summarised. Topics include shore descriptions, faunal records, transectal surveys on rocky shores and sandy beaches, cryptofaunal studies on rocky shores, and ecology, reproduction and population dynamics of many of the dominant species. Studies were mainly carried out on exposed and sheltered rocky shores in the region of Camsore Point, Forlorn Point and Hook Head, and sandy beaches at Kilmore Quay, Camsore, Came, Rosslare Harbour and Rosslare Point, but some collections were made in a wide range of habitats throughout the county. A total of 484 taxa were recorded. Carnsore is the type locality for four species of oligochaete and two more are yet to be described. The fauna lacks some of the elements of west Irish coasts but is richer than on the mid-eastern coast owing to the presence of southern species. Differences in species abundance and population structure on south and east coasts are described, and possible reasons for the differences are discussed.
    • Marine Functional Foods and Functional Ingredients

      Hurst, D. (Marine Institute, 2006)
      This briefing paper gives insights into the issues surrounding marine functional foods and highlights opportunities for researchers in the marine sciences and food sciences areas to engage in collaborative research. It will be used as the basis for further consultation with the research community and firms in the marine and food sectors and to assist in exploring and prioritising research themes.
    • Marine Functional Foods Research Initiative (NutraMara)

      Troy, D. J.; Tiwari, B. K.; Hayes, M.; Ross, P.; Stanton, C.; Johnson, M.; Stengel, D.; O’Doherty, J. V.; FitzGerald, R. J.; McSorley, E.; Kerry, J. (Marine Institute, 2017)
      NutraMara – Marine Functional Foods Research Initiative: The goal was to create new research capacity and build the capabilities required to maximise the potential of Ireland’s extensive marine bioresources. By supporting a strong interdisciplinary research team, capable of exploring marine animals and plants as a sustainable source of materials for use as functional ingredients and foods, the vision for NutraMara was to position Ireland to the fore in use of marine bioresources as health beneficial ingredients.
    • Marine Industries Global Market Analysis

      Douglas-Westwood Limited (Marine Institute, 2005)
      This report was commissioned by the Marine Institute and completed in March 2005. Its aims are to act as an input to the strategy development process and specifically to provide the following: • An estimate of the global market for marine activities in 2004 for sub-sectors defined by the Institute. • An estimate of the Irish share of the market. • An assessment of regional market trends and outturns over the period 1999-2004. • An estimate of the global market and growth prospects by sub-sector over the period 2005–2009. • Comments on factors that will impact in the longer term – to 2012.