• Karenia mikimotoi: An Exceptional Dinoflagellate Bloom in Western Irish Waters, Summer 2005

      Silke, J.; O'Beirn, F.X.; Cronin, M. (Marine Institute, 2005)
      A protracted bloom of Karenia mikimotoi was present in summer 2005 along the northern half of the western Irish coastline. The onset of this bloom was identified in late May / early June. This event subsequently dissipated over the month of July and was succeeded by a bloom of the same species in the southwest in late July. The bloom was very intense and resulted in discolouration of seawater and foaming in coastal embayments. Major mortalities of benthic and pelagic marine organisms were observed and a complete decimation of marine faunal communities was reported and observed in several locations. Deaths of echinoderms, polychaetes and bivalve molluscs were observed in County Donegal and Mayo, while farmed shellfish and hatchery raised juvenile bivalve spat suffered significant mortalities along the Galway and Mayo coasts. Reports of dead fish and crustacea were received from Donegal, Galway, West Cork and Kerry. Karenia mikimotoi is one of the most common red tide causative dinoflagellates known in the Northeast Atlantic region, and is also common in the waters around Japan. Blooms of this species often reach concentrations of over several million cells per litre and these densities are often associated with marine fauna mortalities. Although cytotoxic polyethers have been extracted from cultures of the species, the exact mechanism of the toxic effect and resultant devastating damages yet remains unclear. It is known in the literature under several different names as the taxonomy and genetics have been studied. It is now known that previously reported names including Gyrodinium aureolum, G. cf. aureolum, G. nagasakiense and G. mikimotoi are synonymous with the current name given to the organism. The visible effects following the mortalities included noticeable quantities of dead heart urchins (Echinocardium cordata L.) and lugworms (Arenicola marina L.) deposited on beaches. Several species of wild fish were also found dead. The bloom coincided with a period of fine weather and tourists visiting the seaside were concerned about the safety of swimming in waters that were obviously harmful to marine organisms on this scale. A public awareness programme was mounted by the Marine Institute with several radio broadcasts, press releases and a website provided to give up to date pronouncements on the event. While there have been several instances of Karenia mikimotoi blooms reported in Ireland over the past 30 years, this scale of mortalities associated with the 2005 bloom were not previously observed. Recording the scale of this event was facilitated by satellite imagery while direct counts of the cells in seawater by the Marine Institute monitoring programme gave very useful information regarding the size and intensity of this event. The mortalities of marine organisms were documented from reports made by various observers and by Marine Institute field surveys.
    • Koi Herpesvirus Disease

      Marine Institute (Marine Institute, 2011)
      This leaflet gives information on Koi herpesvirus disease (KHV). KHV is caused by koi herpesvirus (or cyprinid herpesvirus-3) a double stranded DNA virus of the family Herpesviridae. KHV is listed as a non-exotic disease under EU Directive 2006/88/EC and is notifiable in Ireland according to S.I. No. 261 of 2008.
    • Labadie, Jones and Cockburn Banks (FU20-21) 2013 UWTV Survey Report

      Doyle, J.; Lordan, C.; Hehir, I.; O’Sullivan, D.; O’Connor, S.; Blaszkowski, M.; Stewart, P. (Marine Institute, 2013)
      This report provides the main results of the 2013 underwater television survey on the ‘Labadie, Jones and Cockburn Banks’ ICES assessment area; Functional Unit 20-21. Some exploratory stations were carried out in 2006 and 2012. The survey was multi-disciplinary in nature collecting UWTV, CTD, Multibeam and other ecosystem data. A randomised isometric grid design was employed with UWTV stations at 6.0 nmi intervals. Due to weather and technical downtime only 58 out of the 95 planned stations were successfully completed. The adjusted mean density for 2013 was 0.18/m2 which can be classified as “low density”. Scientific knowledge of the heterogeneous habitat and spatial distribution of the Nephrops population in this area is developing. Survey design and burrow identification are particularly difficult in this area due to factors discussed. The occurrence of sea-pens and trawl marks on the UWTV footage is also presented.
    • The Labadie, Jones and Cockburn Banks Nephrops Grounds (FU2021) 2014 UWTV Survey Report and catch options for 2015

      Doyle, J.; Lordan, C.; Hehir, I.; Fitzgerald, R.; O'Connor, S.; Keith, M.; Sheridan, M. (Marine Institute, 2014-10)
      This report provides the main results of the 2014 underwater television survey on the ‘Labadie, Jones and Cockburn Banks’ ICES assessment area; Functional Unit 20-21. Some exploratory UWTV stations were carried out in 2006 and 2012. In 2013 ~60% of the ground was surveyed. This was the first survey to achieve full coverage of the newly defined area. The 2014 survey was multi-disciplinary in nature collecting UWTV, CTD and other ecosystem data. A randomised isometric grid design was employed with 98 UWTV stations at 6.0 nmi intervals. The mean burrow density was 0.19 burrows/m2 compared with 0.16 burrows/m2 in 2013. The 2014 geostatistical abundance estimate was 2.1±0.1 billion a 26% increase on the extrapolated abundance for 2013. Highest densities were general observed towards the middle of the ground, but there were also high densities observed close to boundaries. Using the 2014 abundance and recent fisheries data it is possible to estimate harvest ratios consistent with various landings options. These can be used by ICES to provide catch options for 2015. The occurrence of sea-pens and trawl marks on the UWTV footage and processed CTD is also presented.
    • The Labadie, Jones and Cockburn Banks Nephrops Grounds (FU2021) 2015 UWTV Survey Report and catch options for 2016

      Lordan, C.; Doyle, J.; Fitzgerald, R.; O’Connor, S.; Blaszkowski, M.; Stokes, D.; Ni Chonchuir, G.; Gallagher, J.; Butler, R.; Sheridan, M.; Simpson, S.; Blandon, A.; Meakins, B. (Marine Institute, 2015)
      This report provides the main results of the 2015 underwater television survey on the ‘Labadie, Jones and Cockburn Banks’ ICES assessment area; Functional Unit 20-21. This was the second survey to achieve full coverage of the full area. The 2015 survey was multidisciplinary in nature collecting UWTV, CTD and other ecosystem data. A total of 96 UWTV stations were completed at 6 nmi intervals over a randomised isometric grid design. The mean burrow density was 0.20 burrows/m2 compared with 0.19 burrows/m2 in 2014. The 2015 geostatistical abundance estimate was 2.0±0.02 billion a 2% decrease on the abundance for 2014 with a CV of 3% which is well below the upper limit of 20% recommended by SGNEPS 2012. Highest densities were general observed towards the north and southwest of the ground, and there were also high densities observed close to boundaries. Using the 2015 abundance estimate and updated stock data implies catch of 3045 tonnes and landings of 2225 tonnes. Only one species of sea pen Virgilaria mirabilis was recorded as present at the stations surveyed. Trawl marks were observed at 30% of the stations surveyed.
    • The Labadie, Jones and Cockburn Banks Nephrops Grounds (FU2021) 2017 UWTV Survey Report and catch options for 2018

      Doyle, J.; Fitzgerald, R.; O’Brien, S.; Ryan, G.; McGeady, R.; Lordan, C. (Marine Institute, 2017)
      This report provides the main results of the 2017 underwater television survey on the ‘Labadie, Jones and Cockburn Banks’ ICES assessment area; Functional Unit 20-21. This was the fourth survey to achieve full coverage of the full area. The 2017 survey was multi-disciplinary in nature collecting UWTV, CTD and other ecosystem data. A total of 86 UWTV stations were completed at 6 nmi intervals over a randomised isometric grid design. The mean burrow density was 0.44 burrows/m2 compared with 0.18 burrows/m2 in 2016. The 2017 geostatistical abundance estimate was 4.4±0.01 billion a 236% increase on the abundance for 2016 with a CV of 4% which is well below the upper limit of 20% recommended by SGNEPS 2012. Highest densities were generally observed throughout the ground, and there were also high densities observed close to boundaries. Using the 2017 abundance estimate and updated stock data implies catch of 8,673 tonnes and landings of 6,553 tonnes in 2018 when MSY approach is applied (assuming that discard rates and fishery selection patterns do not change from the average of 2014–2016). One species of sea-pen were recorded as present at the stations surveyed Virgilaria mirabilis. Trawl marks were observed at 32% of the stations surveyed.
    • Laboratory Experiments on Pumping and Filtration in 'Mytilus edulis L.using Suspensions of Colloidal Graphite

      Wilson, J H; Seed, R (Department of Agriculture and Fisheries (Fisheries Division), 1974)
      Pumping and filtration of colloidal graphite and shell movements of Mytilus edulis from Carlingford Lough, Northern Ireland, were recorded in the laboratory. Pumping and filtration rates fluctuated widely even in undisturbed animals. Long term recordings demonstrated an inverse relationship between pumping rate and filtration efficiency. The effects of light, tidal cycle, particle concentration, temperature and salinity on pumping rate have been examined. Periods of light and dark did not affect pumping rate nor was there evidence for any intrinsic tidal rhythm in feeding. Pumping increased to a maximum at graphite concentrations of 20-25 mg/l. The rate prior to the addition of graphite influenced the response at certain particle concentrations. Filtration was most efficient at 18.5°C and decreased above 22.5°. Pumping steadily increased to a maximum at 22.5°. Filtration of acclimated mussels was maximal at 25-34‰ whilst feeding ceased at the extreme salinities of 15 and 50‰.
    • Laboratory investigations into the absorption of dissolved free amino acids by the gill of the mussel Mytilus edulis L.

      Elliott, A J (Department of Fisheries and Forestry, 1979)
      Experiments were undertaken to investigate the uptake of dissolved free amino acids by the isolated gill of Mytilus edulis L., from concentrations approximating to those in sea water. Both neutral and basic amino acids were found to be absorbed against a concentration gradient and a proportion of each amino acid was incorporated in the tissue in ethanol-insoluble form. L-alanine was actively absorbed against a gradient by a process following Michaelis-Menten kinetics (Kt O.33mM, Vmax O.38μmoles/g dry wt/min) and was susceptible to metabolic inhibition. 14C D-alanine was absorbed against a concentration gradient and the label incorporated in the tissue in ethanol-insoluble form. The fate of the absorbed amino acids is considered in relation to efflux from and metabolism in the mussel. The significance of amino acid uptake is discussed with reference to their availability in the environment and their contribution to the nutrition of bivalves.
    • Large scale Phaeocystis blooms off the west cost of Ireland in 1990

      Pybus, C; McGrath, D (Department of the Marine, 1992)
      The occurrence of blooms of Phaeocystis are reported from the West Coast of Ireland in the spring of 1990. Populations were observed along the coastlines of counties Clare, Galway, Mayo, Sligo and Donegal. The causative species is believed to have been P. globosa. These blooms represent the largest scale development of this or any other phytoplanktonic species recorded from this geographic area.
    • Larval distribution of commercial fish species in waters around Ireland

      Dransfeld, L.; Dwane, O.; McCarney, C.; Kelly, C. J.; Danilowicz, B. S.; Fives, J.M. (Marine Institute, 2004)
      In April 2000 a base line survey was conducted on the larval distribution of commercial fish species off the west, north and south coasts of Ireland. Ichthyoplankton samples and in situ CTD data were collected, whilst simultaneously capturing remote sensing images of chlorophyll and sea surface temperatures. The survey sampling area covered the Celtic Sea from the Irish south coast to 49 degree N, the western shelf including the Porcupine Bank and the northern shelf up to the Stanton Bank. The sample grid design was based on the international mackerel & horse mackerel egg survey with station spacings of 0.5 degree latitude and 0.5 degree longitude. Ichthyoplankton samples were collected with a Gulf III plankton sampler, which was deployed on oblique tows from the surface to within 5 metres of the bottom (200m max). A self-logging CTD sensor (Promonitor) was attached to the Gulf and recorded depth, temperature and salinity profiles for each deployment. Results from the Promonitor CTD showed that strong temperature and salinity gradients were encountered during the survey. Lowest temperatures coincided with lowest salinity in the North Channel of the Irish Sea while highest salinities and temperatures were found to the south west of Ireland.Thermal fronts were found in the eastern Celtic Sea and on the north west coast of Ireland.The AVHRR images showed a progressive increase in surface temperatures in the Celtic Sea and west of Ireland. Highest surface chlorophyll concentrations were associated with cooler less saline water in the Irish Sea and the coastal areas around Ireland. In the western Celtic Sea surface chlorophyll concentrations increased as the survey progressed to form a phytoplankton bloom towards the end of the survey. Larvae of interest showed distinct distribution patterns, with some species being confined to particular areas or spawning grounds while others were spread over the whole survey area. The survey identified two important larval hotspots: Cod larvae were concentrated in the eastern Celtic Sea, where other gadoid species such as haddock, whiting, pollack and saithe were also found in high numbers.This area is associated with the Celtic Sea front and shows increased primary productivity, which could present a favourable environment for successful larval survival. Stations in the southwest of Ireland sustained high concentrations of hake, megrim and mackerel larvae. The waters with high numbers of these three species stretched from shallow inshore stations to deeper ones along the continental shelf and were characterised by high temperatures and salinities. SeaWIFS satellite images suggest the formation of a phytoplankton bloom within this larval hotspot, which would provide the necessary resources for successful larval growth.
    • LC-UV and LC-MS methods for the determination of domoic acid

      Hess, P.; Morris, S.; Stobo, L.A.; Brown, N.A.; McEvoy, J.D.G.; Kennedy, G.; Young, P.B.; Slattery, D.; McGovern, E.; McMahon, T.; Gallacher, S. (Elsevier, 2005)
      Under European legislation, domoic acid (DA), the main constituent of amnesic shellfish poisoning, is monitored to protect the shellfish consumer. To ensure comparability amongst analytical data, it was deemed necessary to undertake performance assessments of the methods conducted by monitoring laboratories of the United Kingdom and Ireland. In phase I of a two-phase inter-comparison, three laboratories used high-performance liquid chromatography and ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV). Concentration data for a DA standard solution, a crude extract of whole scallops and a scallop-homogenate fell within internationally accepted limits, demonstrating good agreement for these matrices. Between-laboratory analyses of a scallop gonad showed a higher variation (>16%). In phase II, a second gonad homogenate containing DA one order of magnitude higher in concentration gave results acceptable to internationally set criteria. The efficiency of the strong anion-exchange cartridges used in sample-extract clean-up should be monitored as part of a laboratory quality control system. From a recovery study, it is suggested that recovery correction should also be applied. There was no difference in the quantitation of DA in standard solutions or shellfish using either LC-UV or LC with mass spectrometric (MS) detection, and between-laboratory MS data for a gonad homogenate were also equivalent. Variations of the published method practised by the monitoring laboratories were found not to compromise results, thus demonstrating an acceptable degree of ruggedness, as well as comparability between the participants.
    • Length-Weight Relationships, Fat Content and Parasitic Infestation of Irish Mackerel

      McArdle, E; Barnwall, E; Nolan, F (Department of Fisheries and Forestry, 1985)
      Landings of mackerel by Irish vessels have increased dramatically in recent years. The total catch in 1982 amounted to 110,000 tonnes which was valued at about 8.5 million pounds, compared with only 8,500 tonnes, values at 0.36 million pounds in 1974. The major cause of the increase has been the introduction of six large trawlers into the fleet around 1980 as a result of which the total catch jumped from 24,000 tonnes in 1979 to 80,000 tonnes in 1980. The main landings into Irish ports are made at Killybegs and Rathmullen, while smaller landings are made into Castletownbere and Galway. Since 1983 considerable quantities have also been landed into western Scottish ports. Most of the catches are taken off the west and northwest coast but again since 1983 the Irish fleet has successfully fished over a wide area extending from west of the Shetland Islands down to Cornwall.
    • Lessons for fisheries management from the EU cod recovery plan

      Kraak, Sarah B. M.; Bailey, Nick; Cardinale, Massimiliano; Darby, Chris; De Oliveira, José A. A.; Eero, Margit; Graham, Norman; Holmes, Steven; Jakobsen, Tore; Kempf, Alexander; Kirkegaard, Eskild; Powell, John; Scott, Robert D.; Simmonds, E. John; Ulrich, Clara; Vanhee, Willy; Vinther, Morten (Elsevier, 2012)
      The performance of the EU long-term management plan for cod stocks, in force since 2009, is analysed focusing on the human and institutional factors. The plan operates through landings quotas (TACs) and effort restrictions following a Harvest Control Rule, and deploys a novel instrument allowing Member States to ‘buy back’ or increase fishing effort for fleet segments engaged in cod-avoidance measures. The stipulated fishing mortality reductions have not been achieved. On the positive side, the ‘buy-back’ instrument has led to increased uptake of selective gear and implementation of permanent and real-time temporary closures. On the negative side, ignoring the dimension of fishers as reactive agents in the design, the impact assessment, and the annual implementation of the measures has contributed to the failure to adequately implement the plan and achieve its objectives. The main problem is that the landings quotas taken in a mixed fishery did not limit catches because fishers were incentivised to continue fishing and discard overquota catch while quota for other species was available. The effort limitations intended to reduce this effect were insufficient to adequately limit fishing mortality in targeted fisheries, although fishers experienced them as prohibiting the full uptake of other quotas. Recommendations for future plans include (i) management through catch rather than landings quotas, (ii) the internalisation of the costs of exceeding quotas, (iii) use of more selective gear types, (iv) the development of appropriate metrics as a basis for regulatory measures and for evaluations, (v) participatory governance, (vi) fishery-based management, (vii) flexibility in fishing strategy at vessel level.
    • Levels of metals and organic contaminants in mussels Mytilus edulis from Cork Harbour - 1989

      Boelens, R G; Nixon, E R; McLaughlin, D (Department of the Marine, 1990-07)
      This study of contaminants in mussels from outer Cork Harbour (Buoy no. 8) has shown that the levels of selected metals and organochlorine substances are generally low and at the lower end of the ranges measured in recent surveys of mussel populations at other European coastal sites.
    • A life history approach to the assessment of deepwater fisheries in the Northeast Atlantic

      Clarke, Maurice (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 2005)
      It has been generally stated that deepwater fishes cannot sustain high levels of exploitation because of their characteristic slow growth, longevity and low reproductive output. However deepwater fish species display a wide variety of life-history strategies, occupying diverse positions along the K-r continuum. Literature sources provided data on age, growth, fecundity, maturity and mortality rates of several deepwater teleosts and elasmobranchs. Many teleosts displayed intermediate or conservative life-history characteristics, but the squalid sharks were more stringent K-strategists. These data were used in life-history analyses to assess the sustainability of these mixed-species deepwater fisheries. Whilst there may be scope for compensatory changes in fecundity such scope is likely to be limited, especially for sharks. The implications of these life-history parameters for sustainable exploitation are discussed by way of comparison with continental shelf species from this region.
    • ‘Linking Herring’: do we really understand plasticity?

      Dickey‐Collas, M; Clarke, M; Slotte, A (Oxford University Press, 2009)
      The symposium was organized to link our understanding of herring biology, population dynamics, and exploitation in the context of ecosystem complexity. It is beyond argument that herring play a pivotal role in shaping the structure and dynamics of many boreal continental-shelf ecosystems. Therefore, in moving to an ecosystem approach to fishery management, the time seemed right for ICES to hold another herring symposium. Since the last ICES symposia on herring in the 1960s (“Herring Symposium”, 1961; “Biology of Early Stages and Recruitment Mechanisms of Herring”, 1968), many of the old paradigms have been rejected, and substantial progress has been made by striking out along new avenues. In addressing this particular topic, we were also able to follow on from the decadal herring symposia series held in North America, and thus cover new research from both the ICES and PICES communities. The symposium took place from 26 to 29 August 2008, at the National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland.
    • List of Fishery Leaflets Nos. 1 (1938) to 111 (1981)

      Anon. (Department of Fisheries and Forestry (Trade and Information Section), 1981)
      These leaflets provide a medium for distributing information on various aspects of fishery research and development undertaken by Officers of the Department. 111 leaflets have been published to date (December, 1981). A list is attached.
    • List of Fishery Leaflets Numbers 1 (1938) to 50 (1973)

      Anon. (Department of Agriculture and Fisheries (Fisheries Division), 1973)
      These Leaflets provide a medium for distributing information on various aspects of fishery research and development undertaken by officers of the Department. 50 Leaflets have been published to date (May 1973). A list is attached.
    • List of fishery leaflets numbers 1 (1938) to 58 (1973)

      Anon. (Department of Agriculture and Fisheries (Fisheries Division), 1974)
      These Leaflets provide a medium for distributing information on various aspects of fishery research and development undertaken by officers of the Department. 58 Leaflets have been published to date (January 1974). A list is attached.
    • A List of Rotatoria Known to Occur in Ireland with Notes on Their Habitats and Distribution

      Horkan, J. P. K. (Department of Agriculture and Fisheries [Fisheries Division], 1981)
      A total of 315 species of rotifers are known to occur in Ireland. Of these 71 belong to the Bdelloidea and 244 to the Monogononta. Three species new to Ireland are now recorded and one of them is also a new record for the British Isles. A taxonomic list of the 315 species is given together with notes on ecology, where possible, and distribution. The names of recorders are included.