• Captive rearing of larvae of the Dublin Bay prawn Nephrops norvegicus (L)

      Hillis, J P (Department of Agriculture and Fisheries (Fisheries Division), 1975)
      Wild caught Nephrops larvae were maintained in aquaria for as long as possible, in 1969, 1970 and 1971 together with a few which were hatched in the laboratory in 1971. Experiments were conducted at temperature ranges of 16°0 to 22°C and 11°C to 13 °C; the latter range is close to the ambient temperature of larvae in the sea. Direct observations, were obtained of the duration of all stages from first larval to third post larval (six successive stages in all), though percentage survival rates were rather low in some groups.
    • Capture of sea-trout by illegal means in the Western Fisheries Region: Some Observations for Discussion

      Fahy, E (Department of Fisheries and Forestry, 1986)
      Circumstances concerning the possible illegal exploitation of sea trout in two western fishery districts in which the fish are an important component of the salmonid catch are reviewed. Legal methods of capture in the districts are described. The illegal fishery consists largely of nets fixed close inshore. The meshings available are described in terms of colour, size, thread width and materials. The meshes belong to one of two size groups. The larger of these is suitable for salmon and only trout of more than four sea winters are likely to be caught in them; these fish are relatively rare on the western seaboard. The group of smaller meshes would be effective in the capture of sea trout and fish of one sea winter would be particularly susceptible. Unfortunately the mesh marks inflicted by such nets would be similar to those made by a draft net, used legally. The greater part of the illegal salmonid fishery is apparently directed at salmon.
    • Catch analysis of shrimp Palaemon serratus (Pennant) taken by different mesh sizes

      Fahy, E.; Forrestt, N.; Oakley, L. (Marine Institute, 1998)
      Five mesh sizes were used to sample shrimp Palaemon serratus at depths of less than 30 m in Bantry Bay, southwest Ireland from June 1996 to March 1997. All of the meshes, with the exception of the smallest (2.5 mm) were made up of polyethylene and they were distributed over a gang of 20 Chinesehat-ended creels which were fished on fourteen occasions throughout the period which overlapped with the commercial fishing season. Some 5,000 shrimp were captured and the size distribution of the total catch per month reflected the growth of the species so it is supposed that the population was representatively sampled throughout. Selection was calculated using the alternate hauls method. Shrimps did not enter the pots in any numbers below the length of 50 mm (total length) and mesh selection could not he demonstrated at a mesh size of 5.2 mm. Thereafter, as the mesh sizes were ascended, selectivity became more significant. It was however weak; Lc values ranged between 58-75 mm for females and 71-88 mm total lengths for males for mesh sizes of 7.5 - 13.5 mm. These lengths coincide with the centre of the length frequency distribution of shrimp. As the mesh size increased, the ratio of females to males rose, but the numbers per haul declined abruptly in the 13.5 mm mesh.
    • Catch and Discards for a Deep-Water Trawl Survey in 1996

      Kelly, C J; Clarke, M; Connolly, P L (Marine Institute, 1997)
      The Fisheries Research Centre has conducted a deep-water survey programme since 1993 and as part of this programme a deep-water trawl survey was carried out in September 1996. The survey fished areas along the continental slope west of Ireland from 52° N to 58° N at depths of 500-1,200m The primary objective was to secure samples of potentially commercial deep-water shark and teleost species in order to examine aspects of their age, growth, reproduction and diet. The survey was conducted on a chartered commercial fishing vessel using a deep-water otter trawl fitted with a small mesh cod-end liner. A total of 26 hauls were made during 87 hours of fishing and yielded a total catch of 29,345 kg. The ground covered ranged from mud to gravel and bare rock and there was no significant gear damage during the survey. Thirteen species of chondrichtian and 33 species of teleost fish were recorded. Length, weight sex and maturity data were taken from some of these species. The most abundant species in the catch were Baird's smoothhead, roundnose grenadier, leafscale gulper shark, black scabbard and orange roughy. Trawl discards expressed as kg discarded per tonne of roundnose grenadier landed were calculated for a broad range of the most abundant species in the catch. During the survey in the Rockall Trough an estimated 16t of deep-water species were discarded and results are compared to estimates for 1995. The main species discarded were smoothhead, squaliform sharks and Lepidion eques. Results indicate up to 16,783t of deep-water species may have been discarded from the deep-water fishery in this area in 1996. This report documents the survey and presents some preliminary results. The data gathered during these surveys are currently under analysis at the PRC and the results will be published in the scientific literature.
    • Catch and Effort and Size Distribution in the Irish Lobster and Lobster/Crawfish Fisheries

      Gibson, F A (Department of Agriculture and Fisheries (Fisheries Division), 1972)
      In recent years, increasing attention has been paid to the interpretation of the effects of fishing effort upon the stock abundance of commercially valuable decapod crustacea. Simpson (1970) has emphasised the value of and urgent need for, precise information concerning the effects of fishing effort on lobster and crawfish stocks. By their very nature, lobsters and crawfish do not lend themselves particularly well to conformity with established methods of catch and effort analyses as applied to fish stocks. Therefore, whilst this almost traditional approach is adopted for lobster and crawfish studies, it may well be that considerable adjustments in the methodology are required if firmer estimations are to be achieved concerning the effects of fishing effort upon these animals. A most important gap in our knowledge is that of the mechanism of recruitment. Without reliable estimates of annual recruitment it is difficult to interpret its effects on abundance of good or poor year classes. Fully reliable methods of ageing lobsters have not been perfected.
    • Catch and Effort in the Irish Lobster Fishery During 1971

      Gibson, F A (Department of Agriculture and Fisheries (Fisheries Division), 1973)
      Once again it must be reported that only a small number of fishermen participated in the log book scheme operated by the Fisheries Division of the Department of Agriculture and Fisheries. Valuable as the data given by these fishermen are, and important as they are to the future of management in the Irish lobster fishery, it must be said that the participation of a very much more extensive section of fishermen would greatly enhance the value of the catch effort data. A further appeal is made to the readers of this Leaflet, that they should join this scheme and thereby contribute information important to the future of this fishery, which in 1971 brought in £338,000 to the fishermen.
    • Catch Data

      Marine Institute (Marine Institute, 2006)
      The quality of the international stock assessments carried out by scientists are directly linked to the quality of the fisheries data they use. In recent years, scientists have expressed great concern over the poor quality of catch data from most of the important fisheries in the EU area. Although scientists have been struggling with the problem for many years, the problem has become more acute in recent years. In 2005, it was not possible to carry out stock assessments for a number of key stocks in EU waters (including the waters around Ireland) because of the poor quality of the catch data. The issues of ‘misreporting and discarding’ are now a serious problem for the scientific community and need to be urgently addressed.
    • Catch Effort and Size Distribution in the Irish Lobster Fishing Industry in 1969 and 1970

      Gibson, F A (Department of Agriculture and Fisheries (Fisheries Division), 1972)
      This leaflet continues the study of catch and effort in the Irish lobster fishery, commenced in 1968, which was the subject matter of Fishery Leaflet No. 14 (Gibson 1968), As before, the results set out in this Leaflet have been obtained mainly from information supplied by Irish lobster fishermen who kept log books of their catch and effort in 1969. The response by fishermen to the requests by the Department to keep and fill in log books was still not as satisfactory as was expected, with the result that once again less than twenty log books were returned which contained information of sufficient standard to be useful in calculating the relationship between fishing and effort. The recording of this data is essential for the proper management of the lobster fishery in Irish waters and it is unfortunate that more fishermen are not co-operating in the log book scheme which is designed to help them. Those fishermen who have taken part in the scheme have already freely acknowledged that the log books (which remain their own property) have proved invaluable to them in their fishing operations, Furthermore the reproduction of all the data supplied by fishermen in one Leaflet enables those interested to see the rate of catch made by each type of boat or fishing gear. This information enables fishermen to compare their fishing results with those of others and so perhaps helps them to choose alternative and more satisfactory means for the capture of lobsters. However, if this service is to be of most advantage to all fishermen, the numbers of fishermen filling in log books must be increased considerably. It is hoped that the annual publication of these records will encourage other fishermen to join the scheme thereby furthering everyone's knowledge of this important species in Irish waters.
    • Catch Effort and Size Distributions of the Catch in the Irish Lobster Fishery (1968)

      Gibson, F A (Department of Agriculture and Fisheries (Fisheries Division), 1969)
      The object of this leaflet is to discuss methods of comparing the success (catch per unit effort) of various types of traps for the capture of lobsters and the relationship of the information thus obtained to the lobster stocks themselves.
    • Catch Per Unit Effort by the Joint Venture (Irish-Spanish) Fleet from 1985 to 1992

      Fahy, E; Gleeson, P (Department of the Marine, 1993)
      The formation in 1979 of the joint venture (Irish-Spanish) fishing fleet, Eiranova, introduced to the industry in Ireland a range of target species and fishing grounds on which the Irish demersal fishery has subsequently expanded. From the second quarter of 1985 the European Communities' Logbook has provided a format on which landings and details of fishing effort have been recorded. This leaflet reviews the catches of various species per effort expended by joint venture demersal trawl and long-lining vessels for the eight years documented by the Logsheets. The high value components of the trawl fishery are the prime fish (hake, monkfish and megrim) which are exported fresh to Spain. Hake is the principal target of long-liners. The fishery is concentrated in ICES statistical Divisions VIIb and VIIj. Since 1985, the CPUE of all species has declined by 39% and the trend in prime fish landings runs in parallel with this, mainly because of the reduction in hake landings. CPUE indices for all other species which are consistently recorded are given. Some comparisons are made among CPUE indices in Divisions VIlb, j and adjoining areas. However, these indices depend much on the exploited size range of a target species and the area in which fishing effort is concentrated and the bulk of the data are presented without further comment. A brief glossary of Spanish terminology is appended.
    • Celtic Sea Herring Acoustic Survey Cruise Report 2004

      O'Donnell, Ciaran; Griffin, Karen; Clarke, Maurice; Lynch, Deirdre; Ulgren, Jenny; Goddijn, Lonneke; Wall, David; Mackey, Mick (Marine Institute, 2004)
      In the Celtic Sea and ICES Division VIIj, to the south and southwest of Ireland, herring is an important commercial species and currently Ireland is the only country targeting this species in this area. Herring in this region comprise both autumn and winter spawning components. Commercial fishing has targeted the fish during spawning times, though in most recent years fish have been targeted during the summer feeding phase too. In VIIj, fishing has traditionally taken place in October, and concentrated in the bays and inlets. In contrast, fishing in VIIaS has mainly been in December to January, though in VIIg the fishery traditionally takes place from November to January. The protracted spawning period of herring and the overlap between the two spawning socks in this area (October to February) means that it is difficult to design a survey that covers all spawning fish in one specific survey. The stock structure and discrimination of herring in this area is not fully understood. It is known that fish in the eastern Celtic Sea recruit from nursery areas in the Irish Sea and tagging studies have shown linkages between these areas also. For the purpose of stock assessment and management these areas have been combined since 1982. A project is currently underway to describe stock structure and discrimination of herring around Ireland. The results of this project may have implications for the design of this survey and for the stock assessment. For a period in the 1980’s, egg and larval surveys were conducted for herring in this area. However, since 1989, acoustic surveys have been carried out, and currently are the only tuning indices available. In the Celtic Sea and VIIj, herring acoustic surveys have been carried out since 1989, and the current survey is the 15th in the series. In addition to the survey track a small component (Baginbun) was intensively surveyed using acoustic and multibeam mapping techniques. The Baginbun area is located east of Waterford Harbour in ICES division VIIaS. Baginbun has supported a large winter fishery for many years and is one of the most important and well known winter spawning areas on the south coast. This year for the first time the RV Celtic Explorer was to survey the area. This allowed a more extensive degree of coverage in the time allocated, the survey was further complemented with a number of hydrographic transects concentrating along the bays in the west and southwest and also along the southern coastline.
    • Celtic Sea Herring Acoustic Survey Cruise Report 2005

      O'Donnell, Ciaran; Doonan, Ian; Johnston, Graham; Lynch, Deirdre; Dransfeld, Leonie; Wall, David (Marine Institute, 2005)
      In the Celtic Sea and ICES Division VIIj, to the south and southwest of Ireland, herring are an important commercial species to the pelagic fleet. The local fleet is composed of dry hold polyvalent vessels and a number of purpose built RSW (Refrigerated seawater) vessels. This stock is composed of both autumn and winter spawning components. The commercial fishery has historically taken place within 6nmi (nautical miles) of the coast and focused on aggregated schools within the spawning cycle. In recent years the RSW fleet has actively targeted offshore summer feeding grounds in the south Celtic Sea. In division VIIj, the fishery traditionally begins in early October and is concentrated within several miles of the shore bays and inlets. The division VIIaS fishery peaks towards the year end in December, but may be active from mid October depending on location. In division VIIg, along the south coast herring are targeted from October to January at a number of known spawning sites and surrounding areas. Overall, the protracted spawning period of the two components extends from October through to January, with annual variation of up to 3 weeks. Spawning occurs in successive waves in a number of well known locations including large scale grounds and small discreet spawning beds. The stock structure and discrimination of herring in this area is not fully understood. It is known that fish in the eastern Celtic Sea recruit from nursery areas in the Irish Sea and tagging studies have shown linkages between these areas also. For the purpose of stock assessment and management these areas have been combined since 1982. For a period in the 1980’s, egg and larval surveys were conducted for herring in this area. However, since 1989, acoustic surveys have been carried out, and currently are the only tuning indices available. In the Celtic Sea and VIIj, herring acoustic surveys have been carried out since 1989, and the current survey is the 16th in the series. The autumn 2005 survey is the most comprehensive survey carried out in the current time series. The geographical confines of the annual 21 day survey were expanded to include areas to the south of the main winter spawning grounds in an effort to identify the whereabouts of winter spawning fish before the annual inshore spawning migration. Spatial resolution of acoustic transects were increased over the entire south coast survey areas. The acoustic component of the survey was complimented by a continuation of the detailed hydrographic work carried out in the Celtic Sea in 2004. In addition a second inshore survey was carried out along the southern coast using a chartered commercial fishing vessel (FV Regina Ponti). This second survey focused on area between 0.5nmi and 10nmi offshore and covered the main autumn and winter spawning areas along the south coast.
    • Celtic Sea Herring Acoustic Survey Cruise Report 2008

      O'Donnell, C; Saunders, R; Lynch, D; Lyons, K; Wall, D (Marine Institute, 2008)
      In the southwest of Ireland and the Celtic Sea (ICES Divisions VIIaS, g & j), herring are an important commercial species to the pelagic and polyvalent fleet. The local fleet is composed of dry hold polyvalent vessels and a small number of purpose built RSW (Refrigerated seawater) vessels. The stock is composed of both autumn and winter spawning components and the fishery targets pre-spawning and spawning aggregations. The Irish commercial fishery has historically taken place within 1-20nmi (nautical miles) of the coast and focused on aggregated schools within the spawning cycle. In recent years the larger RSW vessels have actively targeted offshore summer feeding aggregations in the south Celtic Sea. In VIIj, the fishery traditionally begins in mid September and is concentrated within several miles of the shore including many bays and inlets. The VIIaS fishery peaks towards the year end in December, but may be active from mid October depending on location. In VIIg, along the south coast herring are targeted from October to January at a number of known spawning sites and surrounding areas. Overall, the protracted spawning period of the two components extends from October through to January, with annual variation of up to 3 weeks. Spawning occurs in successive waves in a number of well known locations including large scale grounds and small discreet spawning beds. The geographical confines of the annual 21 day survey have been modified in recent years to include areas to the south of the main winter spawning grounds in an effort to identify the whereabouts of winter spawning fish before the annual inshore spawning migration. Spatial resolution of acoustic transects has been increased over the entire south coast survey area. The acoustic component of the survey has been further complimented by detailed hydrographic and marine mammal and seabird work programs first initiated during this survey in 2004.
    • Celtic Sea Herring Acoustic Survey Cruise Report 2010

      Saunders, R; O'Donnell, C; Campbell, A; Lynch, D; Egan, A; Lyons, K; Wall, D (Marine Institute, 2010)
      In the southwest of Ireland and the Celtic Sea (ICES Divisions VIIaS, g & j), herring are an important commercial species to the pelagic and polyvalent fleet. The local fleet is composed of dry hold polyvalent vessels and a small number of purpose built Refrigerated seawater vessels (RSW). The stock is composed of both autumn and winter spawning components and the fishery targets pre-spawning and spawning aggregations. The Irish commercial fishery has historically taken place within 1-20 nmi (nautical miles) of the coast and focused on aggregated schools within the spawning cycle. In recent years the larger RSW vessels have actively targeted offshore summer feeding aggregations in the south Celtic Sea. In VIIj, the fishery traditionally begins in mid September and is concentrated within several miles of the shore including many bays and inlets. The VIIaS fishery peaks towards the year end in December, but may be active from mid October depending on location. In VIIg, along the south coast herring are targeted from October to January at a number of known spawning sites and surrounding areas. Overall, the protracted spawning period of the two components extends from October through to January, with annual variation of up to 3 weeks. Spawning occurs in successive waves in a number of well known locations including large-scale grounds and small discreet spawning beds. The stock structure and discrimination of herring in this area has been investigated recently. Hatfield et al. (2007) has shown the Celtic Sea stock to be fairly discrete. However, it is known that fish in the eastern Celtic Sea recruit from nursery areas in the Irish Sea, returning to the Celtic Sea as young adults (Brophy et al. 2002; Molloy et al., 1993). The stock identity of VIIj herring is less clear, though there is evidence that they have linkages with VIIb and VIaS (ICES, 1994; Grainger, 1978). Molloy (1968) identified possible linkages between young fish in VIIj and those of the Celtic Sea herring. For the purpose of stock assessment and management divisions VIIaS, VIIg and VII j have been combined since 1982. For a period in the 1970s and 1980s, larval surveys were conducted for herring in this area. However, since 1989, acoustic surveys have been carried out, and currently are the only tuning indices available for this stock. In the Celtic Sea and VIIj, herring acoustic surveys have been carried out since 1989, and this survey is the 19th in the overall acoustic series or the sixth in the modified time series (i.e. conducted in October). The geographical confines of the annual 21 day survey have been modified in recent years to include areas to the south of the main winter spawning grounds in an effort to identify the whereabouts of winter spawning fish before the annual inshore spawning migration. Spatial resolution of acoustic transects has been increased over the entire south coast survey area. The acoustic component of the survey has been further complimented by detailed hydrographic and marine mammal and seabird work programs first initiated during this survey in 2004.
    • Celtic Sea Herring Acoustic Survey Cruise Report 2013, 07 - 27 October, 2013

      O’Donnell, C.; Nolan, C.; Mullins, E.; Lyons, K.; Volkenandt, M.; Keogh, N.; McAvoy, S.; Williams, D. (Marine Institute, 2013)
      In the southwest of Ireland and the Celtic Sea (ICES Divisions VIIaS, g & j),herring acoustic surveys have been carried out since 1989. This survey was undertaken in early October. The geographical confines of the annual 21 day survey program have been modified in recent years to include areas to the south of the main winter spawning grounds in an effort to identify the whereabouts of winter spawning fish before the annual inshore spawning migration. Spatial resolution of acoustic transects has been increased over the entire south coast survey area. The acoustic component of the survey has been further complimented since 2004 by detailed hydrographic and marine mammal and seabird surveys.
    • Celtic Sea Herring Acoustic Survey Cruise Report 2014, 06-26 October 2014.

      Nolan, Cormac; O'Donnell, Ciaran; Lynch, Deirdre; Lyons, Kieran; Keogh, Niall; McAvoy, Stephen; Cronin, Ciaran; Hunt, William (Marine Institute, 2014)
      In the southwest of Ireland and the Celtic Sea (ICES Divisions VIIaS, g & j),herring acoustic surveys have been carried out since 1989. This survey was undertaken in early October. The geographical confines of the annual 21 day survey program have been modified in recent years to include areas to the south of the main winter spawning grounds in an effort to identify the whereabouts of winter spawning fish before the annual inshore spawning migration. Spatial resolution of acoustic transects has been increased over the entire south coast survey area. The acoustic component of the survey has been further complimented since 2004 by detailed hydrographic and marine mammal and seabird surveys.
    • Celtic Sea Herring Acoustic Survey Cruise Report 2015, 02-22 October 2015

      O’Donnell, C.; Lynch, D.; Lyons, K.; Keogh, N.; O’Donovan, M. (Marine Institute, 2015)
      In the southwest of Ireland and the Celtic Sea (ICES Divisions VIIaS, g & j),herring acoustic surveys have been carried out since 1989. In the Celtic Sea and VIIj, herring acoustic surveys have been carried out since 1989, and this survey is the 21st in the overall acoustic series or the tenth in the modified time series conducted exclusively in October. The geographical confines of the annual 21 day survey have been modified in recent years to include areas to the south of the main winter spawning grounds in an effort to identify the whereabouts of winter spawning fish before the annual inshore spawning migration. Spatial resolution of acoustic transects has been increased over the entire south coast survey area. The acoustic component of the survey has been further complemented since 2004 by detailed hydrographic, marine mammal and seabird surveys.
    • Celtic Sea Herring Acoustic Survey Cruise Report 2016, 07-27 October 2016

      O'Donnell, C.; Sullivan, M.; Lyons, K.; Keogh, N.; Quinn, M. (Marine Institute, 2016)
      In the southwest of Ireland and the Celtic Sea (ICES Divisions VIIaS, g & j), herring are an important commercial species to the pelagic and polyvalent fleet. For a period in the 1970s and1980s, larval surveys were conducted for herring in this area. However, since 1989, acoustic surveys have been carried out, and currently are the only tuning indices available for this stock. In the Celtic Sea and VIIj, herring acoustic surveys have been carried out since 1989. Since 2004 the survey has been fixed in October and carried out onboard the RV Celtic Explorer. The geographical confines of the annual 21 day survey have been modified in recent years to include areas to the south of the main winter spawning grounds in an effort to identify the whereabouts of winter spawning fish before the annual inshore spawning migration. Spatial resolution of acoustic transects has been increased over the entire south coast survey area. The acoustic component of the survey has been further complemented since 2004 by detailed hydrographic, marine mammal and seabird surveys.
    • Celtic Sea Herring Acoustic Survey Cruise Report 2017, 15-04 November 2017

      O'Donnell, C.; O'Malley, M.; Lynch, D.; Lyons, K.; Keogh, N.; O’Driscoll, D. (Marine Institute, 2017)
      In the southwest of Ireland and the Celtic Sea (ICES Divisions VIIaS, g & j), herring are an important commercial species to the pelagic and polyvalent fleet. For a period in the 1970s and1980s, larval surveys were conducted for herring in this area. However, since 1989, acoustic surveys have been carried out, and currently are the only tuning indices available for this stock. In the Celtic Sea and VIIj, herring acoustic surveys have been carried out since 1989. Since 2004 the survey has been fixed in October and carried out onboard the RV Celtic Explorer. The geographical confines of the annual 21 day survey have been modified in recent years to include areas to the south of the main winter spawning grounds in an effort to identify the whereabouts of winter spawning fish before the annual inshore spawning migration. Spatial resolution of acoustic transects has been increased over the entire south coast survey area. The acoustic component of the survey has been further complemented since 2004 by detailed hydrographic, marine mammal and seabird surveys.
    • Celtic Sea Herring Acoustic Survey Cruise Report and Biomass Estimate, 2007

      O'Donnell, C; Egan, A; Lynch, D; Dransfeld, L; Boyd, J; Lyons, K; Wall, D (Marine Institute, 2007)
      In the southwest of Ireland and the Celtic Sea (ICES Divisions VIIaS, g & j), herring are an important commercial species to the pelagic and polyvalent fleet. The local fleet is composed of dry hold polyvalent vessels and a small number of purpose built RSW (Refrigerated seawater) vessels. The stock is composed of both autumn and winter spawning components and the fishery targets pre-spawning and spawning aggregations. The Irish commercial fishery has historically taken place within 1-20nmi (nautical miles) of the coast and focused on aggregated schools within the spawning cycle. In recent years the larger RSW vessels have actively targeted offshore summer feeding aggregations in the south Celtic Sea. In VIIj, the fishery traditionally begins in early October and is concentrated within several miles of the shore including many bays and inlets. The VIIaS fishery peaks towards the year end in December, but may be active from mid October depending on location. In VIIg, along the south coast herring are targeted from October to January at a number of known spawning sites and surrounding areas. Overall, the protracted spawning period of the two components extends from October through to January, with annual variation of up to 3 weeks. Spawning occurs in successive waves in a number of well known locations including large scale grounds and small discreet spawning beds. The geographical confines of the annual 21 day survey have been modified in recent years to include areas to the south of the main winter spawning grounds in an effort to identify the whereabouts of winter spawning fish before the annual inshore spawning migration. Spatial resolution of acoustic transects has been increased over the entire south coast survey area. The acoustic component of the survey has been further complimented by detailed hydrographic and marine mammal and seabird work programs first initiated during this survey in 2004.