• Balancing selection on MHC class I in wild brown trout Salmo trutta

      O'Farrell, B; Dennis, C; Benzie, JA; McGinnity, P; Carlsson, J; De Eyto, E; Coughlan, J; Igoe, F; Meehan, R; Cross, T (Wiley, 2012-09)
      Evidence is reported for balancing selection acting on variation at major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in wild populations of brown trout Salmo trutta. First, variation at an MHC class I (satr-uba)–linked microsatellite locus (mhc1) is retained in small S. trutta populations isolated above waterfalls although variation is lost at neutral microsatellite markers. Second, populations across several catchments are less differentiated at mhc1 than at neutral markers, as predicted by theory. The population structure of these fish was also elucidated.
    • Bayesian survey-based assessment of North Sea plaice (Pleuronectes platessa): extracting integrated signals from multiple surveys

      Bogaards, J A; Kraak, S B M; Rijnsdorp, A D (Oxford University Press, 2009)
      Dependence on a relatively small sample size is generally viewed as a big disadvantage for survey-based assessments. We propose an integrated catch-at-age model for research vessel data derived from multiple surveys, and illustrate its utility in estimating trends in North Sea plaice abundance and fishing mortality. Parameter estimates were obtained by Bayesian analysis, which allows for estimation of uncertainty in model parameters attributable to measurement error. Model results indicated constant fishing selectivity over the distribution area of the North Sea plaice stock, with decreased selectivity at older age. Whereas separate analyses of survey datasets suggested different biomass trends in the southeast than in the western and central North Sea, a combined analysis demonstrated that the observations in both subareas were compatible and that SSB has been increasing over the period 1996- 2005. The annual proportion of fish that dispersed in a northwesterly direction was estimated to increase from about 10% at age 2 to 33% at age 5 and older. We also found higher fishing mortality rates than reported in ICES assessments, which could be the consequence of inadequate specification of catchability-at-age in this study or underestimated fishing mortality by the conventional ICES assessment, which relies on official landings figures.
    • The Beltra Fishery, Co. Mayo and its sea-trout Salmo trutta stocks

      Fahy, E. (Department of Fisheries and Forestry, 1981)
      The sea trout stocks of the Lough Beltra catchment in Co. Mayo are described from a sample of 620 specimens collected in 1973 and 1974. These angler-caught fish displayed a low diversity in age categories and the samples contained few previous spawners. Variation in the success of parr growth in different years, between males and females and between A and B type smolts is compared. The incidence of A type growth is high, resembling that of a neighbouring catchment and the amount of B type growth can be related to length of the estuary. The Beltra angling fishery for sea trout exploits mainly two year smolt post-smolt. Traditionally the angling clientele have originated largely out of state and the decline in catches in recent years is attributed to a smaller volume of tourism in the post-1969 period. Catch per effort does not correlate with the supposed availability of sea trout and angling effort is regarded as the main factor deciding the yield from the fishery.
    • Benthic ecology of Dublin Bay in relation to sludge dumping: Fauna

      Walker, A J M; Rees, E I S (Department of Fisheries and Forestry, 1980)
      The Dublin Bay area in 1971 received sewage from about three quarters of a million people most of which was discharged or dumped off Howth to the north-east of the bay. Much sludge appeared to settle up and down the tide from the dump site, though finer particles entered the bay to the south. Additionally, dredge spoil was dumped south-east of the Baily up to 1971, but not in 1972. In 1971 and 1972 the effects of these organic wastes on the benthos were investigated. The fauna in the main part of the bay resembled the Acrocnida/Clymene community of Glémarec. On the sand banks there were also species of the Ophelia facies of Glémarec's deep Venus community. In the dumping area and in the southeast of the bay downtide of the dump site, where depths are greater, the faunas resembled the Nucula/Sabellaria community of Caspers. As well as having pollution indicator species, this latter community generally had greater faunal densities and diversities than elsewhere in the bay (except low divcrsities at the dump sites in 1971). Apart from a possible effect of depth, this suggests that the dumping was having an enriching rather than a degrading effect, although the probable sediment change since 1874 may imply a change in community type. Microvores (comprising surface-deposit and suspension feeders) were a prominent isotrophic group in the sampling area, and at the sludge-dumping site in 1971 particle feeders were abundant. All feeding types were more numerous in the organic waste settlement areas, though proportionally they appeared to be receiving differential benefits from the sludge and dredge spoil.
    • A Benthic Survey of Inner Bantry Bay

      Neiland, S.; McMahon, T. (Marine Institute, 1999)
      In February 1993 sediment samples were collected from a total of 18 stations in Bantry Harbour, Glengarriff Harbour and along the north shore of Whiddy Island. The samples were analysed for grain size, organic carbon content and the abundance of benthic infauna. The benthic infauna were identified to family level. The sediments in Bantry Harbour and Glengarriff Harbour were comprised of fine particles with typically >80% of the dry weight being in the silt/clay (<63 μm) fraction. In contrast, the sediments close to Whiddy Island contained relatively high amounts of coarser material. In Bantry Harbour a total of 53 families with 742 individuals were identified from the ten stations sampled. Of the 53 families identified, 21 were Polychaeta, 6 Bivalvia, 7 Gastropoda, 3 Echinodermata, and 16 Crustacea. A total of 31 families with 491 individuals were identified from the five stations sampled in the Glengarriff Harbour area. Of these 16 were Polychaeta, 4 were Bivalvia, 3 were Gastropoda, 1 was Echinodermata, and 7 were Crustacea. From the three stations sampled in the vicinity of Whiddy Island 47 families with 461 individuals were identified. Of these 23 were Polychaeta, 8 Bivalvia, 4 Gastropoda, 2 Echinodermata, and 10 Crustacea. In Bantry Harbour and Glengarriff Harbour cirratulid polychaetes were dominant and the benthic infaunal composition was indicative of stressed environmental conditions. In contrast, the sediments close to Whiddy Island exhibited a very healthy faunal composition with no one family predominating and high numbers of amphiuroid echinoderms were recorded from these sampling stations.
    • Biased stock assessment when using multiple, hardly overlapping, tuning series if fishing trends vary spatially

      Kraak, S B M; Daan, N; Pastoors, M A (Oxford University Press, 2009)
      Fishing-effort distributions are subject to change, for autonomous reasons and in response to management regulations. Ignoring such changes in a stock-assessment procedure may lead to a biased perception. We simulated a stock distributed over two regions with inter-regional migration and different trends in exploitation, and tested the performance of Extended Survivors Analysis (XSA) and a statistical catch-at-age model in terms of bias, when spatially restricted tuning series were applied. If we used a single tuning index that covered only the more heavily fished region, estimates of fishing mortality and spawning-stock biomass were seriously biased. If two tuning series each exclusively covering one region were used (without overlap but together covering the whole area), estimates were also biased. Surprisingly, a moderate degree of overlap of spatial coverage of the two tuning indices was sufficient to reduce bias of the XSA assessment substantially. However, performance was best when one tuning series covered the entire stock area.
    • Bibliography of Irish Salmon

      Twomey, E (Department of Agriculture and Fisheries (Fisheries Division), 1976)
      Documents papers and articles, published up to 1975, that focus on Irish Salmon.
    • Bioactive agents from marine mussels and their effects on human health

      Grienke, U.; Silke, J.; Tasdemir, D. (Elsevier, 2014)
      The consumption of marine mussels as popular seafood has increased steadily over the past decades. Awareness of mussel derived molecules, that promote health, has contributed to extensive research efforts in that field. This review highlights the bioactive potential of mussel components from species of the genus Mytilus (e.g. M. edulis) and Perna (e.g. P. canaliculus). In particular, the bioactivity related to three major chemical classes of mussel primary metabolites, i.e. proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates, is evaluated. Within the group of proteins the focus is mainly on mussel peptides e.g. those obtained by bio-transformation processes, such as fermentation. In addition, mussel lipids, comprising polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), are discussed as compounds that are well known for prevention and treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Within the third group of carbohydrates, mussel polysaccharides are investigated. Furthermore, the importance of monitoring the mussel as food material in respect to contaminations with natural toxins produced by microalgae is discussed
    • Biofouling of the hydroid Ectopleura larynx on aquaculture nets in Ireland: implications for finfish health

      Baxter, E.J.; Sturt, M.M.; Ruane, N.M.; Doyle, T.K.; McAllen, R.; Rodger, H.D. (Fish Veterinary Society, 2012)
      The potential direct health problems posed to marine-farmed salmonids by the biofouling hydroid Ectopleura larynx (Phylum Cnidaria, Class Hydrozoa) and in situ net washing processes to remove the fouling organisms have not yet been addressed. In an attempt to address the possible impacts, the rate of E. larynx growth on aquaculture nets over a net-cleaning cycle was assessed and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolts were exposed to hydroid-biofouled nets under experimental challenge. After only 1 week of immersion, there was a high settlement of E. larynx on net panels, with the maximum growth observed after 3 week of immersion. For the challenges trials, experimental treatment groups of S. salar were exposed to hydroid net panels or loose hydroid material for 11 hours under controlled conditions. Gills were examined for signs of gross damage and assigned a histopathological gill score. Prior to the experiment, the gills were healthy and did not show signs of damage from any insult. After exposure to E. larynx, focal areas of epithelial sloughing, necrosis and haemorrhage were visible on the gills under histopathology and a maximum gill score of 4 was observed. These results are the first in an investigation of this kind and suggest that E. larynx can damage the gills of S. salar. Further work on this area is vital to develop a better understanding of the pathogenesis of the damage caused by hydroids and their long-term effects on fish health, growth and survival.
    • Biological changes in Celtic Sea and southwest of Ireland herring, based on a long-term data archival project

      Lynch, Deirdre (Trinity College Dublin, 2011)
      The herring fishery in the Celtic Sea and Division VIIj has been commercially important for many years. The Marine Institute has been collecting biological data for this herring stock since 1959. This stock is assessed by ICES annually. However, this is the first study of long term biological trends. The biological data consists of total length, weight, sex, maturity and age of the commercial catches. This study looks at mean length and mean weight at age, growth rate, condition factor and maturity ogives from 1959 to 2007. Environmental factors that may explain the biological trends are also investigated. These data consist of sea surface temperature (SST) for the Celtic Sea and the Irish Sea from 1970 to 2004, North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) indices from 1958 to 2001 and Calanus spp. abundance for the Celtic Sea and Division VIIj from 1958 to 2007. In addition, data from the ICES stock assessment is consulted and this consists of spawning stock biomass (SSB), fishing mortality (F) and recruitment (R) from 1958 to 2008. The results show that mean length and mean weight at age peaked in the 1970s and declined thereafter. It was found that the condition factor over time declined. The results also illustrate that the growth rates were faster in the 1960s and 1970s than in the 1980s and 1990s. It can be seen that maturation for 1 winter ring increased in the early 1970s and has remained at a high level since then. This study looks at possible explanations for the biological trends and found that it was unlikely to be due to fishing mortality or density dependence. There have been changes in the proportions of autumn and winter spawners in this area over time but it is unlikely that this influenced the trends. Evidence suggests that the changes in the biological data over time may be influenced by environmental factors. NAO shows a significant negative correlation with growth rate in length. There is evidence to suggest that increased SST in the Irish Sea and Celtic Sea is associated with reduced size/weight at age and condition. Calanus abundance shows some positive correlations with mean length and mean weight and is a favourable influence on herring growth. These changes in the biology of the stock have implications for its future management. Declining growth results in more individual fish per tonne of landings which exerts a greater fishing mortality than in the past. This study has allowed for a better understanding of the biology of the stock. Biological data has been routinely collected for other herring stocks around Ireland and similar studies should be performed on these herring stocks in the future.
    • Biological Effects and Chemical Measurements in Irish Marine Waters

      Giltrap, Michelle; McHugh, Brendan; Ronan, Jenny; Wilson, James; McGovern, Evin (Marine Institute, 2014-08)
      The overall aim of this project was to increase Ireland’s capacity for the generation of integrated monitoring of biological effects and chemical measurement data and for the completion of a pilot scale assessment of the quality of the Irish marine environment at a number of selected locations.
    • Biological Sampling Survey: Celtic Voyager March 2004

      Marine Institute (Marine Institute, 2005)
      The survey is intended to address the requirements of the Data Collection Regulation 1639/2001. Information on growth, maturity and sex ratio (biological data) were collected for a range of commercially important species. Ovary samples were collected to validate visual maturity staging. Additionally, ovary samples were taken for CEFAS in Lowestoft, tissue samples were taken for genetics projects within the Marine Institute as well as other labs. Samples of whole flatfish were taken for meristics analysis in GMIT.
    • Biologically Sensitive Area

      Marine Institute (Marine Institute, 2006)
      The Marine Institute, working closely with DCMNR and Industry, compiled information on the distribution and abundance of eggs and larvae, juvenile and adult fish in the waters around Ireland and presented these data to the EU Commission. This presentation was powerful evidence of the biological importance of this area. In 2003 the EU Commission established a “Biologically Sensitive Area (BSA)” off the south west of Ireland. In 2003, the EU also established a specific fishing effort regime inside the BSA and outside the BSA for demersal fishing vessels as well as scallop and crab fisheries.
    • Biomarkers: are realism and control mutually exclusive in integrated pollution assessment?

      Wilson, J.G.; McHugh, B.; Giltrap, M. (Elsevier, 2014)
      The conventional view of pollution monitoring is that any choice is a trade-off between realism and precision, as the control over confounding variables decreases with the increasing degree of organization of the test system. Dublin Bay is subject to considerable anthropogenic pressures and there have been many attempts to quantify the status of the system at organizational levels from DNA strand breaks (Comet) to the system itself (Ecological Network analysis, ENA). Using Dublin Bay as an example, the data show there was considerable variability at all levels of organization. At intracellular level, Lysosome Membrane Stability (LMS, assessed by Neutral Red Retention, NRR) varied almost 4-fold with season and individual condition, while the community level AZTI Marine biotic Index (AMBI) had a similar range within a single, supposedly homogeneous, site. Overall, there was no evidence that biomarkers of the lower levels of organisation reduced the variability of the measure, despite the extra control over influencing variables, nor was there any evidence that variability was additive at higher levels of organisation. This poses problems for management, especially given the fixed limits of Ecological Quality Standards (EQSs). Clearly while the integrated approach to pollution monitoring does offer the potential to link effects across the organizational range, it should also be possible to improve their capability by widening the database for reference values, particularly at the higher level of organization, and by process models, including the confounding variables found in the field, for those at lower level.
    • Bionomics of brown crab Cancer pagurus in the south east Ireland inshore fishery

      Fahy, E.; Hickey, J.; Perella, N.; Hervas, A.; Carroll, J.; Andray, C. (Marine Institute, 2004)
      The south east inshore brown crab fishery is delimited by the boundary of longitude - 6.3, within a coastal band of approximately 18 km (10 nm) in width and it extends along the south coast of Co Wexford for a distance of approximately 55 km; evidence for the stock extending into the inshore fishery west of the Waterford Harbour estuary is sparse. The fishery, whose maximum extent is calculated at 427 km2, yielded up to 700 t per year during the 1990s. In 2002 annual landings of 959 t accounted for 8.2 % of the national catch. The average overall LPUE was 0.87 kg per pot lifted in that year. Brown crab were landed whole or as claws, for human consumption, and clawed or, of poorer quality, with claws, to provide bait for the whelk fishery. This fishery is not considered to have any discard of legally sized crab and, in consequence, a large percentage of the landings is poorly conditioned. The stock is intensively fished; the amount of gear in use increased almost 5 fold since the mid 1970s. Landings per boat declined since the late 1980s although this may be as a result of sharing among a greater number of vessels. In 2002 an estimated 60 - 69 vessels fished brown crab in the peak autumn months. In 2002 and early 2003, 3,674 crabs were tagged in the inshore fishery; of these 14.4% were recaptured (12.8% of tagged females and 20.7% of tagged males). Observations made during tagging operations in 2002 only were used to clarify sex ratio and the incidence of recently moulted animals. The crab stock consists of a migratory female component which moves into shallow waters during the summer months probably to moult and mate. The male component is more sedentary. Both sexes move at speeds which slow during the summer months and increase again as the year advances; maximum speeds of 2 km/day were recorded for both sexes in the autumn. Movements by male crab were random while females adopted a south west trajectory. The greatest distance recorded for a tagged female crab was 136 km after 287 days at liberty. Other tagged females, reported by French vessels, were recaptured in ICES division VIIg which may be the over-wintering area for the stock. These animals had moved between 69 and 75 km from their release point. Tag reporting by the industry is considered to have been low. Based on the 'rate of tag recovery, the estimated rate of exploitation was lower than expected in an intensely fished stock. Population estimates were attempted using the Petersen formula and on the basis of assumptions about mortalities which recognized the phenomena of moulting and migration. The south east crab stock moves with the current which is westerly along the southern Irish coast. Recorded migrations were also short when compared with those of brown crab in the northern stock and in several other documented fisheries. The Nymphe Bank which adjoins the south east fishery has a water current pattern which retains larvae and it is known to have a high density of brown crab in the plankton. The existence of retaining currents may make the kind of long migrations which characterise others unnecessary for this stock. The status of the south east fishery is not known. LPUE indices provided by the Roscoff super-crabber fleet for ICES statistical division VIIg remained fairly stable between 1987 and 2002 but the quantity of crab captured by those vessels has declined considerably in most years since 1995.
    • Biotic response to forest harvesting in acidic blanket peat fed streams: a case study from Ireland

      O'Driscoll, Connie; de Eyto, Elvira; Rodgers, Michael; O'Connor, Mark; Asam, Zaki-ul-Zaman; Xiao, Liwen (Elsevier, 2013)
      Blanket peat catchments are important biodiversity refugia and are increasingly recognised for their role in regional carbon and water balances. A key pressure on these catchments is forest clearfelling which increases stream phosphorus potentially leading to eutrophication. However, these unique systems are underrepresented in the development of bioassessment monitoring programmes and so are at risk to impacts. In this study, a multiple before-after-control-impact (MBACI) study was designed in three neighbouring peatland catchments and provided a unique opportunity to assess the impact of forest clearfelling events on macroinvertebrate and phytobenthic assemblages. Statistical analysis revealed substantial differences in the macroinvertebrate assemblages after clearfelling with higher abundances of chironomids. Macroinvertebrate derived indices EPT, diversity and species richness were significantly reduced. This was accompanied by a shift in functional feeding group representation away from shredders and collector–filterers to a dominance of collector–gatherers after clearfelling. In contrast, forest clearfelling did not significantly impact the diatom assemblages and diatom derived indices remained static for the duration of the study period.
    • Bivalve aquaculture and exotic species: a review of ecological considerations and management issues

      McKindsey, C.W.; Landry, T.; O'Beirn, F.X.; Davies, I.M. (National Shellfisheries Association, 2007)
      Bivalves have been grown and transported for culture for hundreds of years and the introduction of some species outside of their native range for aquaculture has been suggested to be one of the greatest modes of introduction of exotic marine species. However, there has yet to be a thorough assessment of the importance of aquaculture and bivalve culture in particular, to the introduction and spread of exotic species. This paper reviews some of the environmental and ecological implications of the relationship between bivalve aquaculture and the introduction and spread of exotic species, management implications and mitigation strategies. Two broad classes of introductions of exotic species may result from activities associated with bivalve aquaculture. First, the intentional introduction of exotic species into an area for aquaculture purposes, i.e. the ‘‘target’’ species. These are typically foundation or engineering species and may have a considerable influence on receiving ecosystems. Second, the introduction of species that are either associated with introduced bivalves or facilitated by aquaculture activities (i.e. structures or husbandry practices). These may include both ‘‘hitchhiking’’ species (organisms that grow in association with or may be transferred with cultured bivalves) and disease causing organisms.Management options should include the use of risk assessments prior to transfers and quarantines. Various types of mitigation for exotic species have been evaluated but are generally not very successful. Because the risk of exotic species to ecosystems and the bivalve farming industry itself may be great, effort should be directed to better predict and halt introductions of potentially harmful species.
    • Blue Growth and Horizon 2020, competitive marine/maritime research funding opportunities in the Horizon 2020 programme (2014-2020)

      O’Reilly, E.; O’Sullivan, G. (Marine Institute, 2014)
      The EU Blue Growth Strategy (2012) is the EU’s long term strategy to support sustainable growth in the marine and maritime sectors. The Blue Growth Strategy recognises that the European seas and oceans are central to the European economy with great potential for innovation, economic growth and job creation. The Blue Growth Strategy is the Integrated Maritime Policy’s contribution to achieving the goals of the Europe 2020 Strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. Implementation of the Blue Growth Strategy, including sea-basin strategies such as the EU Atlantic Action Plan (2014-2020)2, can be supported by EU co-funding programmes such as Structural and Cohesion Funds (e.g. INTERREG, Smart Specialisation, etc.), Horizon 2020, European Maritime and Fisheries Fund (EMFF), etc. Horizon 2020 (2014-2020)is the financial instrument implementing the Innovation Union, a Europe 2020 flagship initiative aimed at securing Europe’s global competitiveness. The €80 billion Horizon 2020 Programme (2014-2020) for research and innovation is part of the drive to create new growth and jobs in Europe. Horizon 2020 will tackle societal challenges by helping to bridge the gap between research and the market by, for example, helping innovative enterprise to develop their technological breakthroughs into viable products with real commercial potential. This market-driven approach will include creating partnerships with the private sector and Member States to bring together the resources needed.
    • Blue Whiting Acoustic Survey Cruise Report March 26- April 15, 2013

      O’Donnell, C.; Mullins, E.; Johnston, G.; Keogh, N. (Marine Institute, 2013)
      Acoustic surveys targeting blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou) spawning and post spawning aggregations in the north east Atlantic have been carried out by the Institute of Marine Research (IMR) Norway since the early 1970s. In the early 1980s a coordinated acoustic survey approach was adopted, with both Russia and Norway participating to estimate the size of this migratory stock within the main spawning grounds to the west of Ireland and Britain. Since 2004, an International coordinated survey program has expanded to include vessels from the EU (Ireland and the Netherlands) and the Faroes. Due to the highly migratory nature of the stock a large geographical area has to be surveyed. Spawning takes place from January through to April along the shelf edge from the southern Porcupine Bank area northwards to the aroe/Shetland Ridge including offshore areas as the Rosemary, Hatton and Rockall Banks. Peak spawning occurs between mid-March and mid April and acoustic surveys are timed to occur during this phase. To facilitate a more coordinated spatio-temporal approach to the survey participating countries meet annually to discuss survey methods and define effort allocation at the ICES led Working Group International Pelagic Surveys (WGIPS). Data from the annual spawning stock abundance survey (March/April, western waters), juvenile surveys (May, Norwegian Sea and January-March, Barents Sea trawl survey) and commercial landings data are presented annually at the ICES Working Group of Widely Distributed Stocks (WGWIDE). Ultimately, combined data inputs into the management and catch advice for this international cross boundary stock. The 2013 survey was part of an international collaborative survey using the vessels RV Celtic Explorer (Ireland), FV Vilnus (Russia), RV Tridens (Netherlands) and the RV Magnus Heinason (Faroes). The total combined area coverage extended from the Faroe Islands in the north (62° N) to south of Ireland (52° N), with east -west extension from 4°-19° W. International survey participants meet shortly after the survey to present data and produce a combined relative abundance and biomass index the blue whiting spawning stock in western waters. The combined survey report is presented annually at the WGIPS meeting held in December. The information presented here relates to the Irish survey.
    • Blue Whiting Acoustic Survey Cruise Report March 27- April 16, 2009

      O'Donnell, C; Mullins, E; Johnston, G; Saunders, R; Beattie, S; McCann, K; Lyons, K; Brkic, Z; O'Leary, E (Marine Institute, 2009)
      Acoustic surveys on the blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou) stock in the north east Atlantic have been carried out by the Institute of Marine Research (IMR), Norway since the early 1970s. In the early 1980s a coordinated acoustic survey approach was adopted, with both Russia and Norway participating to estimate the size of this migratory stock within its key spawning grounds. Since 2004, the coordinated survey program has expanded and to include vessels from the EU (Ireland and the Netherlands) and the Faroes. Due to the highly migratory nature of the stock a large geographical area has to be surveyed. Spawning takes place from January through to April along the shelf break and offshore Banks including the Rosemary, Hatton and Rockall Banks. Peak spawning occurs between mid- March and mid April and acoustic surveys are timed to occur during this phase. To facilitate a more coordinated spatio-temporal approach to the survey, participating countries meet annually to discuss survey methods and define target areas at the ICES led Planning Group of Northern Pelagic Ecosystem Surveys (PGNAPES). Data from the annual spawning stock abundance survey (March/April, western waters), juvenile surveys (May, Norwegian Sea and January-March, Barents Sea trawl survey) and commercial landings data are presented annually at the ICES Working Group of Widely Distributed Stocks (WGWDS). Ultimately, combined data inputs into the management and catch advice for this international cross boundary stock. The 2009 survey was part of an International collaborative survey using the vessels RV Celtic Explorer (Ireland), RV Fridtjof Nansen (Russia), RV Tridens (Netherlands) and the RV Magnus Heinason (Faroes) and the FV Brennholm (Norwegian commercial charter). The total combined area coverage in 2009 extended from the Faroe Islands in the north (62°N) to south of Ireland (51.30°N), with east -west extension from 5°-18° W. Combined area coverage included shelf break areas (>250m) and large bathymetric features including the slope areas of the Porcupine, Rockall and Hatton Banks. The Irish component of the survey was made up of transects covering 2,545nmi (nautical miles) covering the slope areas (>250m) of the Hebrides shelf, the eastern fringes of the Rockall Bank, the Rockall Trough and the southern slopes of the Hatton Bank. This survey represents the 6th survey in the Irish time series.